« PreviousContinue »
heat of summer, unless it has upon it a desert off from charcoal made in pits. 'The wood, before charstrawberries and cream. She ought also to consider ring is carefully stripped of its bark. The three her tea-table deficient unless strawberry-jam is among ingredients, being thus prepared, are ready for manher preserves and sweetmeats, and who does not ufacturing into gunpowder. They are first sepalove an occasional bowl of strawberries and milk? rately ground to a fine powder, which is passed
But while we insist that every farmer's wise should through proper sieves, or bolting machines; and, furnish her table with delicious fruit, we would not secondly, they are mixed together in proper proporcompel her daughters “to go a strawberrying” in the tions. These do not seem to be definitely deteroldfashioned way their grandmothers did-even mined, for they differ in different establishments of were they so extravagantly fond of strawberries as great respectability, as is shown by the following to ramble about the fields, with their sun-bonnets table :on their heads, and strawberry-baskets in their
Nitre. Charcoal. Sulphur. hands in purst:it of them. If farmers would have Royal Mills at Waltham strawberries, they must devote a small portion of
75 15 10 their gardens to their cultivation. There are several varieties of excellent flavour, and by a judicious French, for Sportsinen
French, for war
75 42 2 12 5 selection, and a little labour, a full supply may be had French, for mining
65 15 20 through the season. The ordinary method of culti
Capital's proportions 76 14 vation is to prepare ground, by manuring and spa- Chinese ditto
75 7 14 4 ding, and transplant in August. The distances be- Mr. Napier's ditto
5 tween the rows generally from eighteen inches to two feet, between the plants from nine to fifteen
Thirdly: the composition is sent to the gunpowder inches, according to the varieties. The runners mill, which consists of two edgestones of a calcarethe first year are cut off just before they take root. ous nature, turning by means of a shaft on a bedSoine cultivators cut off the leaves in autunin. The stone of the same nature, which give no sparks, as second year the runners are permitted to take their sandstone would be apt to do. On this bedstone, course filling up the spaces between the plants and the composition is spread, and moistened with as producing ordinarily, a good crop of large-sized small a quantity of water as will, in conjunction with strawberries. Some lay down straw or grass for the revolving stones, bring it into a proper body of the runners to run upon. The utility of this is man-cake, but not paste. The line of contact of the ifest in many respects, but especially in keeping the edgestones is constantly preceded by a scraper, fruit from coming in contact with the earth by which which goes round with the wheel, constantly scrait would be injured by dirt. After the fruit is gath- ping up the cake and turning it into the track of the ered, the straw should be removed and the plants stone. From fisty to sixty pounds are usually worked cleared of weeds. They should be transplanted at once in each wheel. When the cake has been every second year.
thoroughly incorporated, it is sent to the corning house, where a separate mill is employed to form the cake into grains or corns.
Fourthly : here it is MANUFACTURE OF GUNPOWDER.
first pressed into a hard, firm mass, then broken into The following description of the nature and man- small lumps; after which the graining is executed, ufacture of gunpowder, by an able chymist, (Dr. Ure,) by placing these lumps in sieves, on each side of will prove interesting
which is laid a dise of lignumvitæ. The sieves are This explosive substance consists of an intimate made of parchment skins, perforated with a multimixture, in determinate proportions, of saltpetre, tude of round holes. Several such sieves are fixed charcoal, and sulphur, and is better in proportion, in a frame, which, by proper machinery, has such a every thing else being equal to the quality of these motion given to it, as to make the lignumvitæ runner ingredients. The nitre, in particular, ought to be in each sieve move round with considerable velocity, perfectly refined by successive crystallizations, and so as to break the lumps of the cake, and force the finally from adhering water, by proper drying, or by substance through the sieves, forming grains of sevfusion in iron-pots at a regular heat. Nothing can eral sizes. The granular particles are separated surpass, in these respects, the nitre prepared in the from the finer dust
, by proper sieves and reels. government powdermills at Waltham Abbey. It is Fifthly: the corned powder is next hardened, and tested by adding to its solution in distilled water, the rougher edges taken off by being revolved in a nitrate of silver, with which it occasions no percepti- close reel or cask, turning rapidly on its axis. This ble opalescence. The sulphur ought also to be of vessel somewhat resembles a barrel-churn; it should the finest quality, and purified by skimming, or even be only half full at each operation, and has frequen!sublimation, if at all necessary. The charcoal ly square bars inside, parallel to its axis to aid the should be newly made ; it should burn without hav- polish by attrition. Sixthly: the gunpowder is now ing any sensible residuum, be dry, sonorous, light, dried, which is done generally by a steam heat, or and easily pulverized. The charcoal for gunpowder by transmitting a body of air lightly heated in anothis made either of alder, willow, or dogwood, the lat- er chamber, over canvass shelves covered with the ter being preferred—which are cut into lengths and damp gunpowder.
Mining Journal. ignited by iron cylinders. It deserves notice that ibe proportion of powder used for the several pieces Hope is a prodigal young heir, and Experience of ordnance by the navy, &c., has been reduced is his banker; but his draughts are seldom honoured, one third, in consequence of the increased strength since there is often a heavy balance against him, of the composition into which this cylinder, charcoal, because he draws largely on a small capital, is not enters, compared with that manufactured formerly yet in possession, and if he were, would die.
VOL. IV - 25
still more for the want of adequate acquaintance with The whole amount of tunnage employed in the the proper process of dressing, curing, and putting cod and mackerel fisheries of the United States, for up the fish, as it is done in the New England states. the year ending the 30th of September, 1834, was The superiour skill, enterprise, and calculation of 107,430; of which, 48,725 tuns belong to the mack- our citizens, will continue to give us the advantage erel fishery. Of this aggregate amount, 35,196 tuns in this fishery, as in other branches of maritime were owned in Massachusetts ; 11,764, in Maine ; industry. 1,623, in New Hampshire; and 142, in Rhode From the general table of the quantity of mackIsland. The vessels employed average from forty erel packed in Massachusetts, it is apparent how to fifty tuns each ; and are found to have amounted, steadily and greatly this fishery has increased in in 1835, to about 900 in Massachusetts, and from productiveness. Taking successive periods of five 300 to 400 in the three other states. Each vessel years as an index of the increase, we have for the has an average of about nine persons, of all ages ; beginning only 8,079 barrels ; 8,866 for 1809; 1,349 making about 8,000 for Massachusetts, and say 3,000 for 1814, one of the years of the late war; 105,433 for Maine, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. for 1819; 180,636 for 1824 ; 225,877 for 1829;
Independently of the profit on their labour obtained and 252,844 for 1834. This rapid augmentation of by these persons, we have to consider that accruing the quantity taken, especially in the last twenty on the construction and fitting out of the vessels, the years, is one of the effects and the evidences of the manufacture of the barrels, the commerce on the salt unparalleled prosperity enjoyed by this country, and consumed, the transportation of the fish coastwise, especially those portions of it in which this article is and all the subsidiary branches of industry connected consumed. It is the increasing demand which, by with these its main departments.
stimulating to new activity, and to the invention or Of course, the advantageous influence of this improved methods of taking the fish, has so much business on the condition of those places where it is augmented the supply. And the market for the fish chiefly pursued, is very apparent. Its relation to has been opened and expanded by the incomparable other employments of a similar description may be means of internal communication which the United inferred from the fact, that, of ninety-nine schooners States possess, in our noble rivers intersecting it like built in Massachusetts in the year 1834, seventy- so many arteries, and covered with steamboals; and three were in the five collection districts most largely in our canals and railroads, permeating the country engaged in this fishery. Though unproductive in on all sides ; and thus imparting to its most remote some seasons, it has, on the whole, added greatly to parts an harmonious correspondence of benefits, and the resources and economick prosperity of the com- that close interlacement of interests, which are munities engaged in its prosecution.
among the great blessings of our admirable Union. And the mode in which the business is conducted The price of the article has, of course, fluctuated, renders it invaluable as a school of maritime enter- according to the relative supply and demand; the prise and nautical industry. Some of the vessels first quality having taken the whole range of prices employed in the fishery are owned by merchants or from $13 per barrel down to $4 50; and the supply, others, who employ them in it during three or four for the last three years, having fallen short of the months of the season, and in the coasting trade or demand, a gradual advance in prices has been the some other business the residue of the year. But consequence. the greater part of the vessels are owned by the A small portion of the mackerel, consisting chiefly fishermen themselves, or by them in connexion with of the poorest quality, or No. 3, is exported to foreign merchants or mechanicks. It is no uncommon thing countries. It is not easy to ascertain the precise for several heads of families, who have sons of the quantity exported, as the annual statement, printed age of nine years and upwards, 10 take a vessel, and by order of Congress, embraces all kinds of pickled man it from their families, and divide the proceeds fish under one head; probably the amount does not among themselves : and as very young boys are thus exceed 40,000 barrels; they are sent to the West capable of being useful in this pursuit, it is a great Indies, to South America, to some ports of the Mcdnursery of seamen for the nary and the merchant iterranean, and to the East Indies. service. Tire crews are sometimes engaged on But the principal market for this fish is in the shares, receiving one half of the fish after they are United States. Philadelphia, Now York, Baltimore, salted ; at other times, they are hired on wages. A and New Orleans have taken the largest quantities very common method is, for the skipper and one or hitherto; but more or less is shipped to most of the more of the crew to take the vessel, and hire the chief ports along the seaboard, from New York to other hands; and pay to the owner, as charter, a New Orleans. Thus far, Philadelphia, by its rapid fourth part of the proceeds, after deducting salt, and steady increase of demand, has held the lead of barrels, butts, and some other supplies. By these other ports. From 1820 to 1825, that city required means, the profits and incidental advantages of the from 30,000 10 40,000 barrels as its yearly supply business are made to diffuse themselves widely and for its own consumption, its interiour trade, and its thoroughly among the middling and poorer classes, foreign or domestick export. It now receives three without being accumulated, to any considerable ex- times that quantity, and about one third part of the tent, in the hands of capitalists.
whole product of the fishery. In the southern states, Mackerel are found on many parts of the coasts also, the demand increases with the increased facilof Europe ; but the fishery has never been pursued ities of interiour transportation, and must continue there to any extent. Some places in New Bruns- to be enlarged as the interiour of the country goes wick and Nova Scotia are favourably situated for the on acquiring access to markets and added population business; but they do not embark in it largely, and prosperity. It is understood, also, that this fish. partly from the absence of a domestick market, but owing to its good qualities as an article of food, and
its convenient form for subdivision and distribution almost any other fish of commercial importance. among the slaves, is gaining favour in the estimation So true it is, that fishermen who have pursued the of the planters of the South. As evidence of which business for a long period have but little advantage fact, it may be stated, by way of example, that, with over those recently engaged in it, in judging, with a coloured population of 210,000 persons, the state any degree of certainty, which may be the best spot of Georgia consumed the last year, 37,000 barrels, of fishing ground at any particular season of the of all qualities, valued there at $286,750. Doubt-year. It is oftentimes the case, that vessels in exless, the consumption is proportionally great in the treme parts of the bay, and in nearly all intermediate other planting states.
štations, will have good fishing for a few days, and These facts indicate the importance of the mack- for many succeeding days no mackerel will be visierel fishery as a domestick interest, which every part ble ; after which, they will appear to rise simultaof the country is concerned in, and which is, there-neously, in nearly all parts of the bay; and in modo fore, entitled to the respectful consideration of Con- erate weather large tracks of the surface of the sea gress. It only remains to show, in explaining the will seem to be covered with shoals of the fish, mode of taking this fish, what are the legal incon- swimming with one side of the gill out of water. veniences which this bill is designed to remove. At times, the fishermen can only take a few from a
The season for the first appearance of mackerel, shoal, as it passes directly in contact with their veson those parts of our coast where they are usually sel, without being induced to stop by bait, or altertaken, is from the 20th of April to the 1st of May, ing its course in the least degree. It occasionally according as the season is more or less forward ; at happens that late in the year the fishermen will reap which time they strike on the shore-soundings off a rich harvest, when the whole previous season had the capes of the Chesapeake and Delaware. Be- been comparatively unproductive. Thus it was in (ween the latter place and the Egg harbours, they the autumn of 1831. In October of that year, the are usually plentiful for fifteen or twenty days, with mackerel struck in very near to cape Ann. Large in a few leagues of the land; and mackerel vessels, fleets of vessels collected in such close order, as to which are on the ground seasonably, meet in gene- be continually coming in contact. The sea being ral with good success, if the weather prove to be smooth, and great quantities of bait thrown out, the favourable. After which, the mackerel move to the fish collected in such quantities, that some vessels northeast, scattering over a large space of ground, took nearly one hundred barrels in a single day. At from near the shore to the soundings inside the the same time, they were very abundant off cape gulf stream, and extending down the coast off Long Cod and on Jeffries Ledge ; and it was computed Island to Nantucket, which they reach early in that more than 70,000 barrels were taken in a single June. Sometimes they collect more in bodies off week. Long or Block Islands, and are taken plentifully for Now, the habits of this fish being so uncertain, it a few days; after which, they proceed north, through frequently happens that a mackerel vessel, on the the south channel, between the Vineyard islands, way to her fishing-ground, or when arrived at some into Massachusetts bay. They reach that bay from fishing-ground which she may have been induced the 20th of June to the 1st of July, and continue by previous success to select again, finds no mackthere until late in November. Large bodies of them erel, and, while waiting or seeking for mackerel, pass up the bay of Fundy, as they are sometimes encounters abundance of other fish; by taking which, abundant between Grand Manan and Annapolis Roy- she might save her voyage; but which she is al, and doubtless proceed further in the same direc-obliged to abstain from touching, in consequence of tion. Returning, they often follow the coast, stri- the rigorous terms of her license, which confines king into the bays in October and November, and her exclusively to the business of taking mackerel. passing out of Massachusetts bay by cape Ann and Vessels are sometimes under the necessity of shiftcape Cod, in the vicinity of which places they are ing their ground, to avoid taking codfish in their sometimes found in abundance late in November. mackerel-jigs. They may lose all the outfit and
Meanwhile, other shoals of mackerel appear to time of a trip, from the absence of mackerel, approach our shores from the east, by cape Sable. when they have absolutely to shun the presence of Probably, this may be a portion of the body which other fish, in consideration of the technical strictannually enters the bay of St. Lawrence. Striking ness of the law. in from the gulf, on the Nova Scotia soundings, a part of them take a westerly direction towards Massachu
OPTICKS. setts bay, while the main body passes into the bay of St. Lawrence, east of cape Breton, and through The science of Opticks affords scope for many the Guts of Canso.
delightful and interesting experiments; but some of The time and place of spawning can be determin- its instruments are very expensive. I shall thereed only by the different conditions of the fish, when fore state only a few simple exhibitions and experitaken at different times. In Massachusets bay, it ments which can be made at a trifling expense. Beappears to be, at a medium time, about the 1st of fore the teacher can illustrate any of the principles June. Notwithstanding their constant liability to of this science by experiment, it will be requisite be destroyed by other fish, from the moment of that he provide himself with a few convex lenses, shooting spawn up to the time of their full growth, some of short and others of pretty long focal distanstill their inconceivable number is such as to sur-ces.
For example, double or plane-convex glasses, pass all calculation. When the sea is smooth, they 1 inch, 1 inch, 3 and 4 inches, focal distance, which are seen absolutely covering its surface.
may be made to illustrate the construction of a comTheir movements and haunts are very precarious, pound microscope, as I have elsewhere shown in and their habits are more versatile than those of my work, “ On the Improvement of Society.” Also
lenses, from 3 to 6 or 8 feet focus, to illustrate the site the glass, where they will be beautifully depictconstruction of a telescope, and the nature of a cam- ed in all their forms, colours, and motions, in an inera obscura ; and two or three concave mirrors for verted position, forming a kind of living picture.illustrating some of the phenomena of reflection. This exhibition never fails to excite the admiration The principle on which a compound microscope, a of the young. If now, a lens about 2 inches focus solar microscope, and a magick lantern or phantasma- be placed 2 inches beyond the image thus formed, goria, are constructed, may be shown by one easy and the screen removed-in looking through this experiment. Let A, Fig. 1, represent a convex lens, the objects will appear magnified in the proglass, suppose six inches focal distance, and B the portion of 2 inches :o 60, that is, 30 times; and as ilame of a candle. Hold the glass, A, at a little ihe image was inverted, so the object, as seen through more than six inches from the candle, and on the the glass, will appear as if turned upside down.Fig. 1.
This is perhaps one of the best modes of explaining the principle of a refracting telescope, and the reason why the object appears inverted, when viewed with a single eye-glass. The same thing may be partly shown by a common telescope. Having taken out all the eye-glasses, except the one next the eye, adjust the telescope to distinct vision, and all the objects seen through it will appear as if turned upside down. The manner in which the image is reversed by the other eye-glasses, and the object made to appear upright, might then be explained. Objects might likewise be exhibited through a telescope, as appearing in different positions and directions. This
is effected by means of a diagonal eye-piece, which D
is constructed in the following manner :-Let A B, opposite wall will be formed a large magnified im
Fig. 2. age of the candle, C E D. This image will be inverted, and larger than the flame of the candle in proportion as the distance A E, from the glass to the wall, exceeds the distance A B, from the glass 10 the candle. Suppose the distance A E to be 7 feet or 84 inches, then the image of the candle will be magnified in the proportion of 7 to 84, or 14 times. In this experiment the candle represents the object to be magnified in a compound microscope, A the object-glass, and C D the image formed by the lens, Fig. 2, represent a convex glass about 2 inches focal which is magnified a second time by the eye-glass of distance; C D a plain metallick speculum, of an oral the microscope. In reference to the solar micro- form, well polished, and placed at half a righi angle scope, the candle represents the small object to be to the axis of the tube ; and E F, another convex magnified, and C D its magnified image on a white lens, 2 inches focus. The centre of the speculum wall or screen; and in reference to the magick lan- may be about 14 inch from A B, and about inch tern, or phantasmagoria, the candle represents the from E F. The rays proceeding from the lens A B, figures painted on the sliders, A the convex lens and falling from the speculum, are reflected in a which throws the image of the figures on a screen, perpendicular direction to the lens E F, where they and C D the magnified image of the painted figures. enter the eye, which looks down upon the object In all these instruments, the principle on which the through the side of the tube. When this eye-piece objects are magnified is precisely the same; the size is applied to a telescope, with the lens E F on the of the image is always in proportion to its distance upper part of it, we look down upon the object as if from the lens by which it is formed; but as the im- it were under our feet. If we turn the eye-piece age is enlarged it becomes less brilliant and distinct, round in its socket a quarter of a circle towards the and therefore there is a proper medium which must left, an object directly before us in the south will be fixed upon as to the distance between the lens appear as if it were in the west, and turned upside and the screen on which the image is thrown ; but down. If, from this position, it is turned round a a skilful teacher will always know how to modify semicircle towards the right, and the eye applied, such circumstances.
the same object will appear as if it were situated in The nature of a telescope and of the camera obscura the east; and if it be turned round another quadmay be illustrated as follows :-Fix a lens of 4, 5, rant, till it be directly opposite to its first position, or 6 feet focus, in a hole made in a window-shutter; and the eye applied from below, the object or landdarken the room, so that no light can enter but scape will appear as if suspended in the atmosphere through the lens.* If its focal distance be 5 feet, or above us. Such experiments, when accompanied 60 inches, a white screen placed at that distance with proper diagrams, and an explanation of optical will receive the image of the objects without, oppo- principles, may easily be rendered both entertaining
and instructive. A lens is a round piece of glass, ground either concave or con A camera obscura, on a larger scale, and on a vex. All lenses that magnify objects are conver, or thicker in different plan from that alluded to above, might be the middle than at the edge, such as common magnifiers, reading. erected on the top of every school-house, which is glasses, and the glasses used in microscopes and telescopes, except the Galilean perspective, in which the cye-glass is concave. constructed with a flat roof, as formerly suggested
ces insused, will be perceived in vast numbers, by the aid of the microscope, in every drop of the infusion. A compound microscope is perhaps as good an instrument as any other for giving a steady and satisfactory view of such objects; and the only objection to its use for a school is, that only one individual can see the object at a time. When a teacher is not furnished with an instrument of this kind, fitted up in the usual way, he may, with little trouble, construct a compound microscope, by means of the eye-piece of a common pocket acromatick telescope, which
may be purchased for one guinea, or less. The eye-pieces of such telescopes contain four glasses, arranged on a principle somewhat similar to that of the glasses of a compound microscope. If we screw off one of these eye-pieces, and look through it in the usual way, holding the object end about a quarter of an inch distant from any small object,
such as the letters of a printed book, it will appear Fig. 3 contains a representation of a wooden build- magnified about ten or twelve times in length and ing, on the top of which is a large convex lens, H I, breadth ; remove from the cube the third glass from about 10 or 12 feet focal distance. At half a right the eye, which is the second from the object, and angle to this lens is a plain speculum by which the look through it in the same manner, holding it more rays of light from the objects O are reflected down-than an inch distant from the object, and it will apwards through the lens, which forms a picture of all pear magnified more than twenty times in diameter, the objects before the speculum, on a round white or above 400 times in surface. If, by means of small lable, T, in all their colours, motions, and propor- pasteboard tubeś, or any other contrivance, we attions. If the speculum be made to revolve, the iach the glass that was taken out to the outside of whole of the surrounding landscape may be succes- the object-glass of the eye-piece, so as to be nearly sively depicted on the table. When the lens is of a close to it, we shall have a magnifying power of long focal distance, as from 10 to 15 or 20 feet, it nearly forty times ; or, if we substitute for these two produces a pretty powerful telescopical effect, so that object-glasses a single glass of about a half-inch foobjects may be distinctly perceived at a considerable cal distance, we shall form a pretty good compound distance, and individuals recognised on the picture microscope, magnifying above forty times in diameat the distance of a mile or more. Wherever there ter, and 1600 times in surface, which will afford are objects in motion, such as ships sailing, birds very pleasing views of various objects in the animal flying, smoke ascending, crowds of people moving and vegetable kingdoms. The magnifying powers to and fro, or boys and girls engaged in their amuse- now stated will differ somewhat in different eyements; this exhibition always affords a high degree pieces, according to their lengths and the focal disof satisfaction. It might occasionally be used, not tances of the glasses of which they are composed. only as an illustration of optical principles, but also The tube of the eye-piece thus arranged, may be ocas a reward for diligence and good behaviour. casionally fitted into a pasteboard tube supported by
In connection with the above, representations three pillars, in which it may be moved up or down might be given of natural and artificial objects, as for adjusting it to distinct vision, and the objoct exhibited by the phantasmagoria. Discarding the placed underneath and properly illuminated. ridiculous and childish figures which were formerly These hints are suggested, on the score of econused in the common magick lanterns, opticians have omy, for those who have no regular microscopick now constructed sliders which exhibit representa- apparatus. tions of the telescopick appearances of the heavenly Various amusing experiments, besides the above, bodies, the different constellations, the motions of might be exhibited to the young, such as the optical the earth and moon, and various objects connected paradox, an instrument through which objects may with botany, mineralogy, and zoology; and such ob- be seen, although a board or other opake body be jects, when exhibited in this manner, are calculated interposed between the eye and the objects—the to produce both instruction and amusement. The prism, which, in a dark room, separates the primary solar microscope in particular, (or the oxy-hydrogen, colours of the solar rays—the multiplying-glass, if it can be procured,) should be occasionally exhib- which makes one object appear as if there were ited to the young, to convey to them some ideas of ten, twenty, or thirty—the burning-glass, which, by the wonderful minuteness of the atoms of matter, means of the sun's rays, sets on fire dark-coloured and the admirable mechanism displayed in the paper, wood, and other inflammable substancesstructure of vegetables and the bodies of animals, and optical illusions produced by the various refracparticularly in those myriads of animalculæ which tions and reflections of light in water, combinations are invisible to the unassisted eye. Such animal- of plane mirrors, and by concave speculums. A culæ may be procured almost at any season, but par- concave mirror, about 5 or 6 inches in diameter, and ticularly during the summer months, by infusing, 10 or 12 inches focus, which may be procured for in separate open vessels, small bits of grass or hay, about half a guinea or 15 shillings, is of great utilileaves of flowers, or other vegetable substances, ty for a variety of exhibitions. 1. When held at when, after a week or ten days, animalculæ of dif- nearly its focal distance from one's face, it repreferent kinds, according to the nature of the substan- | sents it as magnified to a monstrous size, 2. When