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APPENDIX.

I. Progress of Wages and Prices; being a statement, from

the year 1495 to 1833, of the Wages of Husbandry La-

bourers, Carpenters, Bricklayers, Masons, Plumbers, and

other Domestic Artificers; with the amount of Wages in

equivalent pints of Wheat at the average Prices 569

II. Expenses of an Agricultural Family; exhibiting four

Statements of the comparative Expenditure of a Labourer's

Family at different periods, from 1762 to 1832. 540

III. Proportion of Tax paid by a Labourer on the several Ar-

ticles of his daily consumption, now and in 1762 541

IV. Statement of the Contract Prices of Provisions, and Rate

of Wages at the Royal Hospital, Greenwich, from 1729 to

1828

547

v. Progress of the Population of Great Britain ; being a

comparative Statement of the Population of the several

Counties of England in 1710, 1750, 1801, 1811, 1821, 1831,

arranged in Order of Increase and Industrial Character;

with the Population of Wales and Scotland

548

VI. Analysis of the Number of Families and their Occupa-

tions in Great Britain, in 1821 and 1831

549

VII. Proportion of Families in Scotland occupied in Agricul-

ture, Trade, Manufactures, &c. in 1821

549

VIII. Comparative Increase per cent. from 1700 of the Popu-

lation of the Agricultural, Manufacturing, and Metropolitan

Counties of England; with the corresponding Rate of In-

crease in Wales and Scotland

550

IX. Statement of the Population of the Metropolis at different

Periods, from 1700 to 1813

551
x. Progress of the Population of Ireland, and the Number of

Houses

552

XI. Table of the

Annual Proportion of Baptisms, Burials, and

Marriages, in England, calculated upon the Average of the

five years preceding the Censuses of 1801, 1811, 1821,

1831

553

XII. Mortality of the Metropolis ; exhibiting the Deaths and

the Causes of them, within the Bills of Mortality, for four

regular Periods, from 1770 to 1850

555

XIII. Number of Christenings and Ages of Deaths within the

Bills of Mortality, London, at four different Periods, from

1770 to 1830; with the Return for the year ending Decem-

ber 1832

XIV. Mortality of Manufacturing Towns; showing in every

10,000 persons Buried, the Proportion dying under 20 and

40 years of Age

558

XV. Statement of the Comparative Duration of Life, in

every 10,000 persons in Agricultural and Manufacturing

Districts

560

XVI. Progress of Poor Rates ; being a Statement of the Sums

expended for the Relief of the Poor in each County of

England, from 1730 to the year ending the 25th of March,

1832 ; also the total Parish Assessment and Annual Average

price of Wheat in each year

561

XVII. Proportion of Poor-rate levied on Land, Houses, Mills,

Factories, Manerial Profits, &c. ; also the number of Un-

endowed Schools, and Members of Friendly Societies in

each County

562

XVIII. Abstract of Returns of Poor-rates for the year ending

25th March, 1832 ; showing the Monies levied in each County

in England and Wales ; distinguishing the Payments made

thereout for other Purposes than the Relief of the Poor, and

the Sums expended for that Purpose pursuant to Act 59,

Geo. III. c. 12

563

XIX. Statement of the Number of Friendly and Charitable

Societies in each County of England; the Number of De-

positors in Savings Banks; the Amount of their Invest-

ments, and the Average of each Deposit

564

XX, Number of Cases decided by the Judges on the Poor-laws

up to November 1832

565

XXI. Progress of Crime ; showing the Number of Persons

charged with Criminal Offences committed for Trial every

fifth year from 1805, and the Proportion of the Committals

in 1832 to the Population of each County; with Remarks

on the State of Crime in England and other countries 566

XXII. Statement of the present Rate of Wages in the Cotton,

Woollen and Carpet Manufactures ; the Wages of Artificers

in Hardware and Metals, compared with the Wages, Prices,

and Hours of Working, in the Cotton Manufactories on the

Continent

5

XXIII. Diet, Domestic Economy, and Morals of the Manu-

facturing Population

577

XXIV. Remarks on the Reports of the Poor-law Commis-

sion

583

XXV. Selection of Maxims and Sayings on the Conduct of

Life

587

PART I.

HISTORY

OF THE

MIDDLE AND WORKING CLASSES.

CHAP. I.

STATE OF SOCIETY UNDER THE ANGLO-SAXONS.

The Conquest forms the historical horizon which marks the boundaries of authentic, and, at most, dubious history. All records antecedent to Williain I. comprise so much of the marvellous and improbable, that doubt is thrown over the entire narrative of the Saxon characters. The most singular trait of this remote period is the slow inarch of improvement. The interval, from the invasion of the Romans to that of the Normans, exceeds considerably the eight centuries which have elapsed from the latter era to the present; yet what a contrast of events in the two historical terms. Science, laws, and institu

B

tions have been almost created within the last 300 years; while the long night of darkness that preceded them presents only fitful gleams of social amelioration through a chaos of bondage and error. It shows how much the progress of nations depends on the uncertain gifts of nature, the appearance of men of genius, some useful discovery, or the ascendancy of enlightened government.

The era of the Anglo-Saxons has been mostly referred to as the dawn of civilization in this country: but recent inquiries have tended to lower the previous estimate of the attainments of this period of our annals. It is true, we may trace up to the Teutonic invaders the germ of our language, our laws and local divisions; but could we accurately compare the seed with the produce, it is probable the disparity would not be less great than that which subsists between many of the wild fruits and flowers of the wilderness and the perfection to which they are brought by the arts of horticulture.

Untutored man is only a child in habits, the creature of impulse; and philosophy rejects, as illusions sacred to poetry, representations which would endow the savage with virtues inseparable from refinement. Except so far as they had been reclaimed by Christianity, the Anglo-Saxons continued in a state of comparative barbarism. Their institutions. discover few signs of superior intelligence, and are only analogous to the attempts of all communities entering on the early stages of civilization. Neither persons nor property were secure from violence; and robbery, from the absence of police, was tolerated legitimate vocation. So little delicacy was there in the relations of the sexes, that arreoy societies, for promiscuous intercourse, of the nature of those in the Polynesian islands, were common, and the utility of the marriage institute scarcely recognised. The code of laws ascribed to Alfred has been extolled as an extraordinary instance of legislative aptitude; but it appears to have been little more than a compilation of the decalogue, and the provisions of the Mosaic dispensation.

But what exemplifies most strongly the spirit of the Saxon institutions is, the civil inequality among different classes. Two-thirds of the people were either absolute slaves, or in an intermediate state of bondage to the remaining third. They might be put in bonds and whipped: they might be branded; and on one occasion are spoken of as if actually yoked: “ Let every man know his team of men, of horses and oxen."* Cattle and slaves formed in truth the "live money" of the Anglo-Saxons, and were the medium of exchange by which the value of commodities was measured.

The predominant crimes of the age were of an atrocious character. Assassinations, female violations, the plundering of whole towns and districts, and barefaced perjuries, were offences of ordinary occurrence by persons of condition.

The punishment of delinquents was either shockingly cruel, or

P. 91.

* Turner's History of the Anglo-Sarons, vol. iii.

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