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fingle power in the north in a state revolution in his favopr. The seyof assured tranquillity.

.. trality of the Russians ftill left the The king of Denmark, though Austrians much fuperior to him. threatened by fo formidable a power Their alliance brought him to act on engaged in pursuit of a favourite the offenfive: the Austrian armies in obje&, was not terrified into any Silesia, and one in Saxony, were mean concessions. He recruited prepared to ad, and it was not clear his army, repaired his fortifications which kde would begin to act ox and prepared for his defence, with the ofensive: the Autrian armies temper and magnanimity. As threatened Glogau and Bretlaws money must be much wanting for with a fege, and the king of Prul the services of lo important a war, fia's threatened Schweidnisz. as his country could furbilh no great The active characler of the king fupplies, and the borrowings in of Prusia, and the caucion of mar. every part of Europe, together with Ahal Daun, foon determined the part, the sudden invasion of his domin which the several armies were te niods could enable him to form no take, and the fpirit of the leveral fanguine hopes of peblic credit, he operations. Very early in turned his hopes towards the city of the campaign prince Hen

May 12. Hamburgh, which had eariched it. ty made a vigorous push on the imfelf by, its industry and neutrality perial pots towards the frontiers of during the whole war, and by the Saxony. The Imperialists were number of wealthy persons who had obliged to evacuate Dippolswalda fled there for refuge from the ca- with some loss in killed. About four lamities, which all the neighbour- thousand men were taken pritoners; ing countries had fuffered.

365 waggons were also caken, and His Danilh majesty had always feveral trophies, kept alive a claim of sovereignty over By this signal advantage, all the that city, which (however founded) part of Saxony, poffeffed by the he exercised whenever he found Pruflians, was effectually secured ; himfelf able. He thought the pre- and any attempt which might fent one of those conjunctures. hereafter be thought proper fer the Therefore without any previous recovery of Dresden, was much notice he appears. with a Itrong facilitated. Although the Aul. June 18. army before Hamburgh, trians, fenfible of the consequence

seizes the suburbs, threa- of this loss, and largely reinforced tens the city with an immediate from the armies in Silesia, attemptfiege, if they did not immediately ed to recover these posts by several submit to a loan of 1,000,000 of lively efforts, they were repulsed rixdollars. The magiftrates of this with no small flaughter on both trading city, little prepared for, or fides ; and prince Henry remained accustomed to war, having no ally at so much master of Saxony, that it hand, and who would be equally en- was neceffary to keep a large army dangered by the strength of any ally from the war in Silesia, to prevent able to protect them, prudently sub- if possible his making irrupcions into mitted, and furnished the king with the heart of Bohemia. such a supply as his affairs required. His Pruffian majeity derived ad

The king of Prussia loft no time vantages from the conduct of his to profit of this great and unexpected brother, which he did not rigleet to improve. It was not until the different detachments of Prufians, latter end of June that he was fome on the fide of Saxony, others, joined by his new Russian allies. As on the side of Silefia, penetrated deep foon as this junction was formed, he into Bohemia, laid many parts of resolved to make a trial of what the country uuder contribution, and those men could do in his favour, spread an universal alarm. It was who had acted fo ftrenuously against about five years since they had him. Marshal Daun's army occupied been driven from thence by the several strong, but detached emi- victorious arms of marshal Daun, nencies, which enabled him to com- who now found himself unable to municate with, and protect Schweid- protect that kingdom from their ranitz from all attempts of the enemy. vages. A considerable body of Rura

The king of Prussia under- fian irregulars also made an irrupJuly 21. took to dislodge him from tion into Bohemia, and began there those advantageous pofts. In some to retaliate on the Austrians those of his attempts he succeeded, in excesses, which they had themselves others he was baffled with some loss. fo often before committed on the

This was no regular battle; but Prussian dominions. the king of Prussia, though he did Whilst the king of Prussia was not succeed immediately in his at- thus playing with spirit the great tack, yet by his judicious mandu- game which fortune had put into vres he attained all the advantages his hands, he was all at once threa. he proposed from his enterprise. tened with a sudden reverse, by For marshal Daun, apprehensive another revolution in Russia, which from the motions of his army, that bore all the appearance of being as the king of Pruffia intended to seize unfavourable to him, as the former upon his principal magazine, and had been beyond all hopes benefieven to cut off his communication cial. That variable political cliwith Bohemia, abandoned those im- mate of Russia, under whose in. portant pofts which he had hitherto Auence all his fortune decayed or maintained with success, fell back to flourished, was covered with a sudthe extremities of Silesia, and left den cloud by the depofition, folSchweidnitz entirely uncovered. lowed close by the death of his fast

The king of Pruflia immediately friend, and faithful ally, the czar prepared to invest that city, whilft of Muscovy.




Causes of the Revolution in Russia. Czar irritates the clergy and soldiery.

Differences with the czarina. Conspiracy againji him. Czar deposed by the senate. Attempts an escape. His imprisonment and death. She czarina declared emprefs. Her politic conduct. Ingratiates berself with

the people. FROM the moment of the late exercise, is extremely weak in its

czar's accession to the throne foundation. There is not perhaps of the Rusữas, something extraor- in Europe a government, which dinary was expected. His dispo- depends so much on the good will fition seemed to lead him to make and affection of those that are goalterations in every thing, and hav- verned ; and which requires a greating set before himself two great ex- er degree of vigilance and a steaamples, that of the king of Prus- dier hand. The regular succellion sia and of his predecessor Peter I. it which has been so often broken, was expected that this valt empire and the great change of manners, was going once more, almost with- which in less than a century has in the life of a man, to assume a been introduced, have left in Rusa new face; a circumstance which sia a weakness amidit all the apcould not fail of having a serious pearance of strength, and a great influence on the affairs of Europe. faiclity to sudden and dangerous re. Peter IIT. made more new regula- volutions. tions in Russia in a few weeks, than Peter III. paid little attention to wise and cautious princes undertake those difficulties, which to him were in a long reign. It was to be fear- the greater, as he was a foreigner ed that his actions were rather born. They were augmented by the guided by a rash and irregular turn superior and invidious regard he of mind, and the spirit of innova- seemed to pay to foreigne interests, tion, than by any regular and well and foreign persons. The prefer digested plan, for the improvement rence he lo manifeitly gave to the of his extensive dominions.

uncertain hope of inconsiderable His first actions on coming to conquest in Holstein over the folid the throne, it is true, were laudable, and valuable poffeffions which the and seemed well calculated to ac- fortune of his predecessor had lefc quire him the affee of his him, muit have disgutted all the people. But if in some instances politicians of his country. His inhe consulied their interests, in many timate connection with, and boundhe hocked their prejudices; and he less admiration of that prince, lost thereby that opinion, which is with whom Ruslia had been so lateon all occasions necessary, but is par. ly, and so long, in a state of the ticularly fo far carrying such uncom- most violent hoftility, could not add mon designs as his into execution. to the opinion of his prudence,

The power of the czars, though They did not think he sufficiently absolute and uncontroulable in its confulted his dignity, in folliciting Vol. V.


with chan

with great anxiety a command in they had so often asserted the hos the Pruffian service. When he re- nour of their country, and gained ceived it, he dressed himself in the many fignal advantages over the Pruflian uniform, made a grand fef- troops, diftinguished by those regitival, and displayed all the marks mentals which were now preferred. of an immoderate and puerile satis- These trifes had very important faction. He pushed his extrava- consequences. Bnt what he did in gance in this point so far, that he matters of religion was ftill more made preparations in this immature dangerous. This prince had been ftate of his government to quit Ruf- educated a Lutheran ; and though fia, and to go into Germany for the he conformed to the Greek church, fake of an interview with that great in order to qualify himself for the monarch, whose genius, principles fuccession, he never shewed much and fortune he so greatly admired. respect to that mode of religion, to

Although this proceeding was, the rites and doctrines of which his almoft in every respect, extremely subjects had been always extremely impolitic, it did not threaten so dan- attached. He seized upon the regerous consequences as the other venues of the clergy, whether Ateps, which he took about the same monks or seculars, whether bishops time. Nothing requires so much or inferiors, and for compensation judgment, and so nice a hand, as to allowed them fome

mean peneffect a change in the settled efta- fions, in fuch a proportion as blishments of any country. Above his fancy suggested. His capriall, there must be something favour- cous order that the clergy should able in the conjuncture ; or fome- be no longer distinguished by thing so uncommon and over-ruling beards, was in itself

of less moment, in the genius of the conductor of but it was hardly less offensive. He those changes, as will render him made also some regulatious concernfuperior to all difficulties. This lattering the images and pictures in their was the case of Peter I. who had in- churches, which gave them reason deed very little favourable in the con- to apprehend his intention of acjuncture ; but he did every thing by complishing a total change in the his capacity, courage, and perseve- religion of the empire, and introrance. The soldiery and the eccle- ducing Lutheranism. fiaftics are the great supports of Whilft he was taking these meaall absolute rule, and they are cer- sures to alienate the minds of his tainly the last bodies, opon which people in general, and especially of a prince of this kind would chuse to ihose bodies, with whom it was exert an invidious act of authority. the moft his interest to be well, he But the czar was indiscreet enough, had not the good fortune to live in very early in his reign, highly to union with his own family. He provoke both these bodies; the had long flighted his confort, a prinfoldiery, by the manifest preference cefs of the house of Anhalt Zerbit, he gave to his Holftein guards, and a woman of a masculine underto all officers of that nation; and by standing, and by whose councils he the change he made in favour of the might have profited. He lived in Pruffian uniform to the exclusion of a very public manner with the that, in which the Rufliaus believed countess of Woronzoff, niece to the chancellor of that name, and feem- They assured themselves, that ed devoted to her with so strong a their action could not be disagreepaflion, that it was apprehended he able to the empress ; whose conhad some thoughts of throwing his duct had always been the very reemprefs into a monastery,and raising verse of that of her confort. This this lady to the throne of all the princess finding that the affections Ruffias.' What seemed to confirm of her husband were irrecoverably this opinion, was his omitting for- alienated, endeavoured to set up a mally to declare his son the grand separate and independent interest in duké Paul Petrowitz the fucceffor. her own favour, and for asserting This omiffion in a country, where the rights of her son. She therefore the succession is established and re- afsiduously cultivated the affections gular, would have been of no con- of the Russian nation, and paid a fequence ; the punctual observance respect to their manners and reliof such a ceremony would rather gion, in the fame degree that her have betrayed fome doubt of the title. husband seemed to contemn them. But the nature of this government, So ill was the czar served, that as well as pofitive constitutions, had this conspiracy was grown general, made it necessary in Russia, and the without his receiving the least notice omiffion was certainly alarming. of it, and he remained in perfect

That unfortunate prince, having fecurity, whilft the fenate and the in this manner affronted his army, clergy were assembled to irritated his clergy, offended his pass the sentence of his

June 28. nobility, and alienated his own fa- depofition. At this time the emmily, without having left himself press and he were both absent from any firm ground of authority, in per- the capital at different country fonal esteem or national prejudice, seats. The empress, as soon the proceeded with his asual precipita- found that the design was declared, tion to new changes. In the mean got on horse-back, and with all time a most dangerous conspiracy polible speed arrived at Peterfwas forming againft him." The burgh. She immediately harangued cruel punishments infli&ted in Ruf- the guards, who chearfully and fia on ftate criminals, have only an unanimously declared in her favour, effect to harden the minds of men al- and proclaimed her empress of ready fierce and obdurate, and sel- Ruflia independently of her hus. dom deter them from the most band. She then addressed herself desperate undertakings. Rosamou- to the clergy, and the chief of the ki, Hetman or chief of the Cof. nobility, who applauded her refofacks, a person of importance by lution; and all orders immediately that command, Panin, governor of took the oath of allegiance to her the great duke Paul, marshal But- as fole empress. She was no sooner terlin, the chamberlain Teplow, the acknowledged in this manner, than, attorney general Glebow, baron without losing a moment's time, Orlow major of the guards, and the marched from Peterfburgh tomany others of the great officers wards the emperor at the head of a and first nobility of the empire, en- body of troops. gaged in a conspiracy to dethrone This prince was indulging himthe czar, who was now universally self in indolent amusements, and hated ; and, what was more fatal to [C] 2

lulled him, universally despised.

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