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The population of Charleston, including the

suburbs, is probably 40,000. Of foreigners, the The frontispiece of this number of the Family French form a considerable proportion, but CharlesMagazine, presents to our readers a view of the ton has many adopted citizens, who have resorted to city of Charleston.

it from every section of the globe. The mercantile Charleston is situated in lat. 32° 47' north, and class is composed, in a great measure, of settlers lon. 80° 00/ 521 west from Greenwich. It is a from the New England states. The citizens of peninsula formed by the Ashley river on the west, Charleston are proverbial for their hospitality, chivalCooper river upon the north, and the Atlantick ocean rous feelings, and elegant and refined manners. on the south and southeast. The harbour is one of They entertain the nicest sense of honour, and are the finest in the United States, and is well protected prompi to revenge an insult, but no people are more from hostile incursions by castles and forts. The generous in their friendships, more steadfast in their city is located on a flat and even surface, but appears attachments to the worthy, or more observant of all to considerable advantage upon entering the harbour. the proprieties that characterize civilized life. A The houses which are chiefly of wood have a dusky true Carolinian is a high-minded gentleman all the appearance, arising partly from their antiquity, and world over, and into whatever errours he may be partly from the corrosive influence exerted by a betrayed by inadvertence, he never forgets what is saline atmosphere upon painted buildings. With due to the honour of a man and the pride of a souththe exception of Broad street running through the ron. The planters, who constitute the most wealthy city from east to west, and Mutiny street, extending portion of the citizens, reside in the country during its entire length from north to south, the streets are the winter and spring, but spend their summers in for the most part narrow, but less circuitous and ir- the city when they do not travel, which they often regular than those of Boston and some other of our do, scattering the proceeds of their large incomes, older cities. The principal publick buildings are with no niggardly spirit, over the whole length and the court house, city hall, guard house, fire-proof breadth of our common country. Many of them (state) building, custom-house, St. Andrew's hall, have summer-houses upon Sullivan's island, a few South Carolina society's academy, Charleston col- miles from town, whither they resort in unhealthy lege, orphan house, medical college, hospital, poor- seasons, or in healthy ones, for relief from the heat house and jail. Of the churches, the most venerable of the city, and to enjoy, with their families around (since the destruction of old St. Philip's by fire,) is them, the fine and salubrious sea-breezes. The ihe St. Michael's at the intersection of Broad and ladies of Charleston are less ambitious of costly Mutiny streets. The steeple of this church is very dress and personal decoration than those of Baltibeautiful. Its total altitude from the pavement to more or New York, but what is saved by this species the top of the vane, is 186 feet three inches. The of economy is generally expended in fine equipages. length of the vane is seven feet three and a half Their complexions are usually less fair and blooming inches. St. Peter's, a new Episcopal church, is than those of northern females, but southern brualso a neat and chaste edifice, built in more modern netts are often very beautiful. The fashionable style. St. Philip's, which was founded in 1713, and promenade of the ladies of Charleston is King destroyed by fire in the winter of 1835, is being re-street, where they make a fine display in carriages, built upon its ancient plan which was very grand barouches, and as pedestrians from eleven o'clock and imposing. Besides these, are Baptist, Metho- till one in the early part of the day, and, at this dist, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Unitarian, Catholick, season of the year, from four to six in the evening. Universalist and French Protestant churches. The It is a little singular that Charleston, where the pride most influential, if not the most numerous sect of of state supremacy is proverbial, should retain the Christians in Charleston are the Episcopalians. name of King street for its most aristocratick thorThe standard of pulpit eloquence in this city is at oughfare, while Boston, nearly a half century ago, the present moment more elevated than formerly, proscribed the name as a badge of toryism, and suband it boasts of divines of distinguished talents and stituted that of State street instead of it. In view piety.

of this matter, we can only say, that names are not The publick and private edifices of Charleston always the signs of things. are not remarkable for architectural elegance, but Agriculture, which has given to the South, its are, for the most part, plain and substantial buildings. chief influence and importance, has hitherto been the The burnt district, the theatre of a ruinous and ex- most reputable occupation of the wealthy, but, in tensive fire which happened about a year ago, is accommodation to circumstances and the spirit of sold out to purchasers upon the condition that hand- the times, many of the most distinguished citizens some buildings shall be erected, which, when com- and largest landed proprietors are now ambitious to pleted, will doubtless improve greatly the appearance give to their sons a liberal and thorough mercantile of the city.

Horticulture is much attended to here. education. The commercial prospects of CharlesThe principal fruits cultivated are the fig, orange, ton were never more flattering, than at the present peach, pomegranate and grape. The gardens are moment. Its exports in rice and cotton—the staple embellished with every species of flower foreign productions of the South—have always been large, and indigenous, and relieved by shrubbery of a rich and to increase the facilities of trade, an enterpriand beautiful foliage. On the anniversary of the sing company of merchants, including in the number Horticultural society, fruits and flowers of every several heavy capitalists, have recently made expenflavour and hue are exhibited publickly, and to those sive arrangments for a direct intercourse between who offer the most rare and curious, premiums are Charleston and Liverpool, the effect of which will awarded. On these occasions, the ladies are often be, to render the former an important city for the the most successful competitors.

Southern country, and, in connexion with the great

Cincinnati railroad, (the most wonderful project of valuable city libraries in the Union. 'The Mechan. the age, and which is now in progress,) for the West icks' institute or lycerm is an association for the also. In the course of ten or fifteen years, Charles- diffusion of popular and useful knowledge, and has ton will, in all human probability, be one of the a library of several thousand volumes. The Bankmost thriving and important commercial emporiums ing institutions of the city are numerous, and, for the in the whole Union. It may not outstrip New Or- facilities of trade, are placed upon the most liberal leans, situated at the mouth of the Mississippi ar? footing. There are three daily and tri-weekly which has peculiar advantages, but it will unques- newspapers published, " the Courier," " the Mercury," tionably be the formidable rival of that flourishing and “the Patriot,” and one monthly magazine enticily.

tled, “ the Southern Literary Journal." Prejudices have been entertained against Charles Charleston is, upon the whole, an agreeable and ton as an unhealthy city, but without reason. It is, desirable place of residence. The affection of the we believe, one of the healthiest places upon the native citizens for the spot is unextinguishable, and face of the globe. By accurate calculations drawn strangers who make it their home, soon become from a comparison of the bills of mortality of Charles- greatly attached to it. In a moral, literary, religious ton, and the principal cities of Europe, it would ap- and commercial point of view, Charleston possesses pear that the former, in proportion to its number of advantages which entitle it to a high rank among inhabitants, and, notwithstanding the occasional the principal cities of our country. prevalence of destructive epidemicks, deserves regarded as pre-eminently healthy. A gradual improvement has taken place in the climate, arising in part from the clearing of the forests in the neigh

POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, IN 1836. bouring lowlands, but more especially from the at The population of the United States, at the prestention which is paid to cleanliness, and the preva- ent time, may be approximatively - estimated as lence of social order. In none of our cities is there follows:a more effective police ;-in none are the streets Maine, the northernmost,

555,000 kept in better order ;-in none is there less insubor- New Hampshire, south of Maine,

300,000 dination and fewer riots. The perfection of the Vermont, bordering Canada,

330,000 social arrangement from which these results flow, Massachusetts, most densely peopled, 700,000 arises from the fact, that the slaves, who compose Rhode Island, with the least territory, 110,000 the lowest class of the population--a class which in Connecticut, the most agrarian,

220,000 the free states, is always the most turbulent-are kept under due and wholesome restraint-a restraint Aggregate of the northeastern states, 2,315,000 however, which is not inconsistent with their enjoy- New York, the most populous,

2,400,000 ing many privileges and more leisure than even New Jersey, the thoroughfare state,

360,000 Northern domesticks.

Pennsylvania, the banking state,

1,600,000 Charleston is remarkable for its charitable institu- Delaware, the narrowest state

80,000 tions. Of these the most richly endowed are the Maryland, the water state,

500,000 South Carolina society for the education of children

Aggregate of the middle states,

4,040,000 and the relief of the destitute families of diseased members ; the orphan asylum for the instruction and North Carolina, ihe modest state,

Virginia, the largest state,


800,000 support of orphan children of both sexes; the Fel- South Carolina, the Palmetto state, 650,000 lowship society, a charity foundation for the benefit Georgia, the southeasternmost,

620,000 of the rising generation ; the St. Andrew's society and the New England society, embracing each of Aggregate of the southern states, 3,430,000 them, benevolent objects. The literary character Ohio, the thrifty state,

1,300,000 of Charleston has always stood deservedly high, and Kentucky, the bagging state,

8,00,000 it has given birth from time to time, to some of the Indiana, the improving state,

550,000 first minds that have adorned the nation, within the Illinois, the prairie state,

320,000 forum or the halls of Congress. Such advocates as Michigan, the lake state,

120,000 Grimké, King, Pettigru, Legare, Hunt, Dunkin, Missouri, the north westernmost,

250,000 and Mimminger would grace the bar of any court in Christendom. Charleston college is a respectable

Aggregate of the western states, 3,340,000

900,000 institution. It is under the charge of a talented fac- Tennessee, the central state,

350,000 ulty, and affords facilities for acquiring an excellent Louisiana, the southwesternmost,

500,000 education. Many parents, therefore, prefer educa- Alabama, the river state, ting their children at home, as they have substantial- Arkansas, the least populous,

70,000 ly all the advantages which they would enjoy abroad Aggregate of the southwestern states, 2,220,000 ut the best Universities, besides deriving the addi. District of Columbia,

50,000 tional benefit resulting from parental advice and Florida, with the most extensive coast, 50,000 tuition. The Literary and Philosophical society for Wisconsin territory,

20,000 publick debates and lectures, founded in 1811, is an Oregon, or the Far West,

5,000 association of great respectability, and exerts a considerable influence upon the literary character of the Indians,

400,000 city. This society has a valuable museum attached The entire population within the limits of the to it, and a large collection of rare and curious birds United States, Indians included, amounts, therefore, which are in a fine state of preservation. The to sixteen millions, six hundred and eighty thousand Charleston library is one of the largest and most souls.

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[The Silver-Fir.) AMERICAN TREES.

inch in diameter, and always directed upward. The coldest regions of North America are the The seeds are ripe in autumn, and if permitted to native country of this species of spruce. In the hang late will fall apart and scatter themselves. United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia, it is called The wood of the silver-fir is light and slightly Silver-Fir, Fir-Balsam, and Balsam of Gilead. It resinous, and the heart is yellowish.

It is somedoes not constitute masses of woods, but is dissem- times used for the staves of casks for packing fish; inated, in a greater or less abundance, among the but for this purpose many other kinds of wood are hemlock and black spruces. Farther south it is preferred. The resin of the pines is extracted by found only on the summit of the Alleganies, and means of incisions in the body of the tree, at which particularly on the highest mountains of North Car- it exudes from the pores of the bark and from the olina. Like the other spruces it generally flourishes sap vessels of the alburnum. In the silver-fir this best in a moist sandy loam.

substance is naturally deposited in vesicles on the Its height rarely exceeds forty feet, with a diam- trunk and limbs, and is collected by bursting these eter of twelve or fifteen inches. The trunk tapers tumours and receiving their contents in appropriate from a foot in diameter at the surface of the ground vessels. This resin is sold in Europe and the Unito seven or eight inches, at the height of six feet. ted States under the name of balm of Gilead, though When standing alone, and developing itself naturally, every body knows that the true balm of Gilead is its branches, which are numerous and thickly gar- produced by the Amyris gileadensis, a very different nished with leaves, diminish in length in proportion vegetable and a native of Asia ; perhaps the name to their height, and form a pyramid of perfect regu- has been borrowed in consequence of some resemlarity. The bark is smooth and delicate. The blance between the substances in taste and smell. leaves are six or eight lines long, and are inserted The fresh turpentine is a greenish transparent fluid singly on the sides and on the top of the branches ; of an acrid penetrating taste; given inconsiderately they are narrow, rigid and flat, of a bright green it produces heat in the bladder, and applied to above and a silvery white beneath; whence probably wounds it causes inflammation and acute pains. Il is derived the name of the tree. It Aowers in May, has been highly celebrated in England, and is recand is followed by cones of a fragrant odour, which ommended in certain stages of the pulmonary con. are nearly cylindrical, four or five inches long, an sumption.



morning, when I will carry your birds, if you choose, Never shall I forget the impression made on my to the great road.” mind by the rencontre which forms the subject of The large intelligent eyes of the negro, the comthis article, and I even doubt if the relation of it will placency of his manner, and the tones of his voice, not excite in the mind of my reader emotions of va- I thought, invited me to venture ; and as I felt that ried character.

I was at least his equal, while, moreover, I had my Late in the afternoon of one of those sultry days dog to second me, I answered that I would folloro which render the atmosphere of the Louisiana him. He observed the emphasis laid on the last swamps pregnant with baneful effluvia, I directed words, the meaning of which he seemed to undermy course towards my distant home, laden with a stand so thoroughly, that, turning to me, he said, pack consisting of five or six wood-ibises, and a There, master, take my butcher's knife, while i heavy gun, the weight of which even in those days throw away the flint and priming from my gun!" when my natural powers were unimpaired, prevent- Reader, I felt confounded : this was too much for ed me from moving with much speed. Reaching me; I refused the knife, and told him to keep his the banks of a miry bayou, only a few yards in piece ready, in case we might accidentally meet a breadth, but of which I could not ascertain the cougar or bear. depth, on account of the muddiness of its waters, I Generosity exists every where. The greatest thought it might be dangerous to wade through it monarch acknowledges its impulse, and all around with my burden; for which reason, throwing to the him, from his lowliest menial to the proud nobles opposite side each of my heavy birds in succession, that encircle his throne, at times experience that together with my gun, powder-flask, and shot-bag, overpowering sentiment. I offered to shake hands and drawing my hunting-knife from its scabbard, to with the runaway. “Master," said he, "I beg you defend myself

, if need should be, against alligators, thanks," and with this he gave me a squeeze, that I entered the water followed by my faithful dog. As alike impressed me with the goodness of his heart, I advanced carefully and slowly, “ Plato” swam and his great physical strength. From that moment, around me, enjoying the refreshing influence of the we proceeded through the woods together. My dog liquid element that cooled his fatigued and heated smelt at him several times, but as he heard me speak frame. The water deepened, as did the mire of its in my usual tone of voice, he soon left us, and rambed; but with a stroke or two I gained the shore. bled around as long as my whistle was unused. As

Scarcely had I stood erect on the opposite bank, we proceeded, I observed that he was guiding me when my dog ran to me, exhibiting marks of terrour, towards the setting of the sun, and quite contrary to his eyes seeming ready to burst from their sockets, and my homeward course. I remarked this to him, when his mouth grinning with the expression of haired, he with the greatest simplicity replied, “merely for while his feelings found vent in a stifled growl. our security.”. Thinking that all this was produced by the scent of Aster trudging along for some distance, and crosa wolf or bear, I stooped to take up my gun, when sing several bayous, at all of which he threw his gun a stentorial voice commanded me to " stand still, or and knife to the opposite bank, and stood still until die!" Such a “qui vive" in these woods was as un- I had got over, we came to the borders of an imcxpected as it was rare. I instantly raised and mense cane-brake, from which I had, on former occocked my gun; and although I did not yet per-casions, driven and killed several deer. We enterceive the individual who had thus issued so peremp- ed, as I had frequently done before, now erect, then tory a mandate, I felt determined to combat with him on “ all fours." He regularly led the way,

divided for the free passage of the grounds. Presently, a here and there the tangled stalks, and wherever we tall, firmly-built negro emerged from the bushy un- reached a sallen tree, assisted me in getting over it derwood, where, until that moment he must have with all possible care. I saw that he was a perfect been couched, and in a louder voice repeated his Indian in the knowledge of the woods, for he kept a injunction. Had I pressed the trigger, his life would direct course as precisely as any“ red-skin” I ever have instantly terminated; but observing that the travelled with. All of a sudden he emitted a loud gun, which he aimed at my breast, was a wretched shriek, not unlike that of an owl, which so surprised rusty piece, from which fire could not readily be me, that I once more instantly levelled my gun. “No produced, I felt little sear, and therefore did not harm, master, I only give notice to my wife and judge il necessary to proceed at once to extremities. children that I am coming." A tremulous answer of I laid my gun at my side, tapped my dog quietly, and the same nature gently echoed through the tree-tops, asked the man what he wanted.

The runaway's lips separated with an expression of My forbearance, and the stranger's long habit of gentleness and delight, when his beautiful set of submission, produced the most powerful effect on ivory teeth seemed to smile through the dusk of his mind. “ Master,” said he, “I am a runaway evening that was thickening around us. “ Master," I might perhaps shoot you down; but God forbids said he,“ my wife, though black, is as beautiful to it, for I feel just now as if I saw him ready to pass me as the president's wife is to him; she is my his judgment upon me for such a foul deed, and I queen, and i look on our young ones as so many ask mercy at your hands. For God's sake, do not princes :—but you shall see them all, for here they kill me, master !” “ And why,"answered I,“ have you are, thank God!” left your quarters, where certainly you must have There, in the heart of the canebrake, I found a fared better than in these unwholesome swamps ?" | regular camp. A small fire was lighted, and on its

Master, my story is short, but a sorrowful one.- embers lay broiling some large slices of venison. My camp is close by, and as I know you cannot A lad nine or ten years old was blowing the ashes reach hoine this night, if you will follow me there, from some fine sweet potatoes. Various articles of depend upon my honour you shall be safe until the household furniture were carefully disposed around, and a large pallet of bear and deer skins seemed to his camp. A few nights afterward, he gained the be the resting-place of the whole family. The wife the abode of his wife, and the very next after their raised not her eyes towards mine, and the little ones, meeting, he led her away. The children one after three in number, retired into a corner, like so many another he succeeded in stealing, until at last the discomforted rackoons : but the runaway, bold and whole objects of his love were under his care. apparently happy, spoke to them in such cheering To provide for five individuals was no easy task, words, that at once, one and all seemed to regard me in those wilds, which, after the first notice was givas one sent by Providence to relieve them from all en of the wonderful disappearance of this extraorditheir troubles. My clothes were hung up by them nary family, were daily ransacked by armed planters. to dry, and the negro asked if he might clean and Necessity, it is said, will bring the wolf from the grease my gun, which I permitted him to do, while forest. The runaway seems to have well underthe wife threw a large piece of deer's flesh to my stood the maxim, for under night, he approached dog, which the children were already caressing. his first master's plantation, where he had ever been

Only think of my situation, reader! Here I was, treated with the greatest kindness. The houseten miles at least from home, and four or five from servants knew him too well not to aid him to the the nearest plantation, in the camp of runaway best of their power, and at the approach of each slaves, and quite at their mercy. My eyes involun- morning, he returned to his camp with an ample tarily followed their motions, but as I thought I per- supply of provisions. One day, while in search of ceived in them a strong desire to make me their wild fruits, he found a bear dead before the muzzle of confidant and friend, I gradually relinquished all sus- a gun, that had been set for the purpose. Both arpicion. The venison and potatoes looked quite ticles, he carried to his home. His friends at the tempting, and by this time, I was in a condition to plantation managed to supply him with some ammurelish much less savoury fare; so, on being humbly nition, and in damp and cloudy days, he first venasked to divide the riands before us, I partook of as tured to hunt around his camp. Possessed of hearty a meal as I had ever in my life.

courage and activity, he gradually became more Supper over, the fire was completely extinguish- careless, and rambled farther in search of game. It ed, and a small lighted pine-knot placed in a hol- was on one of these excursions, that I met him, and lowed calabash. Seeing that both the husband and he assured me that the noise which I made in wife were desirous of communicating something to passing the bayou, had caused him to lose the me, I at once and fearlessly desired them to unburden chance of killing a fine deer," although,” said he, their minds; when the runaway told me a tale of “ my old musket misses fire sadly too often." which the following is the substance :

The runaways, after disclosing their secret to me, About eighteen months before, a planter was re- both rose from their seat, with eyes full of tears. siding not very far off, having met with some loss- Good master, for God's sake, do something for us es, was obliged to expose his slaves at a publick and our children,” they sobbed forth with one accord. sale. The value of the negroes was well known, Their little ones lay sound asleep in the fearless, and on the appointed day, the auctioneer laid them ness of their innocence. Who could have heard out in small lots, or offered them singly, in the such a tale without emotion ? I promised them my manner which he judged most advantageous to most cordial assistance. They both sat up that night their owner. The runaway, who was well known to watch my repose, and I slept close to their uras being the most valuable next to his wife, was chins, as if on a bed of the softest down. půt up by himself for sale, and brought an immode- Day broke so fair, so pure, and so gladdening, rate price. For his wife, who came next, and that I told them such heavenly appearances were alone, eight hundred dollars were bidden and paid ominous of good, and that I scarcely doubted of obdown. Then the children were exposed, and, on taining their full pardon. I desired them to take account of their parents, brought high prices. The their children with them, and promised to accompany rest of the slaves went off at rates corresponding them to the plantation of their first master. They to their qualifications.

gladly obeyed. My ibises were hung around their The runaway chanced to be purchased by the camp, and, as a memento of my having been there, overseer of the plantation; the wife was bought I noticed several trees, after which I bade adieu, by an individual residing about a hundred miles off, perhaps for the last time, to that canebrake. We and the children went to different places along the soon reached the plantation, the owner of which, river. The heart of the husband and father failed with whom I was well acquainted, received me with him under this dire calamity. For awhile he pined all the generous kindness of a Louisiana planter. in deep sorrow under his new master ; but having Ere an hour had elapsed, the runaway and his family marked down in his memory the names of the dif- were looked upon as his own. He afterward referent persons who had purchased each dear portion purchased them from their owners, and treated them of his family, he feigned illness, if indeed he whose with his former kindness; so that they were renderaffections had been so grievously blasted, could be ed as happy as slaves generally are in that country, said to feign it, refrained from food for several days, and continued to cherish that attachment to cach and was little regarded by the overseer, who felt other which had led to their adventures. Since this himself disappointed in what he had considered a event happened, it has, I have been informed, bebargain.

come illegal to separate slave-families without their On a stormy night, when the elements raged consent.

Audubon. with all the fury of a hurricane, the poor negro inade his escape, and, being well acquainted with Philosophy and ReligION show themselves in all the neighbouring swamps, at once made direct- no instance so niuch as in the preserving our minds ly for the canebrake, in the centre of which I found | firm and steady.

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