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and his Comrades,' have since made them familiar to habits of morality and piety; their colony improved, most readers.

intermarriages occurred, and they soon formed a happy It appeared that Christian, after having possessed him and well-regulated society-the merit of which belongg self of the Bounty, and while sailing away from Tahiti, to Adams, and tends to redeem the errors of his former adrisedly selected Pitcairn's Island for his destination life. He died, honoured and respected, on the 4th March on reading Captain Carteret's account of it,* which was 1829, aged sixty-five. in the library of the Bounty. On January 1790 he Such was the information obtained by Captain Becchy. reached it, and landed all the stores from the ship, in- He found, on surveying the island, that it was no more tending to destroy her, and with her all trace of the than about seven miles in circumference, the abrupt whereabouts of himself and his companions. Once rocky coast rising to about 1050 feet above the sea. established on the island, they felt their condition com- The population had then augmented to eighty persons, fortable even beyond their most sanguine expectation; who, being descendants of Europeans and native women, and everything went on peaceably and prosperously for still form an interesting link in person, intellect, and about two years, when Williams, who had the misfor- habits between the European and Polynesian races. tune to lose his wife about a month after his arrival, They are tall and robust, with black glossy hair. Since by a fall from a precipice while collecting birds'-eggs, Captain Beechy's visit, ships are constantly touching at became dissatisfied, and threatened to leave the island the island. in one of the boats of the Bounty unless he had another We now come to the most recent account of the little wife-an unreasonable request, which could not be com- colony. This, singularly enough, is supplied by the sucplied with except at the expense of one of his compa- cessor of the first ship sent out to seek the Bountynions; but Williams persisted in his threat, and the Eu. namely, the Pandora, which arrived at Portsmouth only ropeans, not willing to part with him, on account of his a few months ago. She touched at Pitcairn's Island in usefulness as an armourer, constrained one of the blacks July, and found that its population had increased to 149 to bestow his wife upon the applicant. The rest of the souls; seventy-five males, and seventy-four females. Of male natives, outrageous at this act of flagrant injustice, these we have seen the following interesting analysis :made common cause with their companion, and matured | The oldest inhabitant’is a Tahitian woman, aged eighty, a plan of revenge upon their aggressors.

widow of Edward Young the midshipman. There are Their plot was revealed to the wives of the Europeans, also two men of the first generation-one of them a son and these ladies naturally, in such a desolate place, set of John Adams, named Arthur; and the other a son of too much value on their husbands not to give warning. Mathew Quintal, named George. There are also seven feThe method in which they apprised these men of their males of the first generation, of whom three are daughters danger is very characteristic and primitive, bringing to of Adams, and the rest of Fletcher Christian, Young, mind a scene in the Lady of the Lake.' They intro- Mills, and M'Coy. The remainder are children of the duced into one of their songs the following words :- second and third generation. There are eight marriage

Why does black man sharpen axe? To kill white man.' able males, and seven marriageable females.
But the warning was unheeded, and all but three of the Other information brought by the Pandora reveals that,
party were murdered, including Christian.

during the last five years, one-fifth of the population
After this things went on pretty smoothly, till M'Coy, have been born. The healthiness of the climate may be
who had been employed in a distillery in Scotland, tried judged of from the low rate of mortality. Since 1831
an experiment with the tea-root, and succeeded in pro- there have been only sixteen deaths: four of them acci.
ducing a bottle of ardent spirits. This induced Quintal dental, four of fever, one of disease of the car, one of the
to alter his kettle into a still, and the natural conse- heart, one of cancer, one of consumption, two of influenza,
quences ensued. Like the philosopher who destroyed one in childbirth, and one in infancy. The diseases most
himself with his own gunpowder, M'Coy, intoxicated to prevalent are asthma and catarrh, which prevail mostly
frenzy, threw himself from a cliff, and was killed; and among the females ; bilious attacks are frequent, but
Quintal, having lost his wife by accident, demanded slight, and easily give way to treatment. Influenza had
the lady of one of his two remaining companions. This visited the island during the last seven years, and caused
modest request having been refused, he attempted to two deaths.
murder his countrymen ; but they, having discovered his The inhabitants are industrious, especially the females.
intention, agreed that as Quintal was no longer a safe They all rise with the sun, and retire to rest very early.
member of their community, the sooner he was out of The men are occupied chiefly in cultivating the ground
the way the better : accordingly, they split his skull | and carpentering; several of the young men are good at
with an axe. Adams and Young were now the sole cabinet-work and as blacksmiths. From August to No.
survivors out of the fifteen males that landed upon the vember they have plenty of employment, digging yams,
island. They were both, and more particularly Young, also planting them, with bananas and potatoes, weeding,
of a serious turn of mind; and it would have been won- &c.; and when not busily employed, they generally meet
derful, after the many dreadful scenes at which they had in the morning, and if the weather is favourable, go
assisted, if the solitude and tranquillity that ensued had fishing; while on Saturdays they go out hunting for the
not disposed them to repentance. During Christian's Sunday's dinner. The Sabbath is still kept most strictly.
lifetime they only once read the church service; but since The females usually assist in the cultivation of the
his decease this had been regularly done every Sunday. ground, preparing thatch for the houses, and, in fact, are
They now, however, resolved to have morning and even. more employed than the men; they are generally very
ing family prayers; to add afternoon service to the duty strong, many of them being able to carry a barrel of po-
of the Sabbath; and to train up their own children, and tatoes down to the landing-place, the path to which is
those of their late unfortunate companions, in piety and very rugged and steep, and in the rainy season very diffi-
virtue. In the execution of this resolution, Young's cult to ascend or descend.
education enabled him to be of the greatest assistance; The food of the inhabitants is chiefly yams and po-
but he was not long suffered to survive his repentance, tatoes, animal food two or three times a week. Fish is
having died soon after. Adams steadily and successfully becoming scarce. Bedclothes are generally manufactured
continued the good work which he and his late compa- by the females from a species of mulberry. Wearing ap-
nion had begun.

parel they obtain from the whale ships, in exchange for the The children acquired such a thirst after Scriptural produce of the island. Cotton cloth is much wanted, and knowledge, that Adams in a short time had little else amongst the other scarce articles are blankets, woollens, to do than answer their interrogatories, and put them in and soap. the right way. As they grew up, they acquired fixed The jurisprudence of this primitive community is ex

ceedingly simple. On the first day of each year a chief * Carteret discovered Pitcairn's Island in the corvette the Sweal- magistrate and councillor are elected; all persons, male

Tlo low in 1766. An account of his voyage was afterwards drawn up,

and female, over sixteen years of age, being voters. together with Cook's first voyage, and published by llawkesworth. chief magistrate then chooses his counsellor or secretary.

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BY PERCY B. ST JOHN.

His duty is to convene meetings, and to preside over place in the world. To this may be ascribed the gratifycourts assembled to settle disputes. These, after the ing tenacity with which the people preserve their simple hearing of each side, are referred to a jury of five persons, virtues and modesty. May the day be far distant when who return a regular verdict. In criminal cases, the the vices of other nations find their way among them! punishments are either labour or fines. If in civil dis- We augur nothing favourable, however, from the visit of putes the decision of the jury is not satisfactory to both the ship on its way to California-to and from which it parties, they are allowed to appeal to the commander of is not much out of the main track. It is to be hoped the first of her majesty's ships of war which may touch at that the crimes of the diggings' may never be imported the island. A reference made to Captain Beechy while among the descendants of the crew of the Bounty. there, less on a judicial matter than on a point of conscience, is a touching instance of the scrupulous regard these people have for a vow, even when inconsiderately

CAPTAIN THING AMY, made :-wives, it may be imagined, are very scarce, as the same restrictions with regard to relationship exist as in England. George Adams, son of the patriarch, in his A PoEt has urged that there is very little in a nameearly days had fallen in love with Polly Young, a girl a remarking that a rose by any other name would be little older than himself; but Polly, probably at that equally odoriferous. I am sufficiently barbarous in my time liking some one else, and being at the age when tastes to differ from the great poetical philosopher, and in young ladies' expectations are at the highest, had incau- defence of my own ideas, narrate the following story, tiously said she never would give her hand to George which is strictly historical, and may be found in a few Adams. He nevertheless indulged a hope that she would lines in several records of the French navy. It will at one day relent, and to this end was unremitting in his all events prove that a name may be a very dangerous endeavours to please her. In this expectation he was not thing at times, and place the owner of it in awkward mistaken; his constancy and attentions as he grew into and uncomfortable predicaments. My illustration is not manhood, his handsome form, softened Polly's heart into singular, and is selected from many, because it contains a regard for him, and had nothing passed before, she certain subsidiary incidents likely to interest. would willingly have given him her hand. But the vow At the very height of the revolutionary fever of 1792, of her youth was not to be got over, and the love-sick and when nearly all the remnants of old families had couple languished on from day to day, victims of the folly emigrated from France to seek refuge in Germany and of early resolutions. The weighty case was referred for England from a torrent they had not the heart nor Captain Beechy’s consideration; and the fears of the chivalry to stein, there remained some few exceptions. party were in some measure relieved by the result, A few, like Rouget de l'Isle, the author of the - Marwhich was, that it would be much better to marry than seillaise,' remained in the mother country, and, indifferent to continue unhappy, in consequence of a hasty deter- to the changes of government which popular feeling had mination made before the judgment was matured. They brought about, determined to serve their native land, no could not, however, be prevailed on to yield to this matter by what name the central authority might be decision, and the Blossom left them unmarried. Love, designated. Among those who did not consult this prehowever, eventually proved too strong for overwrought dilection as to whether it was less proper to serve the principle; and a letter from Pitcairn's Island, dated 19th Convention than Louis XVI., was a young noble, by March 1830, stated that George Adams was married to name Count Le Roy Louis dé St Cyr-a designation as Polly Young, and had two sons.

fitting for the day as would have been Lord King Charles Since Captain Beechy's visit, the average number of St Peter in the time of Praise-God-Barebones. In 1792 ships which anchor off the island has been eight or nine all appellations which relished of the old state of things per annum, mostly Americans, who, it is satisfactory to had vanished. The word citizen? had effaced ‘sir;' state, are reported to behave well without exception. The and Brutus, Scævola, Scipio, Rienzi, and other names last vessel that touched there was an English brig from celebrated in history, had taken the place of the Jeans New Zealand, bound to California with emigrants, there and Jacques, and especially the Louises, which were held being eight English women amongst them. On the in abhorrence. Streets and towns to which Saint was arrival of a ship on the island, no one is allowed to go afticed had dropped the handle to their names, while inns on board before the pilot, who takes charge of the boats and trades made prominent by signs had all adopted when landing, and provides for the captain when on patriotic designations. shore; each family in rotation furnishing a pilot, or pro- Count Le Roy Louis dé St Cyr was a brave and able viding a substitute, who always expects a small remune- naval officer. By the desertion of all the other nobles, ration from visitors for his service.

who composed almost exclusively the officers of the We have also gleaned the following particulars of the navy before the Revolution, he found himself at firesoil, culture, and meteorology of Pitcairu's Island :— The and-twenty captain of the magnificent frigate Venus, soil is very rich, but porous; a great proportion decom- manned by as terrible a crew as ever volunteered to eat posed lava, the other a rich, black earth and clayey up the English for their country's good. He alone was ground. The climate is temperate; the thermometer what was called a ci-devant--that is an ex-, meaning an from 59 to 89 degrees in the shade. The spring coni. ex-noble. All his subordinates were young officers who mences in August, which is harvest-time, and yams and had served before the mast, and who had more expepotatoes are dug; and of potatoes there are two crops rience than manners, more nautical knowledge than a year, which are planted in February and July, and dug theoretical education. The French navy was at this time in June and November. There are no regular trade under a strange discipline. The officers were appointed winds : in the summer months the wind prevails mostly by the state, but the crew always confirmed or rejected from east-south-east to north. Northerly winds are gene the appointment at their will.' The foremast-men and rally light, often accompanied with rain or fog. When petty officers were hot patriots, wore red caps, and had the wind is north, it invariably goes round to the west- their clubs on board, those of the extreme revolutionary ward, from which quarter, and south-east, the strongest party being always in the majority. Long discussions gales prevail. With wind from south-west, it is gene. were held on all points concerning the service. The rally clear weather with moderate breezes. In winter amount of respect to be shown to officers was rigorously the prevailing winds are south-west to east-south-east. discussed, as well as the amount of obedience. Of course The animal and regetable productions of the island the superiors were thee and thou'd without mercy, while are-goats, hogs, and poultry; yams, sweet potatoes, the in few ships was it usual to touch the hat when speaking api-root and tano in small quantities; plantains, pines, to them. Moreover, the men freely asked a reason for any melons, oranges, bread-fruit, sugar-canes, limes, and the order they received, and, until it was given, refused obeBrazilian plum. The only grain is maize.

dience, except in cases of urgency. This extraordinary From its distance from any other of the islands in position of affairs would at any other time have totally Polynesia, Pitcairn's Island is perhaps the most isolated I disorganised the service, and annihilated the efficiency of

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the navy; but at this moment of brief but wild enthu- "Monsieur le Comte !' said Boutard, looking with an
siasm its effects were scarcely ever bad. Luckily the air of regret at his favourite pipe.
system did not outlive the enthusiasm.

'I think you said monsieur and count!' observed St
The Venus lay in the harbour of Brest, undergoing Cyr with good-natured irony.
some necessary refitting, which promised to occupy a * I beg pardon, Citoyen Capitaine ; but why do you
month, and Captain St Cyr, whose department this did joke with me!'
not essentially concern, resided ashore, the more willingly •Citizen Boutard, or rather Papa Boutard, I am so
that he was not quite as well as might have been wished. much in earnest, that if you wont have me, I shall use
Young, handsome, elegant in person and manners, the the right which the law gives me; and taking your
ex-noble was, however, sufficiently sensible to adopt all daughter by the hand, ask the justice to unite us. But
the habits of the times. It was to his scrupulous ob- all joking apart, my dear friend, I love your child; if
servance of trifles, and by other qualities, that he had she can find it in her heart to take me, and you to
escaped prison and death, although bearing a name permit our union, this will be the happiest day of niy
which was, in the days of the guillotine, a living and life.'
hourly condemnation. But the young man was mild, But Monsieur le Comte, this is impossible ! Your
affable, and unassuming. Brave as a lion on his deck, rank, your family, your?-
and obeyed with passive respect by his men, he had * Ta, la, la !' cried Captain St Cyr, stopping the be-
never fought a duel. While his creiv had gruff answers wildered saddler: 'why, you are talking treason by the
enough for the newly-raised officers, who spoke their own yard. Recollect that we are under a Republic, that all
language, and whose manners were their own, they never distinctions are abolished, and that to say what you

have presumed upon the license of the times with St Cyr. just said in public would cost you your head !' Several infractions of discipline had been firmly punished • But, wife,' said Boutard more astonished than ever, by him after a trial before a jury of half officers, half do I hear aright? Is it possible? And you, child ?' men, who, led by the calm statement of their captain, The Citoyenne Boutard made no reply, being too much always decided according to his opinion. But he never astonished to speak ; while Lucrezia bowed her head punished without good cause, and was adored by his men, almost to the table, as if wiping away the blots on her who, if they were licentiously free, were ill-paid and ill- paper. fed enough to afford them an excuse for being unruly. My dear friend, continued St Cyr, 'yes or no?'

On shore the captain was equally clever and popular. Yes, yes ! proud and happy father that I am! But He lodged with a saddler named Boutard, and even took speak, child: it is for you to answer.' his meals with the family, composed of the father, I have always been an obedient daughter,' said mother, and a very pretty daughter, whose name had Lucrezia in a low and almost inaudible tone. been changed from Antoinette to Lucrezia. Lucrezia was "That is not enough,' said the honest saddler more a charming innocence, as the French say, of nineteen- calmly. - 'I married your mother because she lored me, sprightly, handsome, good-hearted, and pure- minded. and because she wished it, I hope, as much as I did; and Her education had been neglected; but Captain St Cyr we have never repented. My daughter-my only childwas so good-natured, that, for the eighteen inonths he shall not marry to please her father. Speak, girl; am I had at long intervals lodged in the house, he had anused to refuse? I am ready, though a wish I never dared to himself by making up for this deficiency. The family hope for can now be realised.? adored their lodger, as worthy people always do when Speak, Lucrezia ?' put in the captain humbly. they have a nice young man under such paternal sway; I never ventured- couldn't hope,' said the daughter, but, despite the republican severity of the times, and the sobbing in her mother's arms; “but I should have died undoubted civism of Citizen Boutard, they reverenced if the captain had married any one else.? the noble, and, despite all his advances, had never ven- This answer of the agitated girl satisfied all parties. tured on familiarity with him. They delighted in his The naval officer was enraptured, the parents delighted; urbanity; they proclaimed his admirable democratic man- and Lucrezia -- who had never suspected the longners everywhere; but they, one and all, remembered the cherished passion of the young count, but who, seeing distance which society had placed between them only him every day, had unconsciously entwined her heart twenty-four months previously. Old Boutard spoke to round his existence- was painfully happy, so much had the young man with dogged respect; the Citoyenne or the scene taken her by surprise. Citizeness Boutard with affectionate respect; while Lu- It was late when the captain went to his coffee-house, crezia addressed him always as a being who was too great which he found full. The end of the ex-king's trial was and mighty for fainiliar intercommunion. Nothing that approaching, and the public mind had been worked up young St Cyr could do altered this state of things. to a perfect frenzy of excitement. The Paris papers of Every morning and every afternoon the young officer took the day were actually fought for by the eager quid. his breakfast and dinner with his landlord, put Lucrezia nuncs. The captain took his seat in a corner, heard in the way of her studies, and then retired to his own. all the reports of the day, and then entered into conThe evening he spent partly at a club, and partly at a versation with some of his friends. While talking, he coffeehouse, where he read the news from Paris, now of noticed a young man--a provision-merchant of his own a truly tremendous character. Haring perused the street-advance towards him with some companions in papers, chatted with the habitual visitors, chiefly naval | loud conversation. Marcus Brutus Cauchard was one of officers, he returned to the Rue du Dix Août-so called the followers of Marat, and president of the Cordeliers in commemoration of the 10th of August, the date of the Club at Brest. More from mad and frenzied ardour than overthrow of the monarchy--and supped with his host's cruelty, he denounced all suspicious persons with eager family. His visits to his ship were performed at dawn. and furious haste, and had sent many a victim to the

One day after dinner, Captain Le Roy Louis dé St Cyr scaffold. His influence with the mob was great ; and sat at the table of the Citoven Boutard longer than though more moderate people were in the majority, by usual. He did not speak. He was in a profound reverie, dint of energy and loud talking the minority was geneand his companions religiously respected his silence. The rally master. Marcus aspired to the hand of Lucrezia; old man smoked away, the inother knitted a stocking, and though always repelled by the young girl, still looked the daughter copied some manuscript music which the upon success as certain. The imprudent and proud naval officer had borrowed froin a friend.

Boutard had himself undeceived him; and the enraged *Citoyen Boutard,' suddenly exclaimed the captain, provision - merchant went in search of his rival, with a starting from his reverie,“ have you any objection to treacherous and base scheme in his head. take me for a son-in-law !!

*Hast heard, Citizen Pontius Pilate,' said he to a The honest saddler let his pipe fall to the ground, and hideous Jew who was his toady, 'of the festival for to. shivered it to atoms; the goodwife dropped some two or morrow? It is to celebrate the Age of Reason. We must three dozen stitches; while Lucrezia turned white and have a better goddess than the theatre can give us. Who red, and smeared her whole paper with blots.

votes for Lucrezix, the beauty of Brest!'

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*All !-all!' cried most of the persons in the café. * We wont quarrel about particles, Citizen President; ' And what sayest thou, captain ?' continued Cauchard. I suppress the dé. Applause greeted this sally.

That the excellent citoyenne cannot, and will not, . But the St Cyr?' cried the judge.. Are not saints perform the part which requires a bolder and more abolished also ?' experienced actress.'

Ma foi! I don't know,' replied the captain, 'not Dost hear the aristoc ?' cried Marcus with fury. 'He having the honour of these gentlemen's acquaintance, thinks the young lady too delicate to do honour to the except it be St Barbe (the powder magazine). But I cut Republic.'

off the St, and remain the Citizen Cyr.' Not to serve the Republic as a good daughter and an Not so, screamed the enraged but indefatigable judge; excellent wife, but too delicate to be made the subject of Cyr is an epithet of royalty.' (Cyr and Sire are proa coffee-house quarrel.'

nounced the same in French.) And the captain quietly left the place. Two hours “Let us then abolish the Cyr,' said the officer quietly, later, he was arrested under the terrible accusation of and I remain (aptain nothing, or-stay-I must have a being a suspected person, which in most cases was equi- name, and I can't think of borrowing one. Henceforth, valent to condemnation to death.

Citizen President, I take and assume the name of CapMarcus Brutus Cauchard was a member of the terrible tain Chose, tribunal which at Brest decided on the fitness of its in- Roars of laughter, inextinguishable, tumultuous, greeted habitants for the guillotine or for liberty; and the very this assumption of the name of Captain Thingamy or next morning the naval captain was brought before the Thingumbob, the only translation of Captain Chose in bench of judges, the denouncer sitting apart to guide the English; and the judges saw that the populace had given process. The captain was calm and firm, though pale their verdict, which they dared not impugn. Still the with having passed a sleepless night. His colour soon irate and vindictive Marcus determined on one last effort, came, however, when he saw his beloved Lucrezia, her and the president became his organ. father and mother, among the dense crowd which filled . Prisoner, certainly the name of Captain Chose, the the large hall. The judges were seren, and sat at a affianced husband of the Citoyenne Boutard, is civic green-baize table, Marcus being behind them. The public enough; but I have one more crime to accuse thee of: accuser stood at one end, the prisoner at the other. A thou art the captain of a fine frigate, christened by the dozen gensdarmes kept order.

satellites of the monarchy the Venus. Why hast thou • Prisoner,' said one of the judges, 'thou art accused not adopted some more patriotic epithet?' of being an ex-noble, the son of a duke and duchess." * Citizen President, I found my frigate with this name,

• Citizen President, I didn't choose my father and and with a figure-head representing the celebrated lady mother.'

in question. But I bow to thy objection, Citizen Presi. The audience laughed. The captain was a clever man: dent, and taking into consideration the wants of the he knew very well that in that time of popular omni- times, and the peculiar habiliments of the so-called god. potence he must speak to the populace : they were his dess, I give notice that Captain Chose is henceforth comreal judges.

mander of the Sans-culottes!! *Thy observation is correct, citizen; but except retain- The delight of the crowd was intense. "Vive le Capiing thy pay as an officer, what proof of civism and devo- taine Chose !' “Vive la République !! Vive la Belle tion to the Republic hast thou given?'

Sans-culottes !' roared the hoarse voices of the people, and 'I have offered my sword to iny country; and to prove in five minutes more the naval officer was carried away in my contempt for the rank you make a crime, I was triumph. The sailor's joke about Venus's want of panyesterday accepted as the husband of Lucrezia Boutard, taloons, and the happy application of the popular epithet the lovely daughter of an honest, hard-working citizen.' assumed by all extra - warm patriots, excited frenzied

The audience murinured their applause, Marcus ground enthusiasm, and the chairing only ended at the townhis teeth, and the judges looked puzzled.

hall, where the despotic but good-humoured populace "Very proper abnegation of pride,' continued the judge, insisted the marriage should take place that day, and at after being refreshed by Marcus. But thou wilt not once, The escape of the cool and self-possessed captain deny that thou art called Le Roy Louis dé St Cyr?' was too rare and happy an occurrence not to silence all Certainly not.

scruples, and in two hours more the marriage was cele. Ah, ha!' said the president with a look of triumph, brated, being secretly performed over again by a priest. while many of the crowd growled forth their dislike, The minister of marine, informed of the event, sent a thou insultest the nation by such a name!'

brevet of commander-equal to our post-captain, I beI didn't give myself these names.'

lieve-to Captain Chose, and the name remained. Under • But thou wilt not deny, prisoner, that the nation the Empire the naval officer retired to the wreck of his having abolished the title Le Roy (old spelling of Le estates with his wife, while at the Restoration, offended at Roi), thou art guilty of insult in preserving it in thy remarks made about the original rank of his spouse, he name.'

never resumed his titles. He proudly preserved his name ' Citoyen, the truth of thy observation is as plain as legalised under the Republic, and which, though not very thy wisdom. Henceforth I suppress the king?

common, is yet frequently to be found. A happy marThe audience grinned good-humouredly. The judges riage Marcus Cauchard made that day, and all Brest

long remembered Captain Thingamy of the Sans-culottes. * But, citizen-and I recommend thee to be respectful -if thou abolishest the king, thou preservest the hated name of Louis, abhorred by all Frenchmen.'

THE GOTHA ALMANAC. "Why hated ?' said the captain, smothering his indig- Modern historians, politicians, and newspaper editors, nation, for he respected the misfortunes of Louis XVI. owe a thousand obligations to a compact pocket-annunl, while adhering to the government of his enemies. which has been printed and published for the last eighty

Why hated ? thundered the delighted judge;' be seven years in Prince Albert's birthplace. For its size cause it is the name of a tyrant now being tried for his -(it is only about 5 inches by 4; and though it contains crimes.'

some 800 pages, is not inconveniently thick)--the "Al. * Thou speakest of the Citoyen Capet,' observed the manach de Gotha'is one of the most remarkable perio. naval officer, adopting the popular style.

dicals extant. But being a calendar of states and nations, Still,' cried the president, annoyed by another general the rolume for 1850, recently imported, is made more grin, it is the name he once went by.'

remarkable than most of its predecessors, from the “Let us then consider it suppressed. Le Roy Louis changes in principalities and empires which the past year gone, I remain with an easier name.'

has produced. This is in some measure attested by the “ Prisoner,' continued the judge, again prompted by fourteen densely-printed pages of additions et changeMarcus, thou art next called de St Cyr; now is an ments,' occasioned by events which took place while the aristocratic adjunct.'

edition was passing through the press.

looked angry.

The Almanach de Gotha brings the political, statis- certain titles, but can it destroy the historic importance,
tical, and historical geography of nearly the world in gene- efface the noble reminiscences which the heritors of these
ral down to the latest date. Immediately succeeding the names preserve and call up? I doubt it.' With this
usual monthly calendar is a genealogy of each European flattering unction, the author-following the rule, that
sovereign, with a list of his living relations. Then comes whenever a concession is contemplated, it should be
a catalogue of such offshoots of royalty in every part of yielded gracefully and unreservedly-has adorned his
Europe as are not regnant-together with their collaterals. present year's labours with a portrait of the president of
So that if you wish to find out the precise degree of con- the French republic; but, like Gregory in "Romeo and
sanguinity enjoyed by the remotest cousin to royalty, this Juliet,' in order to have the law on his side,' he quotes
almanac will give the requisite information. To each the paragraphs of the constitution by which the pre-
head of a family is added short statistical notices of the sident and vice-president are elected. The other portraits
extent, revenues, and number of inhabitants in their are those of the young Emperor of Austria (Francis
various possessions.

Joseph), Marshal Radetzky, Alexandra, Grand Duchess
The next department—the annuaire diplomatique-en- of Russia, and the king of lolland.
ables the inquirer to learn the name of every prominent Having admitted the principle of republics in general,

governmental employé not only in Europe, but in both the the compiler has patronised those of America, North and
|| Americas. It ranges in alphabetical order of each nation South, with copious notices; and which, by the law of

all the ministers of the principal European and Ameri- alphabetical arrangement, take precedence, and stand
can, and some of the Asiatic states, together with the first in the annuaire diplomatique. This rule has not
ambassadors and diplomatic agents. The statistical par- been, however, inflexible, as we shall presently see.
ticulars are extremely comprehensive : no words are lost; From the causes we have adverted to, the novelties in
but every detail which the diplomatist or politician may this edition of the annuaire statistique are more striking
wish to learn at a glance is cleverly compressed. Not than in any former volume. Out of the maze into which
only are the boundaries, extent, dependencies, &c. the revolution in Italy has tangled the numerous states
of every kingdom and principality marked down from of that country, the editor has managed to define and ap-
the latest treaties, but the population of each is portion them to their various owners with praiseworthy
enumerated from the most recent censuses. Where the clearness. The late federal constitution of Switzerland,
representative system exists, the proportion of represen- which has put a new political face on that country,
tatives to the people is also computed. The regal, diplo- rendered the stereotypes of the former alınanacs quite
matic, military, and naval expenditure, with the amount useless, and the article in the present volume is as en.
of debt, funded or unfunded, and interest payable thereon, tirely new as if Switzerland had been a country just dis-
is, moreover, set in each instance against the revenues. covered. The closing portion of the almanac is a chronicle

The slippery condition of the political world has evi- of the principal events which have transpired in various
dently put the editor's ingenuity to a severe test, and we parts of the globe from July 1848 to the end of Juno
cannot but admire the skill with which he has conquered 1849. This annual register, though compact rather than
the difficulty. Lest a dynasty should be changed, a complete, will be found useful for reference.
ministry overturned, or a parliament abolished while his The history of the Almanach de Gotha, since its first
printers are at work—and thus falsify his labours when publication in 1763, involves some curious circumstances,
but just consummated-he has put a date to each page; As we have already mentioned, at first it was so com-
so that he only holds himself responsible for the state of pletely a court calendar for Europe, that in 1792 it
things he sets down at these precise presents.' Indeed declined to admit the existence of the French Republic;
he is so particular on this point, that he tells us in the and continued year after year to print, immediately under
preface the exact time his work occupied in being printed. the head · France, Louis XVII. as the reigning monarch.
The impression,' he says, commenced on the 9th of The moment, however, Napoleon became right royal, and,
July, and ended on the 20th September. For his state by being proclaimed Emperor, qualified himself for a
ments respecting principalities and powers between those place in its pages, he figured in them, together with his
dates he pledges his reputation; but will not answer for whole family, down to his remotest cousins. So important
the future, nor even for what may happen while his an engine of public opinion did this conqueror deem the
sheets are drying. To show what mighty changes were little Gotha annual, that when French dominion at-
in progress while that simple process was in operation, tempted to force the French language into the literature
it is only needful to refer to the copious 'additions.' and law of Gerniany, it succeeded in putting this work
Even in this the editor has not been able to overtake the into a French dress; in which, from expediency, it has
existence of the newly-erected sable empire' of Hayti. ever since remained. Previously it had been issued solely

There is, however, a more sweeping perplexity which in the German language. It was then that statistics
the painstaking editor has had to grapple with, it being and the diplomatic lists were first registered hy the com-
one involving a vital principle. The Almanach de Gotha, mand of Napoleon, who almost became its editor; for he
it will be readily inferred, has ever been a right royal exercised a stringent supervision over the printers. In
publication : its very life-blood has been infused into it 1808 an edition had just been worked off, when a body
by kings and princes. Indeed its earliest numbers con- of French gensdarmes entered the office, and without con-
tained scarcely anything more than a list of the reigning descending to give a word of explanation, destroyed the
houses in Europe, the birthdays of kings and queens, the whole impression. The editor trembled, submitted, and
dates of their accession and their lineage. Conceive, then, hurried off to Paris. There he learned his offence-which
the hesitation and distaste with which the chronicler of was, simply, that in obedience to the same alphabetical law
kings must have been obliged at last to admit into his which has induced him this year to usher in kingdoms and
gazetteer-a republic. Except in the case of Switzerland principalities of ancient date with a young republic, he
(which has its special exceptions), the very name of such bad opened the Saxon-Ernest line of German princes with
à form of government has been necessarily ignored by this Anhalt, while the Emperor Napoleon--by that time • Pro-
regal record until the present year. To leave out France tector of the Rhenish Confederation--insisted on being
was of course impossible. Yet as titles are abolished in placed at the head of the Rhine nobles; that, in fact, the
that country, the main point of interest for this book alphabet should, by his express command, comience with
would have been taken away but for the graceful man- N. To insure these orders being carried out, the edition
ner in which the editor fills up this important hiatus. for that year was reprinted in Paris. Whether the im-
* Despite,' he says in his preface, the abolition of titles perial editor revised the proof-sheets of succeeding rum-
of the nobility which has been decided by the most recent bers is not stated; but certain it is that the chronology
revolution in France (I avoid, continues the learned gen- of the Almanach de Gotha is utterly silent on the
tleman in an arch parenthesis,' the expression the last '), successes of the Allies in the volumes in which these
I have reproduced in the Almanach the names of the ought to have been detailed. According to its records, the
illustrious French families which have hitherto figured in battle of Trafalgar and the Peninsular campaigns were
it. A decree may indeed for a time suppress the use of either a blank or a dream. On the other hand, during

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