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to such a degree, that he could not public, it was, in fact, impoffible, even bear to hear them mentioned. but ourfoul shoald be troubled with

After one bloody war, he rafhly those impending woes which threatentered upon another, in which the ened our native country, and with interefts of Russia were no way con- that persecution which we, and our cerned. He entertained an infu- most dear son, the heir of the Rufperable averfion to the regiments of fan throne, unjustly suffered: beguards, which had faithfully served ing almost entirely excluded from his illuftrious anceitors, and made the imperial palace ; in such fort, innovations in the army, which, far that all who had regard for us, or from exciting in their breasts noble rather those who had courage enough sentiments of valour, only served to speak it (for we have not been to discourage troops always

ready to able to find that there is one person spill their best blood in the cause of who is not devoted to our interest) their country. He changed entire- by expresling their sentiments of rely the face of the army ; nay, it spect due to us, as their empress, even seemed, that by dividing their endangered their life, or at least habits into so many uniforms, and their fortune. In fine, the endeagiving them so many different em- yours he made to ruin us, rose to bellishments, for the most part fan- such a pitch, that they broke out taftical to the greateft degree, he in- in public, and then charging us tended to infuse into them a fufpi- with being the cause of the murcion that they did not, in effect, murs, which his own imprudent belong to one master, and thereby measures occasioned, his resolution provoke the soldiers, in the heat of to take away our life openly apbattle, to flay one another; al- peared. But being informed of his though experience demonstrated purpose, by some of our trusty subthat uniformity in dress had not a jects, who were determined to delittle contributed towards unani- liver their country, or perish in the mity.

attempt, relying on the aid of the Inconfiderately and incessantly Almighty, we chear fully exposed bent on pernicious regulations, he our person to danger, with all that fo alienated the hearts of his sub- magnanimity whichour native counjects, that there was scarce a single try had a right to expect, in return person to be found in the nation for her affection to us. After havwho did not openly express his disap-ing invoked the Most High, and probation, and was even desirous to reposed our hope in the divine fatake away his life : But the laws of vour, we resolved also either to faGod, which command fovereign crifice our life for our country, or princes to be respected, being deep- save it from bloodshed and calamity. ly engraved on the hearts of our Scarcely had we taken this resolu. faithful subjects, restrained them, tion, by the direction of favouring and engaged them to wait with pa- Heaven, and declared our assent to tience, till the hand of God itruck the deputies of the empire, than the important blow, and by his fall the orders of the state crouded to delivered an oppressed people. Un- give us assurances of their fidelity der those circumstances, now laid and submission. before the impartial eyes of the VOL. V.

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It now remained for us, in pur- given orders for putting us to death, suance of the love we bore our as we have been fince informed faithful subjects, to prevent the from the very persons who were apconsequences which we apprehend- pointed to execute those unnatural ed, in case of the late emperor's orders. inconsiderately placing his confi- In the mean time, he had ftill dence in the imaginary power of resources left him, which were to the Holstein troops, (for whose fake arm against us his Holstein troops, he itayed at Oranjebaum, living in and some small detachments then indolence, and abandoning the most about his person ; he had, alfo, in prelling exigencies of the Itate) and his power several personages of dithere occasioning a carnage, to tin&tion belonging to our court; as which our guards and other regi- he might therefore have compelled us ments were ready to expose them- to agree to terms of accommodaselves, for the sake of their native tion ftill more hurtful to our councountry, for ours, and that of our try, (for after having learned what fucceffor. For these reafons we great commotions there were among looked upon it as a necessary duty the people he had detained them as towards our subjects (to which we hostages at his palace of Oranjewere immediately called by the baum, and our humanity would voice of God) to prevent fo greata never have confented to their demisfortune, by prompt and proper ftruction, but, to fave their lives, measures. Therefore, placing our- we would have risked feeing a part selves at the head of the body. of those dangers revived by an aeguards, regiment of artillery, and commodation) feveral persons of other troops in and about the royal bigh rank aboutour person requestresidence, we undertook to discon- ed us to send him a billet in return, cert an iniquitous design, of which propofing to him, if his intentions we were, as yet, only informed in were such as he declared them to part.

be, that he should instantly send us But scarcely were we got out of a voluntary and formal renunciatiou the city, before we received two) of the throne, wrote by his own letters from the late emperor, one hand, for the public fatisfaction. quick on the heels of the other. Major general Ismailoff carried this The first-by our vice-chancellor the proposal, and now behold the prince Gallitzin, entreating us to writing which he sent back. allow him to return to Holltein, his native dominions; the other by ma- During the phort space of my abjor general Michel Ismailoff, by folute reign over the empire of Ruffia, which he declared, that of his own I became sensible that I was not abla proper motion he renounced the to support fo great a burthen, and crown and throne of Russia. In that my abilities flere nos equal to the this last he begged of us to allow tak of governing so great an empire, him to withdraw to Holstein with either as a sovereign, or in any

other Elizabeth Worontzoff Goudowickcapacity whatever. I also foresaw These two laft letters, fuffed with the great troubles which must have flattering expressions, came to our from thence aroje, and have been folhands a few hours after he had lowed with the rotal ruin of the em

pire, and covered me with eternal dif- itself within limited and proper grace. After having therefore seri- bounds ;, and each department of only reflected thereon, I declare, with the state provided with wholsome out constraint, and in the most folemn laws and regulations, sufficient ta manner, to the Ruffian empire, and to maintain good order therein, at all the whole universe, that I for ever re- times, and under all circumstances. nounce the government of the said em- By which means we hope to esta pir never desiring hereafter to reign blith hereafter, the 'empire and our therein, either as an absolute love- sovereign power, (however they reigin, or under any other form of ga- may have been formerly weakened) vernment ; never wishing to aspire in such a manner as to comfort the thereto, to use any means, of any fort, discouraged hearts of all true pafor that purpose. As a pledge of triots. We do not in the least doubt which I swear fincerely before God but that our loving subjects will, as and all the world, to this present re

well for the salvation of their own nunciation, wrote and signed this souls, as for the good of religion, 29th of June, 1762, O. S. inviolably observe the oath which

they have sworn to us in presenee, P ET ER. of the Almighty God; we there

upon

affure them of our imperial It is thus, without spilling one favour. drop of blood, that we have afcended the Russian throne, by the Done at Petersburg, July 6, 1762. afbftance of God, and the approving suffrages of our dear country. Her imperial majesty's declaration, Humbly adoring the decrees of Di- Esc, on the death of the emperor vine Providence, we assure our her husband, faithful subjects, that we will not fail, by night, and by day, to in- WECatherine II.

by the grace of voke the Most High to bless our God, empress and autocratress scepter, and enable us to wield it of all the Russias.-Greeting, &c. for the maintenance of our ortho- The 7th day after our accession dox religion, the security and de- to the throne of all the Russias, we fence of our dear native country, received information, that the late and the support of justices as well emperor Peter III. by the means of as to put an end to all miseries, ini- a bloody accident in his hinder quities, and violences, by strength parts, commonly called piles, to ening and fortifying our heart for which he had been formerly subjects the public good. And as we ar- obtained a moft violent, griping, dently wish to prove effe&tually how cholic. That therefore we might far we merit the reciprocal love of not be wanting in Chriftian duty, our people, for whose happiness we nor disobedient to the holy comacknowledge our throne to be ap- mandment by which we are obliged pointed, we folemnly promise, on to preserve the life of our neighour imperial word, to make such bour, we immediately ordered that arrangements in the empire, that the said Peter should be furnishad the government may be endued with every thing that might be with an intrinsic force to support judged necessary to prevent the

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dangerous

dangerous consequences of that ac- to a conclusion, are, on the con. cident, and to reitore his health by trary, gathering fresh strength to the succours of medicine. But to the great misfortune of the several our great regret and affliction we nations; and that mankind has so learned yesterday evening, that by much the more to suffer from this the permission of the Almighty, the scourge, as the fortune of arms, late emperor departed this life. We which has been hitherto fubject to have theref're ordered his body to so many vicisitudes, is equally exbe transported to the monastery of posed to them for the future Newsky, in order to its being bu- Wherefore his imperial majesty, ried there. At the same time with compassionating, through his huour imperial and motherly voice, mane disposition, the effufion of wa exhort out faithful fubje&ts to innocent blood, and being defirous, forget and forgive what is pait, to on his part, of putting a top to so pay the last duties to his body, and great an evil, has judged it necefto pray to God fincerely for the sary to declare to the courts in allipeace of his soul; beseeching them, ance with Russia, that, preferring however, at the same time to confi- to every other confideration, the der this unexpected and sudden first law which God prescribes to death as a special effe&t of the Di- fovereigns, which is the preservavine Providence, whofe decrees pre- tion of the people intrufted to them, pare for us, for our throne, and he wishes to procure peace to his for our country, things only known empire, to which it is fo necessary, to his holy will.

and of fo great value; and, at the

fame time, to contribute, as much Done at St. Petersburg, July is. as may be in his power, to the re

establishment of it throughout all Europe.

It is in order to this, that his imPapers relating to the re-establishment perial majesty is ready to make a of peace.

facrifice of the conquefts made by

the arms of Russia, in this war, in Declaration delivered by the emperor hopes that the allied courts will, on

of Russia's order, to ibe imperial, their part, equally prefer the restoFrench, and Swedish ministers re

ration of peace and tranquility, to siding at St. Petersburg.

the advantages, which they might

expect from the war, and which HIS IS imperial majesty, who, up- they cannot obtain but by the con

on his happy accession to the tinuance of the effusion of human throne of his ancestors, looks

blood. And to this end his im

upon it to be his principal duty to extend perial majesty, with the belt intenand augment the welfare of his fub- tion, advises them to employ, on jects, fees with extreme regret, that their fide, all their power towards the flames of the present war,

the accomplifhinent of fo great and which has already continued for fix fo falutary a work. years, and has been for a long time burthenfome to all the powers en

St. Petersburg, Feb. ', 1762. gaged in it, far from tending now

TW

tion of his subjects a duty to him, The answer of the empress-queen to cannot make him forget the first ibe foregoing declaration. law that God prescribes to love

reigns, even that which constitutes THAT animated with the same the public safety, and fixes the con

zeal, and being of the same opi. dition of nations and empires, fidenion, as his imperial majesty, with lity in executing treaties, and puncregard to the falutary work of tuality in performing engagements peace, and to the putting an end to to their full extent, preferably to the troublcs and ravages that deso- every other consideration. late Germany, he was ready to 'Tis with this view, that, after concur with him therein; but that, having given fo great examples of for that end, the desired his impe- constancy and generosity, his majerial majesty to furnish her with ine fty declares that he is ready to listen means of beginning the negotiation, favourably to propofitions for a soby imparting to her the proposed lid and honourable peace, but will terins of peace, which he would, always act in the most perfect conwithout loss of time, communicate cert with his allies ; that he will re. to her high allies, who, as well as ceive no counsels but such as shall herself, would be always ready to be dictated to him by honour and co-operate in a matter so much de- probity; that he should think himfired, provided the terms were not self guilty of a defection, in lendinadmisible, and con-ained nothing ing a hand to secret negotiations ; injurious either to their honour, or that he will not tarnith his glory, her honour.

and that of his kingdom, by aban

doning his allies; and that he rests The answer given by the French afured each of the a will, on their court to the declaration. part, faithfully adhere to the fame

principle. T HE king maintaining, with

regret, these fix years part, a two-fold war for his own defence Answer given by the king of Poland, and that of his allies, has sufficient- elektor of Sazony, to the same de ly manifested, on every occasion, claration. how much he abhors thc effusion of human blood, and his constant de

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allies wish as mich as fire to put an end to fo cruel a myself, that the pubic tranquil. scourge. His personal disinterested- lity may be restored upon folid ness, the steps which he thought foundations. It is well known to could be taken consistent with his all Europe, that I did not seek the dignity, and the sacrifices which war; but, on the contrary, e.nploy. he did offer, in order to procure to

ed every means to keep the calamiEurope the desireable blessing of ties of it at a distance from my dopeace, are sure pledges of the hu- minions. My love to mankind in mane sentiments with which his general, and to my own subjects in heart abounds. But, at the fame particular, ought to engage me to time, his paternal tenderness which facilitate as much as in me lies, the makes the happiness and preserva- restoration of peace, and to exer

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