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fame to all mankind. The address and petitions are lo essentially different in their nature, that by the one you would determine the nation to be in the most flourishing condition, and in a state of the greatest happiness, and by the other you would be led to believe, that it was upon the verge of utter ruin, and on the very brink of destruction. Perhaps neither the cases, as stated in the one or the other are striatly true, nor is it possible that they could be both true; but one thing is certain, that neither the one nor the other Сс


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medium fine, four shillings and fix second pot, made in Great Britain, pence.

four pence halfpenny. For every ream of paper called For every.ream of paper called Genoa medium, one fhilling and super royal fine, nine Millings. ten pence halfpenny.

For every ream of paper called For every ream of paper called royal fine, fix shillings. second writing mediuin, three shil For every ream of paper called lings.

fine Holland royal, two shillingsand For every ream of painted paper five pençe farthing. not made in Great Britain, fix fhil För every ream of paper

called lings.

fine Holland second, one filling For every ream of paper called and fix pence. fine large poft, one thilling and ten For every ream of paper called pence halfpenny.

fecond fine Holland royal, one thilFor every ream of paper called ling and fix pence. small poft, one thilling and one pen For every ream of paper called ny halfpenny.

ordinary royal, nine pence. For every ream of paper

called For every ream of paper called fine Genoa pot, lixpence three fare Cenoa royal, two shillings and five things.

pence farthing. For every ream of paper called For every ream of paper called fecond Genoa pot, fix pence three second writing royal, four shillings tarthings.

and one penny halfpenny. For every ream of paper called For every ream of paper called fuperfine pot, not made in Great fecond writing super royal, fix fhil. Britain, one Ihilling and fix pence. lings.

For every ream of other paper For every hundred weight avoircalled second five pot, not made in dupois of pafte-boards, mill-boards, Great Britain, one thilling and one and scale-boards, not made in peany halfpenny.

Great Britain, three fhillings and *. For every ream of paper called nine pence. ardinary pot, not made in Great For every hundred weight avoirBritain, lix pence three farthings. dupois of pafte-boards, mill-boards,

For every ream of paper called and scale-boards, made in Great fine pot, made in Great Britain, Britain, two thillings and three

pence For every ream of paper called And forand upon all paper which


wine pence.

Were really the voice of the nation. For as the ministry and the court party used their utmost efforts to procure addressers, so leading men in the opposition did all they could to procure petitioners, who knew as little about the grievances, as the addressers did aÞout the happiness of the nation. Both were the occasion of great noise and confufion; people were taken off their bufiness, and idle disposed men went rioting for several days together, without doing any thing except drinking and making noise in the streets of towns and cities. The number of petitioners was by far the greatest, and fhewed that among those who


Mall be printed, painted, or stained, consent of the Lords Spiritual and in Great Britain, to serve for hang- Temporal, and Commons, In this ings or other uses, three farthings present parliament assembled, and for every yard square, over and a- by the authority of the fame, That bove the duties payable for such the said colonies and plantations in paper by this act, if the same had America have been, are, and of right not been printed, painted, or stain. ought to be, subordinate unto, and ed; and after those rates respective- dependeut upon, the imperia ly for any greater or less quantity, crown and parliament of Great

Britain ; and that the King's MajeDECLARATORY ACT. fty, by and with the advice and con•Whereas feveral of the houses tent of the Lords Spiritual and of Representatives in his Maje- Temporal, and Commons of Great • sty's colonies and plantations in Britain, in parliament assembled, • America, have of late, against law, had, hath, and of right ought to

claimed to themselves, or to the have, full power and authority to ‘general afsemblies of the fame, the make laws and fatutes of sufficient • lole and exclusiveright ofimposing force and validity to bind the colo• duties and taxes upon his Maje- nies and people of America, sub• sty's fubje&ts in the said colonies jects of the crown of Great Britain, ' and plantations; and have, in in all cases whatsoever.

pursuance of such claim, passed Jl. And beit further declared and • certain votes, refolutions, and or- enacted by the anthority aforesaid, ders, derogatory to the legislative That all resolutions, votes, orders, authority of parliament, and in- and proceedings, in any of the said • consistent with the dependency colonies or plantations, whereby

of the said colonies and planta. the power and authority of the stions upon the crown of Great parliainent of Grzat Britain, to • Britain. May it therefore please make laws and statutes as aforesaid; your most excellent' Majefty, that is denied or drawn into question,are it may be declared; and be it de- and are hereby declared to be, utclared by the King's most excellent terly null and void to all intents Majesty, by and with the advice and and purposes whatsoever,

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pretended to have a right to intermeddle in those mat. ters, the majority was on the side of the opposition. The great number of petitions that were sent to the throne, gave great offence to the ministry, and they were treated with the utmost contempt. This provoked the petitioners to the highest degree, and made many of them both speak and write many severe things against the ministry. Thus the parties irritated one another, that charity and love among men became a very rare thing. Those on the fide of the court be. ing generally the more wealthy and substantial part of the nation, looked with contempt upon the other fide, and despised them, as not worthy of being con. sulted in any affairs of government; while the others considered them as oppressors and enemies of their country. The debates both in and out of parliament run high. The court party cried out for severe measures, They said the authority of parliament had been trampled upon, the fovereign had been insulted on the throne, by the most absurd and provoking proceed. ings, and insolent petitions. A diffolution of parlia. ment was requested, for no other reason than because they had complied with the King's ministers, whom the King himself had appointed. How could the King expect to be obeyed in fuch critical emergencies, that must occur in any plan for aggrandizing the crown; when the ministers who formed such plans were given up, and the parliament, who had acted under their influence was disolved? This kind of reafoning was, by the other side, considered as partial, felfish, and inconclusive; they looked upon such arguments as the shifts of guilty perfons to cover their iniquities, rather than the reasoning of true and good politicians. To threaten the nation for petitioning :he sovereign, which was a right that belonged to

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everyindividual, was looked upon as an ìnfolence which none but desperate men would have been guilty of. The arguments on this occasion went much against the minihry, whịch did not a little provoke them; and as usually happens in the time of controversy, many indecent reflections were thrown forth against individuals, which were a disgrace to the cause they were fupporting. Magistrates, however many errors they may be guilty of, as long as they continue in office, persons in opposing their misconduct, ought always to observe decency. It adds no lyfture to any cause to support it with scandal and personal reflections. А species of writing was now become fashionable, where in all the private foibles of men's lives were drawn into the argument, and their private infirmities painted with the most uncharitable colourings. This wantonness of the press provoked the court and the mipistry exceedingly, so that they were determined to make examples of offenders as soon as they could have a proper opportunity. This was a very weak resolution ; for the offence was mutual, and neither side could plead innocent. The writers on the side, of the court were often as illiberal as those on the side of the opposition ; but where men of power are irritated, it' requires much wisdom to make them restrain their power within the bounds of right reason and justice. The ministry were fadly galled, and felt the ridicule of their opponents, which was often very scurrilous.

When the parliament met this year, upon the 9th of January, the nation was in great expectations concerning the manner how the state of public affairs would be introduced in the speech from the throne ; when, to the amazement of all, the chief contents thereof, were filled up with a distemper among the


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horned cattle. It was expected that notice would have been taken of the domestic commotions in the nation at home, and of the disturbances in America, but with regard to all these there was a perfect filence. The speech became an object of ridicule over all the nation, as the distemper it referred to was scarcely known to have any existence, and had not become an object of serious reflection among the people who were more immediately concerned.

The cold reserve in the speech from the throne, was not imitated by those in opposition to the measures of the ministry. When the address was read, a motion was made for an ammendment, in the following terms: that they would immediately enquire into the causes of the prevailing discontents throughout his Majesty's dominions. This introduced fome long debates, that were carried on with great heat and acrimony of expreslion, unknown before, in parliament, and in which many severe animadversions were made upon the several parts of the speech from the throne. The affair concerning the petitions was agitated with great violence, and the grievances of the nation painted in the strongest colours by the opposition,-while the other side openly denied their existence, and seemed to threaten those who set them forth. There was a party on the side of the ministry that were more moderate ; these admitted the exist, ence of the grievances alledged, but affirmed they were exaggerated beyond all bounds. They acknowledged the discontents in the nation, and declared themselves willing to consider them at a proper season, as well as to reconsider the election of Middlesex, which was now a great bone of contention ; they said they were willing to listen to methods of redress soberly proposed, and at a time when they had leisure: but they


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