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partly embracing the town, with the quay for its base. In these, some vessels ready for sea, others with their keels up, others again new built but not launched, with the din of hammers and general movement, give proof of active and extensive commerce. The port consists of three basins, separated by four sluices, which admit the passing of two frigates. The roadstead of Havre is capable of holding the whole navy of France, and may be entered with almost any wind. Its special commerce is the direct import of colonial produce, and the export of the manufactured goods and produce of France; but it carries on also an extensive trade with the United States of America and maritime states of Europe. Within a few years after the restoration of the Bourbons and the peace, it has taken the lead of all the French ports in the Atlantick, and especially invaded the trade of Bordeaux. There are two lighthouses on the summit of La Heve, which command a view of the sea at twenty leagues' distance. Havre has also considerable manufactures of several kinds, of which the principal are tobacco, cordage, lace, sugar, china, vitriol, paper, and cotton.
The town is surmounted by the beautiful suburb of Ingouville, on the brow of a hill, partly wooded, and partly studded with pretty houses, having an extensive view of the sea. Havre contains nearly thirty thousand inhabitants.
therefore called "Canton Bohea," being a mixture of refuse Congou with a coarse tea called Woping, the growth of the province. The better kind of Bohea comes from the district of that name in Fokien, and, having been of late esteemed equally with the lower Congou teas, has been packed in the same square chests, while the old Bohea package is of an oblong shape.
2. Congou, the next higher kind, is named from a corruption of the Chinese Koong-foo, “labour or assiduity." It formed for many years the bulk of the East India Company's cargoes; but the quality gradually fell off, in consequence of the partial abandonment of the old system of annual contracts, by which the Chinese merchants were assured of a remunerating price for the better sorts. The consumption of Bohea in this country has of late years increased, to the diminution of Congou, and the standard of the latter has been considerably lowered. A particular variety, called Campoi, is so called from a corruption of the original name, Kien-poey, "selectionchoice;" but it has ceased to be prized in this country, from the absence of strength-a characteristick which is stated to be generally esteemed beyond delicacy of flavour.
3. Souchong (Seaou-choong, "small or scarce sort") is the finest of the stronger black teas, with 3 leaf that is generally entire and curly, but more young than in the coarser kinds. What is called "Padre Souchong" is packed in separate paper bundles, of about half a pound each, and is so fine as to be used almost exclusively for presents. The probability is, that its use in that way by the Catholick missionaries first gave rise to the name. The finest kinds of Souchong are sometimes scented with the flowers of the Chloranthus inconspicuus, and Gardenia florida; and they cannot be obtained, even among the Chinese, except at dear prices. A highly crisped and curled leaf, called Sonchi, has lately grown into disrepute and been much discussed, in consequence of being often found to contain a ferruginous dust, which was probably not intended as a fraud, but arose from the nature of the ground, where the tea had been carelessly and dirtily packed. 4. Pekoe being composed mainly of the young spring buds, the gathering of these must, of course, be injurious in some degree to the future produce of the shrub, and this description of tea is accordingly both dear and small in quantity. With a view to preserve the fineness of flavour, the application of
MANUFACTURE OF TEA.
As tea has always held so principal a place in our intercourse with China, it requires some particular consideration, as an article of commerce. We have seen before, that the fineness and dearness of tea are determined by the tenderness and smallness of the leaf when picked. The various descriptions of the black diminish in quality and value as they are gathered later in the season, until they reach the lowest kind, called by us Bohea, and by the Chinese (Tacha) "large tea," on account of the maturity and size of the leaves. The early leaf buds in spring, being covered with a white silky down, are gathered to make Pekoe, which is a corruption of the Canton name, Pak-ho, "white down." A few days' longer growth produces what is here styled "black-leaved Pekoe." The more fleshy and matured leaves constitute Souchong; as they grow larger and coarser they form Congou; and the last and latest picking is Bohea. The tea farmers, who are small proprie- heat is very limited in drying the leaves, and hence tors or cultivators, give the tea a rough preparation, it is, that Pekoe is more liable to injury from keepand then take it to the contractors, whose business ing than any other sort of tea. There is a species it is to adapt its further preparation to the existing of Pekoe made in the green-tea country, from the nature of the demand. The different kinds of tea young buds, in like manner with the black kind; but may be considered in the ascending scale of their it is so little fired that the least damp spoils it; and value. for this reason, as well as on account of its scarcity and high price, the Hyson-pekoe, as some call it, has never been brought to England. The mandarins send it in very small canisters to each other, or to their friends, as presents, under the name of Loongtsing, which is probably the name of the distric where the tea is made.
1. Bohea, which in England is the name of a quality, has been already stated to be, in China, the name of a district where various kinds of black tea are produced. The coarse leaf brought under that name to this country is distinguished by containing a larger proportion of the woody fibre than other teas; its infusion is of a darker colour, and, as it has been more subjected to the action of fire, it keeps a longer time without becoming musty than the finer sorts. Two kinds of Bohea are brought from China: the lowest of these is manufactured on the spot, and
Green teas may generally be divided into five denominations, which are: 1, Twankay; 2, Hysonskin; 3, Hyson; 4, Gunpowder; 5, Young Hyson. Twankay tea has always formed the bulk of the green teas imported into this country, being used by
ing of the best rolled and roundest leaves, which give it that granular appearance whence it derives its name. For a similar reason the Chinese call it Choo-cha, "pearl tea." Young Hyson, until it was spoiled by the large demand of the Americans, was a genuine, delicate young leaf, called in the original language Yu-tsien, "before the rains," because gathered in the early spring. As it could not be fairly produced in any large quantities, the call for it on the part of the Americans was answered by cutting up and sifting other green tea through sieves of a certain size; and, as the company's inspectors detected the imposture, it formed no portion of their London importations. But the abuse became still worse of late, for the coarsest black tea leaves have been cut up, and then coloured with a preparation resembling the hue of green teas.
Nothing could be more ill-founded than the vulgar notion, once prevalent in this country, that the colour of green tea was derived from its being dried on plates of copper. Admitting that copper were the metal on which they were placed, it does not at all follow that they should assume such an appearance from the operation; but the pans really used on these occasions are of cast iron, of the same round or spherical shape as the tatch described under the head of chymistry. Each of these pans is bricked in, over a small furnace. A quantity of fresh leaves are placed in the pan, after it has been sufficiently heated, and stirred rapidly round by the hand, to expose them equally to the action of the heat, and at the same time prevent their burning. After being a little curled by this drying operation, they are taken out and twisted or rolled by hand to assist the natu ral tendency; and the process of curling is continued for a longer or shorter time, according to the nathe retailers to mix with the finer kinds. The leaf ture and quality of the tea. The hand seems to is older, and not so much twisted or rolled as in the have most to do in the case of green teas, and the dearer descriptions: there is altogether less care and fire in that of the black. In the preparation of the trouble bestowed on its preparation. It is, in fact, finer teas, much care and attention is bestowed on the Bohea of green teas; and the quantity of it the selection of the best leaves subsequent to drying; brought to England has fully equalled three fourths as in the separation of the hyson from its skin, or of the whole importation of green. Hyson skin" refuse-a business which falls to the lot of women is so named from the original Chinese term, in which and children. The tea, when prepared, is first of all connexion the skin means the refuse, or inferiour por-put up in baskets, and subsequently packed by the tion of any thing; in allusion, perhaps, to the hide contractors in chests and canisters. The black teas of an animal, or the rind of fruit. In preparing the are trodden down with the feet, to make them pack fine tea called Hyson, all those leaves that are of a closer: but the green-tea leaves would be crushed coarser, yellower, and less twisted or rolled appear- and broken by so rude a process; they are accordance, are set apart and sold as the refuse or "skin ingly only shaken into the chests. tea," at a much inferiour price. The whole quantity, therefore, depends on, and bears a proportion to, the whole quantity of Hyson manufactured, but seldom exceeds two or three thousand chests in all.
J. F. Davis.
The word Hyson is corrupted from the Chinese CHESS is the most celebrated and general of all name, which signifies "flourishing spring," this fine the sedentary games. One of the greatest charms sort of tea being of course gathered in the early part of this game lies, no doubt, in the circumstance, that of the season. Every separate leaf is twisted and whilst man is everywhere surrounded by chance, in rolled by hand, and it is on account of the extreme this game, as generally played, he has entirely excare and labour required in its preparation that the cluded it, except that it must be decided by chance best Hyson tea is so difficult to procure, and so ex- which of the two players shall begin. The game pensive. By way of keeping up its quality, the affords so much variety, so much scope for calculaEast India Company used to give a premium for the tion, so many opportunities to exhibit foresight and two best lots annually presented to them for selec- penetration, that it has been held in great esteem by tion; and the tea-merchants were stimulated to ex- all nations acquainted with it, and all persons who ertion, as much by the credit of the thing, as by the have conquered the difficulties of learning it. The actual gain in price. Gunpowder, as it is called, is Mohammedans except chess from the law against nothing but a more carefully picked Hyson, consist-gambling. Whilst this game affords enjoyment wor
Numerous anecdotes show how much the game of chess can absorb the mind. The Elector of Saxony, John Frederick, was taken prisoner in the battle at Muhlberg, by the emperour Charles V., and was playing at chess with his fellow-prisoner, Ernest of Brunswick, when it was intimated to him that the emperour had sentenced him to death. He paused for a moment to remark on the irregularity of the proceeding, and immediately resumed the game, which he won, and expressed in a lively manner the pleasure which he derived from his victory Charles XII. of Sweden played at chess when he was so closely besieged in a house near Bender, by the Turks. Al Amin, calif of Bagdad, would not be disturbed in chess playing when the city was carried by assault. Frederick the Great loved chess much. Napoleon did not play it particularly well.
Laws of the game.-1. If the board, or pieces, be
thy of mature minds, it is an excellent exercise for | from several taxes on condition that they would conthe young, as it teaches patience and circumspection, tinue to practise it. strengthens the judgement, and encourages perseverance, in a plan affording a prospect of eventual success, though at the moment the situation of things may appear very critical. The Chinese pretend to have known it two hundred years previous to our era. It was brought in the sixth century from India to Persia, whence it was spread by the Arabians and the crusaders all over the civilized world. It is most commonly used in Asia. In fact its whole composition and its name prove its Asiatick origin. In Sanscrit it is called schthrantsh, a word which is believed to indicate the most important component parts of an ancient Eastern army-elephants, infantry, baggagewagons, and horses. But this name was supplanted by the Persian term shah, (king,) which the game has retained, more on less corrupted, in all languages. A proof of the great antiquity of the game of chess in Great Britain, will be found in the curious discovery which was made in Scotland in 1831. A num-improperly placed, the mistake cannot be rectified ber of ancient chessmen were found, which are now after four moves on each side are played. 2. When deposited in the British Museum. a player has touched a piece, he must move it, unless it were to replace it; when he must say, J'adoube, or I replace. 3. When a player has quitted a piece, he cannot recall the move. 4. If a player touch one of his adversary's pieces without saying J'adoube, he may be compelled to take it, or, if it cannot be taken, to move his king. 5. When a pawn is moved two steps, it may be taken by any adversary's pawn which it passes, and the capturing pawn must be placed in that square over which the other leaps. 6. The king cannot castle if he has before moved, if he is in check, if in castling he passes a check, or if the rook has moved. 7. Whenever a player checks his adversary's king, he must say Check, otherwise the adversary need not notice the check. If the player should on the next move attack the queen, or any other piece, and then say Check, his adversary may replace his last move, and defend his king. 8. When a pawn reaches the first row of the adversary's side, it may be made a queen, or any other piece the player chooses. 9. If a false move be made, and is not discovered until the next move is completed, it cannot be recalled. 10. The king cannot be moved into check, nor within one square of the adverse king, nor can any player move a piece or pawn that leaves his king in check.
Generally, chess is played by two persons upon a board, the same as that used in draughts or checkers, of sixty-four squares. The board must be so placed that each player has a white square at right hand. The squares are named from the pieces, viz.: that on which the king is placed is called the king's square; that on which the king's pawn is placed, the king's second square; that before the pawn, the king's third square; the next, the king's fourth; and so on with all the pieces of each side. Each player has eight pieces and eight pawns. In placing the pieces, the ancient rule is to be followed-servat regina colorem (the queen maintains the colour)—that is, the black queen is to be placed on the black square in the middle of the line next to the player; in a similar way the white queen on the white field. On the side of the king and the queen stand the bishops then follow the two knights; and last, the rooks, or castles. The object of the game is to bring the adversary's king into such a situation that he cannot move, which is called checkmating. The king can never be taken. The play ends with a checkmate. (It is related of Dr. Franklin, that once playing chess in Paris, and being checkmated, he said, "Take the king; I am a republican, and don't care for him.") It is not uninteresting to consider the different names which the pieces have received in various countries. In the East the queen is called by the more proper name of vizier or general.
CLEAR starching, to be well done, requires very careful previous washing; and in the case of lawns, muslins, and similar fine articles, they must be wash
The bishops are called in Germany runners; and in France fools, (fous.) These were originally elephants, with giants on them. The knights are called in German leapers. The castles were originally war-ed the way the selvage runs, to prevent fraying, in chariots, which is also indicated by the word rook, very clear hot water, but not too hot, as very hot wa from the Indian roch or roth. With the old Germans ter is apt to give them a yellow tinge. Strain the the pawns, now called peasants, were styled Wen- water before using it through a clear cloth into a pan, den, (Vandals,) a tribe despised by the Germans. then take a small quantity, or according to the extent Don John of Austria had a room, the floor of which of the wash, of the best soap, put it upon a clean was made like a chessboard. On this he played stick, and therewith beat up a lather; but avoid using with living persons. The peasants of a German vil- a whisk in this process, as it is apt both to leave lage, Stropke, or Strobeck, near Halberstadt, for splinters in the water which may tear the things, about three hundred years, have been distinguished and to render the water yellow. as chessplayers. The most probable opinion is, that a certain bishop who lived among them made them acquainted with this game, and freed them
When the lather has been thus prepared, let the foulest of the light articles be put in one by one to soak out the dirt. They are then, while the water
is still warm, to be washed out one by one, which | a little gum-arabick or isingglass may be added. Warm prevents tearing. When well washed, let them be the water a little more than milk warm, in a very squeezed very hard between both hands, so as to clean saucepan over a clear fire, and strain it, if isingpress out all the foul suds; and, with the same view, glass be used; put in the starch, and slowly stir it when rinsing them out, shake them open into the pan round in one direction, till it just boils up and no they are put into. more; for, if it is allowed to boil long it renders it yellow. Take it off and pour it into a clean pan, covering it over with a plate till it becomes cold.
It will prevent the starch from being too sticky, if a small piece of rendered mutton suet be added to it; but some use a mould candle, stirring the starch about with it just before it boils.
It will also make the starch much clearer, and consequently will render the articles clearer, and make them keep longer, to prepare the water by putting into a pint of water, a piece of alum the size of a walnut, letting the whole come to a boil in a clean saucepan. Pour this out into a pan containing three pailfuls of water, cover it over, and let it stand twelve hours, when it will be rendered very clear and well adapted both for making clear starch, and for washing or rinsing fine articles.
Now prepare a second lather similar to the first, and let the water in this be considerably hotter, though not quite scalding hot. Into this lather let the articles be put one by one as before, letting them stand a little, but washing them out as before, while the water is warm, and squeezing them hard when taken out.
Prepare a third lather with water scalding hot, but not boiling, as that is apt to render the things yellow. Then put a small quantity of powder-blue into a cup with about as much water as will wet it, shaking the cup about to mix it when it is to be poured into the scalding water, and stirred about till it is sufficiently blue. Then a lather is to be made of it with soap as before, the yellowest articles being put in first, and the whole covered with a clean cloth. They may either be washed out whilst warm, or be allowed to stand all night, for all the foulness ought now to have disappeared, and standing in the water will tend to clear them.
In washing these articles out of the last lather, the blue ought all to be washed out, then they must be laid in clear spring or pump water. If there be not sufficient time to starch them all at once, let no more be done than there is time to finish; because lying in the starch will make them look yellow, and they may remain in the spring water till there is leisure to go on with the starching, provided this be not longer than two days, for fear of mildew.
It is not considered proper to boil fine articles, as it not only wears them soon out, but is apt to give them a yellow tinge. Fine articles should not have soap rubbed upon them, because the washing and rinsing them to get out the soap causes them to fray. Rinsing.—In order to rinse fine articles before starching, put some spring or pump water into a clean pan; and, putting a small portion of blue in a cup, wet with a little water, shake it so as to mix it, and put it into the water, in small quantities, stirring it about with the hand. Into this water, put the whitest of the fine articles one by one, previously squeezing them hard. Two or three will be enough at a time, for if many be put in, the blue will settle upon them, and make them appear clouded and marbled. When any blue does settle in this manner accidentally, let the parts be rubbed lightly by hand in the water, and it will not be difficult to get it off.
If any of the finer articles be yellow, a greater portion of blue added to the rinsing water will be advantageous.
After rinsing out the articles, let them be squeezed one by one between the hands very hard, for if any water be left in they will not take the starch. Then pull them out one by one with very dry hands; double them, and lay them on a clean dry cloth previously to the operation of starching. Some people starch the articles in a dry state, but this is not only apt to fray them, but makes them yellow and stiff.
Starching-For caps, muslins, and other fine articles, prepare the starch by taking a pint of spring or pump water to a quarter of a pound of starch; and
The made starch, when cold, is to be mixed with a little blue, by taking some blue in one hand and a portion of starch in the other, so as to incorporate them thoroughly. When blued starch is used, this is, of course, unnecessary. Care must be taken not to make the starch too blue, and no more should be made at once, than is to be immediately used; because, when allowed to stand, it tinges the articles yellow.
Let the articles, according to circumstances, be doubled by the selvages, and taking them one by one in the left hand, spread the starch upon them with the right, taking care not to put it on too thick. Put the starch first on one side and then on the other, without opening such articles as are double. It will be best in this process to begin first with the finest caps or the like, letting those of thicker fabrick come last, for the starch that comes out of the finer things will do well enough for those that are coarser, such as aprons and handkerchiefs, thin starch being best for thick fabricks, as thick starch renders them too stiff.
When the caps and other fine articles have been done over with the starch, and well kneaded with the fist doubled, till the starch sticks about the hands; they must then be wrung pretty hard and wiped with a dry cloth. They must afterward be opened out and rubbed very slightly through the hand.
Clapping. In the case of caps and other fine articles, when they have been opened and rubbed through the hands, take the two ends of the lappets or the corners of things so shaped to the middle of the article, and holding them in this manner, let them be clapped altogether between the hands very hard. During the process of clapping, the hands must be washed whenever any starch or wet adheres to them. After clapping, with very dry hands, let the articles be carefully pulled in two directions, being attentive not to produce any fraying; and this is readily caused by portions of starch sticking to the hands. While the articles are being pulled as just directed, they must, from time to time, be held up against the light, to ascertain whether they have been sufficiently clapped.
On looking through the articles when held up against the light, if any spot appears shining, from
the starch remaining there, it must be gently rubbed | procured with cloth nailed round the ends; then with the hand quite dry. When the things are clap- pulling out the cap in two directions, and holding by ped enough, they will stick to the hands and sepa- the edging with very dry hands, pin it down very rate easily. It is important to clap very hard and straight to the cloth on the ends of the board, taking very quick, to prevent the articles from being limber care to put the pins into the edging rather than in when dry. As soon as no shining spots appear when the body of the cap, which would leave holes that held against the light, the things will be clapped would not easily come out again. In this way, three enough. Nothing must be clapped single, for fear or four articles may be pinned down on the board of fraying and tearing. It will spoil the colour also according as it may be of size to receive them. The if the clapping is done near the fire, except in frosty articles must remain pinned on the board till they weather, when the cold will render this necessary. are quite dry, when the pins may be taken out and Ironing and getting up.-In the case of plain ar- the edging picked out with very dry hands, by holdticles, when they have been ascertained to be suf- ing the body of the cap quite tight. Every little ficiently clapped, let the hands be washed and very pucker and fold must thus be picked out on the board thoroughly dried, when the articles must be pulled by going twice over the edging. in two directions, and laid double on the ironing board, as evenly and smoothly as possible. Another article is to be doubled in the same manner and laid over the first, and then a third, till about six have been so laid. The first, which will be the driest, may then be ironed with a box iron. The articles should be nearly dry, but not quite, as they will iron more smoothly when slightly damp.
The articles thus picked out, must be ironed on a damp cloth with an iron not too hot.
Fine plain muslin articles ought to be ironed on clean soft woollen cloth; but in the case of thicker and coarser cottons, they ought to be first ironed on a damp cloth, and finished by ironing them on the wrong sides upon the ironing cloth.
In the case of edged caps, when they have been ascertained to be sufficiently clapped-and this is as easily done as in plain articles-a board ought to be
In the case of lawns and cambricks, after washing and rinsing them in the same manner as fine muslins, let them be dipped into very thin starch, squeezed out very hard, and wiped very hard with a dry cloth. They must also be clapped with great care, as they are apt to slit. When they have been folded up after clapping, let them be put into a clean pan, taking great care not to let them touch any wet, which, both in these articles and in muslins, leaves a thick sort of appearance instead of the fine semitransparent look on which their beauty depends.
Lawns and cambricks ought, like thick muslins, to be ironed on the wrong side on a damp cloth, with an iron not too hot.