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which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all, and them that believe.
Q. 9. Are we justified by faith only, and not by works, at least in part ?
A. We are justified only by faith, and neither in whole nor in part by works. Gal. ii. 16, Knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith *of Jesus Christ; even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the faith of Christ.
Q. 10. How is it then said, James ii. 24, Ye see then how that by works'a man is justified, and not by faith only ?
A. 1. The apostle Paul doth plainly and positively affirm, and by many arguments prove justification by faith, without works, in his epistles to the Romans and the Galatians ; and be sure the apostle James, being inspired by the same Spirit in writing his epistle, doth not really contradict this doctrine. 2. The apostle James doth not in this chapter treat of the justification of our faith in the sight of God, but of the justification of our faith in the sight of men ; and thus he doth assert that justification is by works. Verse 18, I will shew thee my faith by my works. Faith justifieth our persons, but works justify our faith, and declare us to be justified before men, who cannot see nor know our faith but by our works.
Q. 11. How do you prove that we are not justified by works.
A. 1. Because the whole world is guilty of sin, and those that are guilty of sin cannot have a perfect rightcousness of works and those that have not a perfect righteousness cannot be justified in the sight of God. Thus the apostle convinceth both Jew and Gentile of sin, in the first and second chapters to the Romans, and this, That (as chap. iii. 19.). every mouth may be stopped and the whole world may become guilty before God (and therefore inferreth,) verse 20, By the deeds of the law, no flesh living shall be justified. 2. Because, if we were justified by works, the reward would be of debt, and not of grace. Rom. iv. 4, Now to him that worketh is the reward not reckoned of grace. but of debt. But the reward is not of debt, but of grace : and they that are jusa
tified, are not justified as righteous, with a righteousness of works, but as ungodly. Verse 5, He justificth the ungodly. 3. Btcause Abraham, the father of the faithful, though he had a righteousness of works, yea, works wrought in faith, yet he was not justified by his works : and if he were justified without his works, so are all others that are justified, justified without works. Rom. iv. 2, For if Abraham were justified by works, he hath whereof to glory. But Abraham had not whereof to glory before God, therefore he was not justified by works.
Q. 12. How do you prove that we are justified by faith only?
A. 1. It is positively asserted and concluded from several arguments by the apostle. Rom iii. 28, Therefore we conclude, that a man is justified by faith, without the deeds of the law. 2. There being such a thing as justification, and justification cannot be by works.as hath been proved, and there being no other way of justification but by faith ; it must be by faith. 3. The righteousness of Christ is perfect, and sufficient for our justification ; and by faith his righteousness is received and made ours in the account of God; therefore we are justified by faith. 4. Justification by faith doth give God all the glory, and excludeth all boasting in man; therefore it is by faith. Rom. iii 27, Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law ? By the law of works? Nay ; but by the law of faith. 5. Abraham was justified by faith, and all others are justified the same way.
Q. 13. How doth faith justify?
A. Faith doth not justify as a work in us, but as an instrument which applieth the perfect righteousness of Christ without us, whereby we are justified.
Q. 14. May we be justified by faith in Christ's rightcouisness without us, although we have no righteousness
A. We are justified only by faith in Christ's righteousness without us, but this justification is always accompanied with sanctification, in which a righteousness is wrought within us, without which our justification cannot be true. By the same faith whereby our persons
are justified, our hearts also are purified. Acts sv. 9, Purifying thcir hearts by faith?
Q. 34. What is adoption ?
A. Adoption is an act of God's free grace, whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the privileges of the suns of God.
Q. 1. How many ways may we be said to be the chil. dren of God?
A. We are the children of God, 1. By regeneration. 2. By adoption, whereby we differ', 1. From Christ, who is God's son by eternal generation ; 2. From the angels who are God's sons by creation.
Q. 2. What is it for men to adopt children?
A. Men adopt children when they take strangers, or such as are none of their own children, into their families and account them their children ; and accordingly do take care for them as if they were their own.
Q. 3. What is it for God to adopt children ?
A. God doch adopt children when he taketh them which are strangers, and by nature children of wrath, into his family, and rectiveth them into the number, and giveth them a right to all the privileges of the sons and daughters of God. Eph. ii. 3, And were by nature the children of wrath, even as others. Eph. ii. 19, Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow-citizens with the saints, and of the household of God. 2 Cor. vi. 18, And I will be a father unto you, and ye shail be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.
Q. 4. Is there any motive in any of the children of men, to induce God to adopt them, as there is in those that are adopted by men ?
A. There is neither beauty, nor any lovely qualification, nor any thing in the least, to more and incline God to adopt any whom he doth adopt, but it is an act only of his free grace and love. 1 John iii. 1, Behold what manner of love the father hath bestowed upon us, that we should be called the sons of God!
Q. 5. Are all the children of men the adopted chila dren of God.
A. No: only such, persons are adopted as do believe in Christ. Jolini. 12, As many as received him, to them gave power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on bis naine. Gal iii. 26, For ye are all the children of God by faith in Jesus Christ.
Q. 6. What are those privileges which the adopted children of God have a right unto ?
A. The privileges which the a lopted children of God have a right unto, are, 1. God's fatherly protection of them from temporal and spiritual evils. Psalm cxxi. 7, The Lord shall preserve them from all evil. 2. God's fatherly provision of all needful things, both for their soul and body. Psalm xxxiv. 10, They that seek the Lord, shall not want any good thing. 3. God's fatherly correction of them. Heb. xii. 6, For whom he loveth he chasteneth, and scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. 4. God's audience and return to their prayers.
1 John 14, 15, And this is the confidence which we have in him, that if we ask any thing according to his will, he heareth us; and we know that he heareth us, whatever we ask we know that we have the petitions we desired of him. 5. A sure tiile to the inheritance of the kingdom of heaven. Rom. viii. 17, And if children, then heirs ; heirs of God, and joint heirs with Christ.
Q. 35. What is sanctification ?
A. Sanctification is the work of God's free grace, whereby we are renewed in the whole man, after the image of God, and are enabled more and more to die
un- : to sin, and live unto righteousness.
Q. 1. Wherein doch sanctification differ from justification and adoption ?
A. Sanctification doth differ from justification and adoption, in that, 1. Justification and a loption are acts of God without us : sanctification is a work of God with.
2. Justification and adoption do make only a relative change : sanctification doth make in us a real change. 3. Justification and adoption are perfect at first : sanctification is carried on by degrees unto perfection.
Q. 2. Whose work is the work of sanctification ?
A. 1. Though we be the subjects of sanctification, yet we are not the authors and efficient causes of our sanctification : we can defile ourselves, but we cannot cleanse and renew ourselves. 2. Sanctification is the work of God which is wrought by his Spirit. 2 Thess. ii. 13, God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation, through sanctification of the Spirit.
Q. 3. Is there no desert of the grace of sanctification in
any of the children of men before they are sanctified ?
A. No: for all the children of men are by nature wholly polluled with sin, and it is wholly of God's free grace
of them are sanctified. Q. 4. Wherein doth our sanctification consist ?
A. Our sanctification doth consist in our renovation after the image of God, in knowledge, righteousness, and holiness. Col. ii. 10, Put on the new man, which is re, newed in knowledge, after the image of him that crea. ted him. Eph. iv. 24, And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.
Q. 5. What is the subject of our sanctification ?
A. The subject of our sanctification is our whole man, understanding, will, conscience, memory, affections, which all are renewed and changed in regard of their qualifications; and all the members of our body, which are changed in regard of their use, being made instruments of righieousness.
Q. 6. Wherein is our sanctification begun ?
A. Our sanctification is begun in our regeneration and effectual calling; wherein our minds are first enlightened and our wills renewed, and the habits of all graces are infused.
Q. 7. How is our sanctification carried on?
A. Our sanctification is carried on by degrees, as God doth bless his providences, especially his ordinances, through them to communicate farther measures of his spirit and grace.
Q. 8. Wherein is our sanctification perfected?
A. Our sanctification is perfected in our glorification, when we shall be made perfectly free from sin, and fully conformable unto the image of God.