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12 These MEN 12 These ungodly teachers are a difspots' in your love-feasts ;z grace to your love-feasts; when they when they feast with you,' feast with you, eating and drinking to feeding themselves with excess, without any dread of the baneout fear. 4 They are ful consequences of their intemperclouds without water,
ance, or of the punishment which carried about of winds; God will inflict upon gluttons and withered autumnal trees? drunkards. They are clouds without without fruit; twice dead;* rain, which intercept the genial rays
of the sun; and being carried about of winds, render men's habitations gloomy: (see 2 Pet. ii. 17.) They are withered autumnal trees without fruit, although they ought to produce the beít; They have died twice ; once in the Jewish, and a second time in the Christian vineyard; and are rooted out on that account.
face appear like spots. For this reason, and because in the parallel passage, 2 Pet. ii. 13. the ungodly teachers are called Thu xai puwm.os, spots and causes of reproach, Beza hath translated the word coincides, spots, in which he followed the Vulgate, which hath macula.— Jude's meaning is, that the excesses which the ungodly teachers were guilty of in their love feasts, brought disgrace on the whole body of Chrifcians.
2. In your love feasts. Ayatans. Commentators are not agreed about the meaning of this word. Some think Jude is speaking of the ancient love suppers, which Tertullian hath defcribed, Apol. c. 39. and which do noi seem to have been accompanied with the eucharist. -Others think they were those suppers which the first Christians ate, previous to their eating the Lord's fupper, and of which St. Paul hath spoken, 1 Cor. xi. 21. But being afterwards perverted to the purposes of carnal love by the ungodly teachers, 2 Pet. ii. 14. they were in time dilured. The love fuppers, however, which Tertullian describes, were continued in the church to the middle of the fourth century, when they were prohibited to be kept in the churches.- As Benson observes, “they were called love feats or suppers, because the richer “ Chriftians brought in a variety of provisions to feed the poor, the “ fatherless, the widows, and strangers, and ate with them to thew “ their love to them."
3. When they feat with you. For the meaning of ouveuwxspesyo, See 2 Pet. ii. 13. note 3. -- In the common edition of the Greek Testament, the word spsy is wanting. But several MSS. have it, for which reason our translators have adopted it.
4. Feeding themselves without fear. Tlouatortas. This word is em phatical, containing an allusion to the naine given to the ministers of 13 Raging waves of the
13 Κυματα αγρια θα- . sea, foaming out their own fhame; wandering stars, to
λασσης, επαφριζοντα τας εwhom is reserved the black- αυτων αισχυνας" ας ερες πλαness of darkness for ever. νηται, οις ο ζοφος το σκοτες
εις τον αιώνα τετηρηται. 14 And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, pro.
ΙΔ Προεφητευσε δε και
TETOIS phesied of these, saying, Be
έβδομος απο Αδαμ hold, the Lord cometh with Evwx, asywvlor, na ge Kua ten thousands of his faints,
ριος εν μυριασιν αγιαις αυ78,'
religion, both under the old and the new dispensation. These were called TausVESShepherds or feeders, because their office was to feed the people with the fpiritual food of true doctrine. The false teachers, instead of feeding the people in that manner, fed then selves with meat and drink to excess
, without any fear of punishment from God, or of disgrace from the world. - I suppose Jude had in his eye here, Ezek, xxxiv. 2. Wo be to the flepherds of Ifrael that do feed themselves : Should not the shepherds feed the flocks?
5. They are clouds without water. The propriety of the comparifon, by which Jude in this passage, and Peter, 2 Épift. ii. 17. have Thewed the emp!iness and unprofitableness of the false teachers of their time,' will display itself in vivid colours, when it is recollected that in fcripture, good doctrine and found knowledge are often represented by water, because sound doctrine beautifies and invigorates the mind, as effectually as rain, in the hot eastern climes, renders the earth vera dant and fruitful. Deut. xxxii. 2. "My dodrine fball drop as the rain, &c.
6. Carried about of winds. False doctrine is compared to wind, Ephef. iv. 14. on account of its variableness. Having no foundation in truth, it is changed as it suits the passions and interests of men. The teachers of false doctrine, therefore, may fitly be compared to cloud's wilhout water carried about of winds, because, notwithlanding they give an expectation of good doctrine, they afford none; in which respect they are like clouds which promise rain, but being carried about of winds, distil none. See 2 Pet. ii. 17. note 1.
7. Withered autumnal trees. So I translate Jasceglierebecause it' comes from Sivor wqov, which, according to Scapula, tignifies fenescens autumnus et in hiemem vergens ; The decline of ortumn drawing towards winter. Or, according to Pbavorinus, it fignifies, rojo: 09.30a chuigels, a disease in trees which withers their fruit. This tense of the word Beza hath adopted in his translation, Arbores emarcide infrugisere.
The Vulgate translation, Arbores autumnales infruduoja, fugg its a beautiful idea. In the eastern countries the finest fruits being produced in autumn, by calling the corrupt teachers, autumnal trees, Jude intimated
13 Raging waves of the '13 They are as unstable in their sea, foaming out their doctrine, and as turbulent in their
shame;' wander- manners, as ragin wives of the sea, ing stars, for whom the so that they maki their own Mame apblackness of darkness for parent to all. traving renounced the ever, is reserved 3
true doctrine of the gospel, instead of being the lights of the world they are wandering meteors, which are quickly to be extinguished in perpetual
darkness. 14 Now Enoch, the 14. Now Enrch, the seventh in seventh from Adain, pro- descent from Adam, prophesied even phesied ' even (sv, 168.) concerning these ungodly teachers, when concerning these MEN.? he foretold the deitruction of the saying, Behold the Lord wicked at the general judgment, cometh with his holy my- saying, Behold the Lord cometh surriads 3 OF ANGELS,
rounded with his holy myriads of arle gels,
the juft expectation which was entertained of their being fruitful in good doctrine : but by adding, without fruit, he marked their uitless. nefs, and the disappointment of their disciples.
8. Twice dead; rooted out. Here the apostle infinuates, that while these ungodly teachers, who were molily of the Jewish nation, continued under the Mofaic dispensation, they were dead and unfruitful: And that under the gospel-dispensation, though they seemed to flourish: for a little while and promised to bring forth fruit, they had proved as barren as before, having died a second time, and for that reason were justly rooted out.-The commeniators observe, that there is a triking climax in this description of the false teachers. They were trees stripped of their leaves and withering: They had no fruit, being barren that seafon : They were twice dead, having borne no fruit the former year : Lastly, they were rooted out as utterly barren.
Ver. 13.-1. Rnging waves of the sea, foaming out their own fame. Like the raging sea, these ungodly teachers were turbulent and furious, having no command of their irascible passions. And by their wicked outrageous behaviour among their disciples, they fewed their own filthiness, to their great disgrace. - Perhaps the apostle alluded here to Isai. lvii. 20. The wicked are like ibe troubled fea, when it cannot rest, whoje waters cajl up mire and dirt.
2. Wandering fars. Aclipes TEAVITA.. Doddridge in his note on this verse observes, That the Jews called their teachers furs : and that the teachers in the Christian church are represented under the emblem of stars, Rev. 1. 20. ii 1. Wherefore, as the planets have irregular motions, being sometimes stationary and sometimes retrograde, he thinks they are proper enblems of teachers, who are unfettled in their principles, and irregular in their behaviour.
15 To execute judgment 15 Ποιησαι κρισιν κατα upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among
παντων, και εξελεγξαι πανthem of all their ungodly τας τες ασεβεις αυτων, περι deeds which they have un- παντων των εργων ασεβειας godly committed; and of αυτων ων ησεζησαν, και πεall their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken TANTOV των σκληρων ων against him.
ελαλησαν κατ' αυτό αμαρ
τωλοι ασεβεις. 16 Thefe are murmurers, , 16 Ουτοι εισι γο/γυναι, complainers, walking after their own lats; and their μεμψιμοιροι, κατα τας επιmouth fpeaketh great well- θυμιας αυτων
πορευομενοι" ing words, having men's
αυτων λαλει perons in admiration be- υπερογκα θαυμαζοντες προcause of advantage.
σωπα ωφελείας χάρινο
3. For whom the blackness of darkness for ever, is reserved. As the ancients knew that the planets are naturally dark bodies, and derive all their light from the fun, it is supposed, that Jude compared the false teachers, not to meteors, or ignes fatui, which have no existence after they are extinguished, but to planets properly so called.
Ver. 14.-I. Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophefied. See Pref. Sect. 2. No. 2. paragr. 2. -Though Mofes hath said nothing concerning Enoch's prophefying, yet by telling us that he was a person of such piety, as to be translated to heaven in the body without dying, he hath warranied us to believe Jude's account of him; namely, that God employed him, as he did Noah, in reforming the wicked of the age in which he lived, and that he inspired him to de. liver the prophecy of which Jude fpeaks - That Enoch was endowed with the spirit of prophecy, Benson faith is apparent from the name which he gave to his Son, to wit Methuselah : which fignifies he dieth, and the flood cometh. – Enoch is called the seventh from Adam, to distin. guish him from Enoch the son of Cain, Gen. iv. 17. who was only the third from Adam.
2. Prophesied even concerning these men. So I tranMate προεφητευσε και τετους, by fupplying εν before τετοις : Or without the prepofition, thus, prophesied also to these men, as well as to the antediluvians.Though Enoch prophefied immediately to the wicked men of his own age, what he said concerning, or to them, was intended for the wicked in every age. 3. saying, Bebold the Lord cometh with his holy myriads of angels
. So εν μυριασιν αγιαις αυτα muft be tralated, becaufe αγιαις being in the feminine gender, agrees with μοριασιν as an adjective, confequently the word to be fupplied is ayyshuv, not ayyenas. ---Mugsa; ten thousand, is a 15 To pass fentence(nata, 15 To pass feitence on all, and to 208. 2.) 09' all, and to moke all the impious and prophane convict all the ungodly among mankind sen fible of all the impious among them, of all their actions, which they have impiously comdeeds of ungodliness which mitted, and of all the impious atheistical they have impiously com- scoffing speeches, which proplane finners mitted, and of all the bave impiously uttered against Christ, hard things which un- as if he were an impostor, who was godly finners have spoken justly punished with an ignominious against him.
death. 16 These are
16 These ungodly teachers are murers, AND complain- murmurers against God, and comers,' who walk according plainers that their lot is not what they do their own lusts; ? and deserve, who gratify their own lufts to their mouth speaketh great the utmost; and their mouth speaketh swelling worns.'s Cave great swelling words, in praise of themMagOTES JJfO5WAG) They felves, as the only teachers who free admire persons for the sake men from the shackles of superof gain. +
ftition. They admire and praise perfons, not for their good qualities, but for their riches, that they may get money from them for their flattery,
definite number. But it is put here in the plural, mugiasu, ten thousands, indefinitely, to signify an innumerabie multitude.- HAGE 2 Aor is
but in the prophetic style the present is often put for the fu. ture, to shew the absolute certainty of the event foretold : The Lord is come; or as it is in our Bible, the Lord cometh, being the genuine prophetic style, it is no proof, as Benson fancies, that Jude took this prophecy out of some book. If it was preserved by tradition, this is the language in which it mult have been preserved.
Ver. 15.-1. To pass sentence on all. Ilongas xfotiv xata, TUITW, might have been literally translated to execute punisk ment on all, if the apostle had not added, xat efendyžas, and to convil; for punishment cannot juftly be inflicted, till the offender is convicted. Wherefore the tranflation in our Bible, where judgment is used in the sense of punishment, is wrong ; namely, to execute judgment upon all. The proper, and I may add, the literal translation of com.cau xpow, is, to pass judgment, or sentence on all
. For all shall be judged, but nil Thall not be condemned. -Enoch's prophecy seems to have been generally known among the Jews. For the first words of it, which in the Hebrew are, Maranatha, were used by them with great propriety, in that form of e: communication or curling, which they pronounced upon irreclaimable offenders, (See 1 Cor. xvi. 22. note.) as they put all who were present in mind of God's coming at the last day, to punish the obstinately impenitent. This fame curse the apostle Paul folemnly pronounced on all wicked Chriftians, 1 Cor. xvi. 22.