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I.

CHAP. firmly and even warmly advocates the restoration of

immersion because the word means dip. Institutes, CALVIN. “ The word baptizo signifies to immerse, lib. x.chap. and the rite of immersion was observed by the ancient .

church." a Luth. Op.

LUTHER. “Baptism is a Greek word, and may be vol. i. p. 336.

translated immersion, as when we immerse something in water, that it may be wholly covered. And although it is almost wholly abolished, (for they do not dip the whole children, but only pour a little water on them,) they ought nevertheless to be wholly immersed, and then immediately drawn out; for that the etymology of the word seems to demand.“ The Germans call baptism tauff, from a depth, which in their language they call

teeff, because it is proper that those who are baptised be Art. V. deeply immersed.” In the Smalcald articles (drawn up

by him) Luther says, “ Baptism is nothing else than the word of God with immersion in water.” And again he says: “Washing from sins is attributed to baptism; it is truly, indeed, attributed, but the signification is softer and slower than it can express baptism, which is rather a sign both of death and resurrection. Being moved by this reason, I would have those that are to be baptised, to be altogether dipt into the water, as the word doth sound, and the mystery doth signify.”

That this was the opinion and practice of the chief leader of the Reformation, appears also by JOHANNES BUGENHAGIUS POMERANIUS, in a book he published A. D. 1542. He was desired to be a witness of a baptism at Hamburgh, in the year 1529; where when having seen

b." There is nothing in the thing signified by baptism which renders immersion more necessary or proper than any other mode of applying water !Dr. Miller, p. 67. If pædobaptists prefer Dr. Miller's opinion to Martin Luther's, they will pardon me for not admiring their taste.

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the minister only sprinkle the infant wrapped in swath. SECT. ling clothes on the top of the head, he was amazed ; be

IX. cause he neither heard nor saw any such thing, nor yet read in any history, except in case of necessity, in bed. rid persons. In a general assembly therefore of all the ministers of the word, that was convened, he did ask of a certain minister, John Fritz, by name, who was some time minister of Lubec, how the sacrament of baptism was administered at Lubec. Who for his piety and candour did answer gravely, that infants were baptized naked at Lubec, after the same fashion altogether as in Germany. But from whence and how that peculiar method of baptizing hath crept into Hamburg, he was ignorant. At length they did agree among themselves, that the judgment of Luther, and of the divines of Wirtemburg, should be demanded about this point; which being done, Luther did write back to Hamburgh, that this sprinkling was an abuse, which they ought to re

Thus plunging was restored to Hamburgh.”c Perhaps no man deserves more respect as a candid and well-informed critic than Beza. He observes, on Mark vii. 4, “ Christ commanded us to be baptised; by which word, it is certain, immersion is signified; baptizesthai, in this place, is more than niptein; because that seems to respect the whole body, this only the hands. Nor does baptizein, signify to wash, except by consequence ; for it properly signifies to immerse for the sake of dyeing. To be baptized in water, signifies no other than to be immersed in water, which is the external ceremony of baptism. Baptizo differs from the verb dunai, which signifies, to plunge in the deep and to drown."

Crosby's Hist. Eng. Bapt. Pref. p. 21.
Epistola II. ad Thom. Tilium. Annotat. in Marc. vii. 4, &c.

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VITRINGA. « The act of baptizing, is the immersion of believers in water. This expresses the force of the word. Thus also it was performed by Christ and his apostles.”

HOSPINIANUS. “Christ commanded us to be baptized ; by which word it is certain immersion is signified.”

GURTLERUS. “ To baptize, among the Greeks, is undoubtedly to immerse, to dip; and baptism is immersion, dipping. Baptismos en Pneumati agio, baptism in the Holy Spirit, is immersion into the pure waters of the Holy Spirit ; for he on whom the Holy Spirit is poured out, is as it were immersed into him. Baptismos en puri, baptism in fire,' is a figurative expression, and signifies casting into a flame, which, like water, flows far and wide ; such as the flame that consumed Jerusalem. The thing commanded by our Lord, is baptism ; immersion into water.” g

BUDDEUS. “The words baptizein and baptismos, are not to be interpreted of aspersions, but always of immer.

sion."

SALMASIUS. Baptism is immersion, and was ad. ministered in former times, according to the force and meaning of the word.” i

VENEMA. “ The word baptizein, to baptize, is nowhere used in the Scripture for sprinkling,"k

Extracts from German writers of the age of the Reformation, and a few years subsequent, might be greatly multiplied; but it would be superfluous.

e

Aphor. Sanct. Theol. Aphoris. 884. i Hist. Sacram. L. II. C. i.

p.

30.
& Institut. Theo. cap. xxxiii. $ 108, 109, 110. 115,
b Theolog. Dogmat. L. V. C. i. $ 5.
i De Cæsarie Virorum, p. 669.
k Instit. Hist. Eccl. Vet, et Nor. Test. Tom. III. sec. i. $ 138.

1 German

I shall next adduce the opinions of the modern Ger. Sect. man critics, or ecclesiastical historians. For most of IX. them I am indebted to President Sears, either through Modern his very

able article in the Christian Review, or to trans- critics. lations from still more recent German writers, which Christian now appear for the first time, and for which the author vol: iii. p.

96—103. feels greatly indebted.

Professor FrITSCHE, a disciple of Hermann, in his Com. on Matt. iii. 6, says; “ That baptism was performed not by sprinkling, but by immersion, is evident, not only from the nature of the word, but from Rom. vi. 4.”

AUGUSTI, vol. v. p. 5. 6. The word baptism, according to etymology and usage, signifies to immerse, submerge, &c.; and the choice of the expression betrays an age in which the latter custom of sprinkling had not been introduced.

BRENNER, p. 1. “ The word corresponds in signification with the German word, taufen, to sink into the deep.

The author of the Free Inquiry respecting Baptism, Leipsic, 1802. Baptism is perfectly identical with our word immersion or submersion (tauchen oder untertauchen). If immersion under water is for the purpose of cleansing, or washing, then the word means cleansing or washing.” p. 7.

BRETSCHNEIDER, in his Theology of 1828, vol.ii. p. 673 and 681. “ An entire immersion belongs to the nature of baptism.”_" This is the meaning of the word.This writer is confessedly the most critical lexicographer of the New Testament.

PAULLUS, in his Com., vol. i. p. 278, says, the word baptize signifies, in Greek, sometimes to immerse, sometimes to submerge."

RHEINHARD's Ethics, vol. v. p. 79. “In sprinkling, the symbolical meaning of the ordinance is wholly lost.

СНАР. “ Professor Rost, the principal Greek lexicographer 1.

now living, in his standard German-Greek Lexicon, reChristian vised with the assistance of a native Greek, puts down Review, vol. iii. p.97. as the primary signification of all such words as plunge,

immerse and submerse (tauchen, cintauchen, untertauchen), bapto; but under the words wash, wet, pour, and the like (waschen, beneizen, giessen, begiessen), though he gives copious definitions in Greek, he never employs the word bapto, or any of its derivatives. Can any thing be more to the point ?”

SCHLEUSNER, in his Lex. on baptisma. “ Those who were to be baptised were anciently immersed.” Indeed, the three New Testament lexicographers, Schleusner, Wahl and Bretschneider, limit baptism as a sacred ordinance to immersion.

Scholz, on Matt. iii. 6. “ Baptism consists in the immersion of the whole body in water.

Professor LANGE, on Infant Baptism, of 1834, p. 81. “Baptism in the apostolic age was a proper baptism, the immersion of the body in water.”—“As Christ died, so we die (to sin) with him in baptism. The body is, as it were, buried under water, is dead with Christ; the plunging under water represents death, and rising out of it the resurrection to a new life. A more striking symbol could not be chosen."

The author of the Free Inquiry on Baptism, p. 36. “ The baptism of John and that of the apostles were performed in precisely the same way," i. e., the candidate was completely immersed under water. Speaking of Rom. vi. 4, and Gal. iii. 27, he says, “ What becomes of all these beautiful images, when, as at the present day, baptism is administered by pouring or sprinkling ?

ROSENMULLER, KOPPE and BLOOMFIELD, all hold the same strong language on this subject. We will quote only the last, as he includes the others.

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