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ILLUSTRATIONS OF SCRIPTURE.

its geographical situation. It was hy the gulf of Our cut represents a view of Suez, which by Suez that the commodities of India were formerly many is regarded as the spot where the Israelites conveyed to Europe, till the discovery of the passage

by the Cape of Good Hope converted that trade into crossed the Red sea.

a new channel. Suez is a small seaport town, situated near the As the isthmus of Suez, which separates the Red northern extremity of the Red sea, and about thirty sea from the Mediterranean, is not more than fiftyhours' journey east from Cairo. The country around seven miles, it has been frequently proposed to join it is a sandy plain, without the smallest spot of ver- these two seas together by a canal. As there are dure. The only water which can be drunk is brought no mountains nor remarkable inequalities of surface, from El-Naba, or the spring, at the distance of three this plan would appear at first view easy to be exehours journey, and it is very brackish. The town cuted. The great difficulty, however, arises from itself is a collection of miserable ruins, the kuhns the nature of the corresponding coasts of the Medibeing the only solid buildings; yet from March till terranean and the Red sea. which are low and sandy, June, the season when the Jidda and Yambo fleet where the waters form lakes, shoals, and morasses. arrives, the town becomes crowded; hut after its so that vessels cannot approach within a consideradeparture nobody remains except the governor, who ble distance. Hence it is scarcely possible to dig is a Mamaluke, iwelve or fourteen persons who form a permanent canal amid these shifting sands, and his household, and the garrison. The fortress is a the shore is destitute of harbours, which must be defenceless heap of ruins, which the Arabs consider entirely the work of art. The country, besides, has as a citadel, because it contains six brass four- | no fresh water, and, to supply the inhabitants, it pounders, and two Greek gunners, who turn their must be brought from the Nile. heads aside when they fire. The harbour is a The place on the west coast of the gulf of Suez, wretched quay, where the smallest boats are unable where the children of Israel are supposed to have to reach the shore, except at the highest tides. entered it, is called Badea, about six miles to the There, however, the merchandise is embarked, to north of Cape Korondel, on the other side of the convey it over the banks of sand to the vessels gulf, as is stated in a letter from the ingenious Edwhich anchor in the road. This road, situated a ward Wortley Montague, F. R. S., to Dr. Watson, league from the town, is separated from it by a containing an account of his journey from Cairo to shore, which is left dry at low water; it has no the Written mountains in the desert of Sinai. Opworks for its defence, so that the vessels, which M. posite to Badea is a strong current, which sets to the Volney tells us he has seen there to the number of opposite shore, about southeast, with a whirlpool iwenty-eight at a time, might be attacked without called Birque Pharnane, the well or pool of Pharoah, opposition ; for the ships themselves are incapable being the place where his host is said to have been of resistance, none having any other artillery than destroyed. We are told, hy the same gentleman, four rusty swivels.

that the Egyptian shore, froin Suez to Badea, is so Suez has always been, notwithstanding its local rocky and steep, that there was no entering upon the disadvantages, a place of great trade, on account of gulf but at one of these iwo places.

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trees.

THE WESTERN " BARRENS."

press-trees, and in several counties clumps of yel. BARRENs are a species of country of a mixed char- low-pine and cedar. On the Calumet, near the acter, uniting forest and prairie. They are cov- south end of lake Michigan, is a forest of small ered with scattered oaks, rough and stunted in their

The underwood growth consists principalappearance, interspersed with patches of hazel, ly of redbud, pawpaw, sumach, plum, crab-apple, brushwood, and rough grass. They appear to be the grape-vines, dogwood, spicebush, green brier, hazel, result of the contest which the fire is periodically úc. The trees in this state are very luxuriant in continuing with the timber. The appearance of this their growth, and are frequently found of a stupendescription of country led the early settlers of the dous size, particularly the cotton-wood and sycamore,

The black-lostate to suppose that the scantiness of the timber on the alluvial soil of the rivers. was owing to the poverty of the soil; and hence the cust, a native of Ohio and Kentucky, may be cultitle, thus ignorantly given, and calculated to convey

tivated from the seed, with less labour than a nurerroneous notions to our Eastern farmers, became of sery of apple-trees, of rapid growth and affording universal application to this extensive tract of coun- valuable and durable timber, it strongly commends try. It is ascertained, however, that these barrens itself to the attention of our farmers. It forms one of embrace as productive a soil as can be found in the the cleanliest, most beautiful, and pleasant shades; state-healthy, more rolling than the prairies, and when in the spring-time of its blossom, it presents abounding with that important requisite to desirable a rich and attractive appearance, and sends into farms, good springs. The fire visits these barrens the surrounding atmosphere a delicious fragrance. in the fall

, bui, owing to the insufficiency of the fuel, And here we might properly call the attention of is not able to destroy, entirely, the timber. The our farmers and agriculturists generally, to the subfarmer may settle, without hesitation or fear, in any ject of nurseries of fruit and ornamental trees. part of this species of land, where he can find timber With a soil remarkably adapted to their cultivation, suficient for his present purposes and wants; for and a country rapidly increasing in wealth, and the the soil is supposed to be better adapted to all the in consequent conveniences and luxuries of life, the terests of agriculture and the vicissitudes of the sea- enterprising arborist would receive the most grateful sons than the deeper and richer mould of bottom encouragement and profit for his labours ; increase, and prairie land. Where the fire is prevented from in this new and rapidly advancing state, the sources ils ravages, (as it easily can be by ihe occupant of of beauty and pleasure, and enjoy the gratification of the soil,) heavy timber springs up with a rapidity witnessing, in many a decorated yard and blushing which would be incredible to the northernemi- orchard, the rich and blooming monuments of his ingrant. High insulated bluffs, of a conical form, and dustry and taste. Nothing contributes so much to the exhibiting she appearance of connected ridges, rise beauty and attractions of the village-yard or cultiva. up from the bottoms, along the rivers which meander ted farm, as well-selected ornamenial trees in the and fertilize them: they are from one to three hun- one, and the extensive orchards of the finest fruit dred feet in height. Knobs of land, stony and often trees in the other. Art, with all its power to charm, rocky at their summits, are found along the rivers may embellish, but it cannot supply so great a source in some sections of the state, separated by deep ra

of abundant enjoyment.

Chicago American. vines. The prairies are often intersecied by ravines leading down to the streams. Deep sink-holes,

American Vine.—The expedition to the Rocky which serve to drain off the waters, are found in mountains found on the borders of the Arkansas near some parts, and prove that the substance is second the eastern side of the great desert, hundreds of ary limestone, abounding in subterraneous cavities. acres of the same kind of vine which produce the Very little that is denominated in the Eastern states wines of Europe.—The vines were growing in a stony ground is found in this state. There are quar- wild state and were surrounded with hillocks of sand, ries of stones in the bluffs, in the banks of the rising to within 12 or 18 inches of the end of the streams, and in the ravines. In the vicinity of Juli- branches. They were loaded with the most deliet, and many other promising villages, an abundance cious grapes, and the clusters were so closely arranof stone can be procured, admirably adapted to the ged as to conceal every part of the stem. These bilpurposes of building ; uniting durability with great locks of sand are produced by the agency of the vines, beauty and warmth. Timber, were it equally distrib- arresting the sand as it is borne along by the wind. uted in this slate, would be adequate to the necessities of the settlers. Its apparent scarcity, where the Iron Mountain in Missouri.-Mr. Featherstonhaugh, prairie prevails, is now considered not to be so great the geologist appointed by government, reports the an obstacle to settlement as has been generally im- discovery of a vein of iron on the United States' agined. Substitutes have been found for many of lands in Missouri, about one hundred and fifty feet the purposes to which timber is generally applied ; above the surface of the adjacent plain. At the surand the rapidity with which prairie, under the hand face, it had the appearance of being roughly paved of care and cultivation, becomes converted into for- with black pebbles of iron, from one to twenty ests of timber, affords a sure griarantee for the future. pounds' weight; beneath the surface it appeared to The kinds of timber most abundant in the state be a solid mass. He remarks :-“Unusual as is are oaks of the various species, black and white the magnitude of the superficial cubick contents of walnut, ash of the several varieties, elm, sugar-maple, this vein, yet it must be insignificant to the subterra. honey-locust, hackberry, linden, hickory, cotton- neous quantity. This extraordinary phenomenon filled wood, pecan, mulberry, buckeye, sycamore, cherry, me with admiration. Here was a single locality of box, elder, sassafras, and persimon. In the south- iron offering all the resources of Sweden, and of ern and eastern parts of the state, yellow-poplar which it was impossible to estimate the value by any and beech

may be found. Near the Ohio are cy- ! other terms than those adequate to all a nation's wants."

(For the Family Magazine.)

tial materials for Pennsylvania, and Gordon in parLITERARY REVIEW.

ticular is valuable for much recent information. The History and Topography of the United States of North Maryland presents us with Bozman; and very re

America, from the earliest period to the present time: edited cently we are informed that many documents of tion, with additions and corrections, by Samuel L. KNAPP. singular value, having regard to the early history of Illustrated with numerous engravings. 2 vols., 410. Boston, this state, have been discovered. North Carolina S. Walker.

possesses the history of Williamson, and the recent The European edition of Hinton's work on the production of Jones. Kentucky has been partly illusUnited States has been some three years before the trated by Drake ; South Carolina by Drayton ; Georpublick; the present revised and augmented copy has gia by M'Call; Virginia by Steth, Smith and Burk, but recently appeared. The American publisher Louisiana by Martin ; while, on the subject of the could scarcely have selected a more valuable and West and the Valley of the Mississippi, the works of opportune book for the American people, enriched Flint may be regarded as excellent authority. as the edition now before us is with a large body of Of a different order, and of vast value, is Doctor new and interesting materials, the results of ample Holmes' "American Annals.” Other books of the study and observation on the part of the excellent same character, and equally valuable, might be noeditor. When we state that the historical depart-ticed. Besides which, historical societies are springment is brought down to the time of the administra- ing up in several of the states : that of Massachution of President Jackson, and that the topographical setts, the parent, has discharged her duty by the and other matters, now first imbodied, have been publication of some twenty-four volumes, enriched derived from the latest authors on the natural history with durable materials, and is still marching onward and statisticks of our country, and that, in respect to in her praiseworthy efforts ; the society of New quantity, the American edition contains nearly double York, besides the publication of Smith's entire histhe amount of information embraced in the original tory, has printed three volumes of collections ; the of Mr. Hinton, while the original text remains unal- Rhode Island Historical Society, a new organization, tered, we discharge but a duty imposed on us in has just favoured the publick with her third volume assuming the office of criticism.

of collections, to the no small gratification of the disThe better to appreciate the services rendered to ciples of Roger Williams; the Pennsylvania HisMr. Hinton's popular work by the labours of the torical Society has also been not unmindful of its American editor, we must take a hasty glance at the important trust. Still more recently, we have bematerials which he had at command, as well as con- come acquainted with the formation of an historical sider those of his own more immediate elaboration. society in the district of Columbia; while the hisFortunately many of the individual states already torical societies of Virginia, and some others of the justly boast of their respective historians; and though southern states, possess many invaluable documents. some of these are by no means entitled to a high con- We are therefore in a fair way for providing for the sideration, they nevertheless have so far been avail. future wants of the American historian, in the best able as to secure for better preservation interesting possible manner that can be devised. documents and acknowledged facts of peculiar value. We have thus purposely confined ourselves to a Maine has already three writers who have appropri- hasty notice of the prominent historical materials ated some talent and research towards her history, now pretty generally diffused and of easy access. and Sullivan's work may be fairly ranked among the Our physical history is also awakening a correforemost of them. Dr. Belknap's New Hampshire sponding degree of attention ; and a formidable list is indubitable authority on that state. We have of names might be here inserted in demonstration Hutchinson and Minot on Massachusetts ; Vermont of the gratifying truth, that some of the best minds boasts the valuable efforts of Williams; Connecticut of the country are appropriated to the exposition of acknowledges her obligations to Trumbull; while our natural and inherent resources as a nation. the historian of New York, the late Chief-Justice But it is time to turn to the volumes before us. Smith, by his long-published history, with its con- Colonel Knapp does not pretend to examine, in extinuation, still more recently printed, and which tenso, this enlarged field of research: his prescribed brings down the history of the state to the adminis- limits forbid such an undertaking. He has, it would tration of Lieutenant-Ġovernour Colden in 1762, is appear, done all that could be practicable with such admitted to be the only standard of historical facts materials and for such a work as that now before us. yet set forth concerning this potent and important “In order the better to dispose of my materials," section of the American confederacy.* Besides says he, “I have looked with a becoming regard to Smith's work, long well known, New York has the statisticks and other information which the aubeen essentially aided by Colden's “ History of the thor has given of the several states, and under difFive Nations," and by Moulton's antiquarian re- ferent heads. But few portions of his account of searches. New Jersey may boast of Smith and the country have been examined without some addiGordon. Proud and Gordon have given us substan- tions or amendments; and if a disproportion present

itself, concerning the manner in which some parts • The Historical Society of New York, by

having rescued this have been augmented, I must plead, that sometimes service which entitles them to the kindest consideration of all who my materials led me to the measure, and that I felt desire the national history of the American people to possess its that special subjects required the revision and entrue value. There can be no doubt of the authenticity of this largement that I have thus bestowed. Moreover, of the historian, Justice Smith, of Canada; and the committee Mr. Hinton himself has not always been governed under whose direction it has been brought to light, (Dr. John by the relative value of his subjects, and different W. Francis, John Delafield, and Dr. David Hosack were selected observers are supposed to look even on the same for that purpose,) we have every reason to believe faithfully diseharged their trust.

object with different eyes. I have also had several VOL. IV.-24

other difficulties to overcome. Almost every indi LADIES' DEPARTMENT. vidual state of the confederacy now lays claim to its topographer and historian. Maine, for instance, has already called forth several topographical works ;

TO MAKE CARD-RACKS. and no less than three authors, each of considerable There are many sorts of card-racks, but princimerit, have published her historical occurrences. pally two : those which are made to hang up against In such a case, the few pages of Hinton, on this a wall, and those which stand upon a block. To member of the Union, might have swelled to as make the former you first determine upon a design many hundred; but a reference to authorities is for the outline, cut out a piece of stout card-board nearly all that the prescribed limits allowed. rather larger than the form for the back, and another

“The state of New York, in the original edition, piece for the front, then prepare the ornamental occupies no inconsiderable space in the work. I work for the front of each : whether scorched paper have, however, still further largely added to it, be- ornamented with gold flowers, like the hand-screens, cause the empire state demanded it. Her mighty mentioned in a former number, or drawing-paper efforts in internal improvements, her commercial with drawings or paintings, and paste them together, enterprise, her location, and other reasons, had their and also the paper for the linings. Let them be weight in my determination. The reader therefore put in a press until dry, as in doing the screens, will not be dissatisfied by finding in this edition the and then cut them out into the proper form with elaborate report of the late Cadwallader D. Colden chisels, and when pieces of card on the canal history of this great state; it is too are to be fixed to the back form, precious a document not to be preserved in a way for the purpose of holding notes or that it can readily be had access to.

cards, they may be cut out and "I have, with a similar view to future benefit, pasted at a little distance from the enriched my pages with a minute and circumstantial bottom, about an inch ; and placed account of the city of New York, furnished me by in their right situation. Let them my friend Dr. John W. Francis, who has also af- again be put into a press to beforded me other communications of value, and occa- come flat and hard, after which they sionally directed my attention to objects of special may be joined together, either by inquiry throughout the work. His ample library of tying them with ribands or conAmerican materials has also yielded to me many necting them with a piece of card-board. If the facilities. To him and to my other friends, who former, cut out some holes at equal distances from have felt solicitous that Hinton's United States' each other both in back and front, the same number should be rendered the more valuable by the labours to each, then determine the distance you intend the of the American editor, and to all who have con- front to project from the back, and cut out two strong tributed to this object, I beg to return my thanks.” pieces of card-board to an inch more than that length,

The first of these volumes is chiefly historical; and about half an inch in width, and the acknowledged attainments of the editor on double down half an inch at each this particular subject have enabled him to give a end to the form of the accompanying richness to the original work that greatly enhances figure ; now join the front and back of the cardits value. The occurrences associated with the rack close together with a strip of gold, coloured or Indian princess Pocahontas ; the trials and vicissi- white paper gummed on, and put the two pieces of tudes of the early colonists of the eastern states, card at the top of the front to make it Caplain Carver and the Puritan adventurers; the set firm and in good form, gumming ancestry of the New Englanders; the persecutions them to make them stick fast to both of the Quakers ; Roger Williams; the settlement of back and front; when this is dry the New Netherlands; the French and Indian wars of riband may be laced in through the 1756-63; the momentous events of the earlier pe- holes, and if a bow be added to each riod of the American revolution, with biographical corner it will give a pleasing finish to sketches of some of its most prominent actors ; the the whole. If the back and front are history of the American navy from 1794; the prog- to be connected by a piece of card-board, a stout ress of the arts in the United States ; the inaugural piece may be marked to the proper form, and it may addresses of the respective presidents, including that of the immediate incumbent; these and other matters will be found now, for the first time, brought within the pages of Mr. Hinton's first volume.

The second volume relates to the physical geography of the United States; its natural history; statisticks; the state of society, and lopography. The work terminates with a curious chapter on meteorology furnished the editor by Dr. Samuel Metcalfe. be cut at about a quarter of an inch distance from

Our readers must be left to their own conclusions the mark on each side: it should then be as to the fidelity with which this edition is executed: carefully cut along the lines a a so as to for ourselves, we are satisfied. The engravings are penetrate one half the card; then cut away appropriate, and do credit to the respective designers half the thickness of these strips at the and artists. In short, the work deserves to be ex- side, so that when bent they may not protensively circulated; and we can safely recommend ject beyond the edge of the middle piece ; it to the publick as eminently worthy of liberal the two sides may then be gummed to the patronage.

back and front of the card-rack on each

side, and when dry will be found sufficiently firm for use.

Sometimes card-racks appear to be bent at the bottom, and are not joined like those just mentioned ; these are made entirely of one piece of Bristol-board cut to the proper form, and then merely bent and connected at the sides with riband as before ; and a few gold or embossed ornaments added to finish them. Mark out the pattern upon some Bristolboard, not very thick, bind it with gold round the edge, cut out the holes for the riband, fix on the gold ornaments, and then bend it across and lace it with the riband, add the riband for the handle, and it is done.

afterward be inserted into the openings on the stands, and made firm either with gum or glue. Sometimes a strip of gold paper is put on to the front of the stand to give it a finished effect.

PARTICULAR EXERCISES.

OF THE KINDS OF EXERCISE.

The exercises called active, are those in which Sometimes card-racks are made to stand on a the body is moved and agitated by its own force, shelf instead of being suspended by ribands; for with or without the particular influence and direction these we must procure two pieces of wood, from a of the organs of sense; they always produce a gencabinet-maker, of about six inches in length, two eral excitement more or less powerful. inches in breadth, and nearly

The class called passive, or communicated exerhalf an inch in thickness ; hav

cises, are those in which the body is acted upon ing two divisions sawn halfway

and moved by a cause distinct from muscular action, through the thickness, at the distance of a quarter of or without the muscles assisting in any other way an inch from each side, and of the width of the than by a contraction merely sufficient to preserve a card-board of which the back and front are made ; fixed position. These exercises merely produce a these are to be covered with coloured paper and a succession of impulses in the living parts, calculated brass ball screwed into each of the four corners. to brace and strengthen them without exciting. Cut out a piece of paper large enough for the sides Mixed exercises, such as riding on horseback, to fold over each other when bent round the wood, produce each of these results. let it be pasted over twice and made to meet on the side where there are no divisions, doubling it in neatly at the ends, so that it may fold over without

PASSIVE EXERCISES. appearing thick and awkward. With a bradawl, THESE, indeed, are not properly exercises, benot quite so thick as the screw of the brass balls, cause the body is moved in them without effort; but make a hole at each corner and screw in the balls : as they are often employed as an introduction to acthis completes the stand. We will now mention tive exercises, it would have been improper to omit a how to connect the back and front, which are made sort of preliminary notice of them. Passive exeras before, with this difference only, a space of card- cises have a remarkable effect upon nutrition : they board equal to the depth of the divisions in the increase the strength and vigour, without much stands must be left to the bottom of both. The excitement of the organs, raising no beatings of the card which is used to join the back and front may heart, nor overheating, nor, generally speaking, probe either of a curved or angular form. Mark upon ducing perspiration. Without inquiring by what some stiff card the width of the space between the means nutrition is, under their influence, performed iwo divisions on the stands, and of about six inches with energy, and rendered more general, it may be in length, and cut it out at the distance of a quarter observed that, thereby, the organs of which the body of an inch on each side ; cut along these lines so as is composed, appear to experience, throughout their to penetrate half way through the card and then substance, a number of vibrations which may exerdivide the strip into small notches, let them be bent cise the fibres, augment their density, and render towards the outside and the

them stronger. whole card to the proper curve.

While in active exercises, nutrition is distributed Mark upon the back and front

so that the more certain parts are exercised, the of the card-rack a line of the

more preponderance they acquire, in relation to form into which the connecting piece is to be others which lose power in the same proportion ; bent; then, with glue or gum, fasten one side on in passive exercises, on the contrary, distribution to the front of the card-rack first, and when that and nutrition exist in the most perfect equality. is dry, fasten it on the back, placing something Friction with the hand and with the flesh-brush, heavy to keep them firmly together. They may shampooing, &c., may be ranked with passive exer

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