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partly embracing the town, with the quay for its base. therefore called “Canton Bohea,” being a mixture In these, some vessels ready for sea, others with of refuse Congou with a coarse tea called Woping, their keels up, others again new built but not launch- the growth of the province. The better kind of Boed, with the din of hammers and general movement, hea comes from the district of that name in Fokien, give proof of active and extensive commerce. The and, having been of late esteemed equally with the port consists of three basins, separated by four slui- lower Congou teas, has been packed in the same ces, which admit the passing of two frigates. The square chests, while the old Bohea package is of an roadstead of Havre is capable of holding the whole oblong shape. navy of France, and may be entered with almost any 2. Congou, the next higher kind, is named from a wind. Its special commerce is the direct import of corruption of the Chinese Koong-foo, “ labour or ascolonial produce, and the export of the manufactured siduity.” It formed for many years the bulk of the goods and produce of France ; but it carries on also East India Company's cargoes; but the quality gradan extensive trade with the United States of Ameri- ually fell off, in consequence of the partial abandonca and maritime states of Europe. Within a few ment of the old system of annual contracts, by which years after the restoration of the Bourbons and the the Chinese merchants were assured of a remunerpeace, it has taken the lead of all the French ports ating price for the better sorts. The consumption in the Atlantick, and especially invaded the trade of of Bohea in this country has of late years increased, Bordeaux. There are two lighthouses on the sum- to the diminution of Congou, and the standard of the mit of La Heve, which command a view of the sea latter has been considerably lowered. A particular at twenty leagues' distance. Havre has also consid- variety, called Campoi, is so called from a corruperable manufactures of several kinds, of which the tion of the original name, Kien-poey, “ selectionprincipal are tobacco, cordage, lace, sugar, china, vit choice ;” but it has ceased to be prized in this counriol, paper, and cotton.
try, from the absence of strength—a characteristick The town is surmounted by the beautiful suburb which is stated to be generally esteemed beyond of Ingouville, on the brow of a hill, partly wooded, delicacy of flavour. and partly studded with pretty houses, having an ex 3. Souchong (Seaou-choong, “small or scarce tensive view of the sea. · Havre contains nearly sort") is the finest of the stronger black teas, with 3 thirty thousand inhabitants.
leaf that is generally entire and curly, but more young than in the coarser kinds. What is called
“Padre Souchong" is packed in separate paper MANUFACTURE OF TEA.
bundles, of about half a pound each, and is so fine
as to be used almost exclusively for presents. The As tea has always held so principal a place in our probability is, that its use in that way by the Cathointercourse with China, it requires some particular lick missionaries first gave rise to the name. The consideration, as an article of commerce. We have finest kinds of Souchong are sometimes scented seen before, that the fineness and dearness of tea are with the flowers of the Chloranthus inconspicuus, determined by the tenderness and smallness of the and Gardenia florida ; and they cannot be obtained, leaf when picked. The various descriptions of the even among the Chinese, except at dear prices. A black diminish in quality and value as they are gath- highly crisped and curled leaf, called Sonchi, has ered later in the season, until they reach the lowest lately grown into disrepute and been much discussed, kind, called by us Bohea, and by the Chinese (Ta- in consequence of being often found to contain a cha) “ large tea,” on account of the maturity and ferruginous dust, which was probably not intended size of the leaves. The early leaf buds in spring, as a fraud, but arose from the nature of the ground, being covered with a white silky down, are gathered where the tea had been carelessly and dirtily packed. to make Pekoe, which is a corruption of the Canton 4. Pekoe being composed mainly of the young name, Pak-ho, " white down." A few days' longer spring buds, the gathering of these must, of course, growth produces what is here styled " black-leaved be injurious in some degree to the future produce of Pekoe."" The more fleshy and matured leaves con- the shrub, and this description of tea is accordingly stitute Souchong ; as they grow larger and coarser both dear and small in quantity. With a view 19 they form Congou ; and the last and latest picking preserve the fineness of flavour, the application of is Bohea. The tea farmers, who are small proprie- heat is very limited in drying the leaves, and hence tors or cultivators, give the tea a rough preparation, it is, that Pekoe is more liable to injury from keepand then take it to the contractors, whose business ing than any other sort of tea. There is a species it is to adapt its further preparation to the existing of Pekoe made in the green-tea country, from the nature of the demand. The different kinds of tea young buds, in like manner with the black kind; but may be considered in the ascending scale of their it is so little fired that the least damp spoils it; and value.
for this reason, as well as on account of its scarcity 1. Bohea, which in England is the name of a and high price, the Hyson-pekoe, as some call it, quality, has been already stated to be, in China, the has never been brought to England. The mandarins name of a district where various kinds of black tea send it in very small canisters to each other, or to are produced. The coarse leaf brought under that their friends, as presents, under the name of Loong. name to this country is distinguished by containing tsing, which is probably the name of the districa a larger proportion of the woody fibre than other where the tea is made. teas ; its infusion is of a darker colour, and, as it has Green teas may generally be divided into five debeen more subjected to the action of fire, it keeps a nominations, which are : 1, 'Twankay; 2. Hysonlonger time without becoming musty than the finer skin; 3, Hyson ; 4, Gunpowder ; 5, Yeung Hyson. sorts. Two kinds of Bohea are brought from China : 'Twankay tea has always formed the bulk of the the lowest of these is manufactured on the spot, and green teas imported into this country, being used by
ing of the best rolled and roundest leaves, which give it that granular appearance whence it derives its name. For a similar reason the Chinese call it Choo-cha, "pearl tea." Young Hyson, until it was spoiled by the large demand of the Americans, was a genuine, delicate young leaf, called in the original language Yu-tsien,“ before the rains,” because gathered in the early spring. As it could not be fairly produced in any large quantities, the call for it on the part of the Americans was answered by cutting up and sifting other green tea through sieves of a certain size ; and, as the company's inspectors detected the imposture, it formed no portion of their London importations. But the abuse became still worse of late, for the coarsest black tea leaves have been cut up, and then coloured with a preparation resembling the hue of green teas.
Nothing could be more ill-founded than the vulgar notion, once prevalent in this country, that the colour of green tea was derived from its being dried on plates of copper. Admitting that copper were the metal on which they were placed, it does not at all follow that they should assume such an appearance from the operation ; but the pans really used on these occasions are of cast iron, of the same round or spherical shape as the tatch described under the head of chymistry. Each of these pans is bricked in, over a small furnace. A quantity of fresh leaves are placed in the pan, after it has been sufficiently heated, and stirred rapidly round by the hand, to expose them equally to the action of the heat, and at the same time prevent their burning. After being a little curled by this drying operation, they are takeri
out and twisted or rolled by hand to assist the natu[Tea-plant.)
ral tendency; and the process of curling is continu
ed for a longer or shorter time, according to the nathe retailers to mix with the finer kinds. The leaf ture and quality of the tea. The hand seems to is older, and not so much twisted or rolled as in the have most to do in the case of green teas, and the dearer descriptions: there is altogether less care and fire in that of the black. In the preparation of the trouble bestowed on its preparation. It is, in fact, finer teas, much care and attention is bestowed on the Bohea of green teas; and the quantity of it the selection of the best leaves subsequent to drying; brought to England has fully equalled three fourths as in the separation of the hyson from its skin, or of the whole importation of green. Hyson skin” refuse—a business which falls to the lot of women is so named from the original Chinese term, in which and children. The tea, when prepared, is first of all connexion the skin means the refuse, or inferiour por- put up in baskets, and subsequently packed by the tion of any thing; in allusion, perhaps, to the hide contractors in chests and canisters. The black teas of an animal, or the rind of fruit. In preparing the are trodden down with the feet, to make them pack fine tea called Hyson, all those leaves that are of a closer: but the green-tea leaves would be crushed coarser, yellower, and less twisted or rolled appear and broken by so rude a process; they are accordance, are set apart and sold as tlre refuse or “skin ingly only shaken into the chests. J. F. Davis. tea," at a much inferiour price. The whole quantity, therefore, depends on, and bears a proportion to the whole quantity of Hyson manufactured, but seldom exceeds two or three thousand chests in all.
CHESS. The word Hyson is corrupted from the Chinese Chess is the most celebrated and generul of all name, which signifies“ flourishing spring,” this fine the sedentary games. One of the greatest charms sort of tea being of course gathered in the early part of this game lies, no doubt, in the circumstance, that of the season. Every separate leaf is twisted and whilst man is everywhere surrounded by chance, in rolled by hand, and it is on account of the extreme this game, as generally played, he has entirely excare and labour required in its preparation that the cluded it, except that it must be decided by chance best Hyson tea is so difficult to procure, and so ex. which of the two players shall begin. The game pensive. By way of keeping up its quality, the affords so much variety, so much scope for calcula. East India Company used to give a premium for the tion, so many opportunities to exhibit foresight and iwo best lots annually presented to them for selec- penetration, that it has been held in great esteem by tion ; and the tea-merchants were stimulated to ex-all nations acquainted with it, and all persons who ertion, as much by the credit of the thing, as by the have conquered the difficulties of learning it. The actual gain in price. Gunpowder, as it is called, is Mohammedans except chess from the law against nothing but a more carefully picked Hyson, consist-gambling. Whilst this game affords onjoyment wor
thy of mature minds, it is an excellent exercise for from several taxes on condition that they would conthe young, as it teaches patience and circumspection, tinue to practise it. strengthens the judgement, and encourages perseve- Numerous anecdotes show how much the game of rance, in a plan affording a prospect of eventual suc- chess can absorb the inind. The Elector of Saxony, cess, though at the moment the situation of things John Frederick, was taken prisoner in the battle at may appear very critical. The Chinese pretend to Muhlberg, by the emperour Charles V., and was playhave known it two hundred years previous to our ing at chess with his fellow-prisoner, Ernest of
It was brought in the sixth century from India Brunswick, when it was intimated to him that the to Persia, whence it was spread by the Arabians and emperour had sentenced him to death. He paused the crusaders all over the civilized world. It is most for a moment to remark on the irregularity of the commonly used in Asia. In fact its whole composi- proceeding, and immediately resumed the game, tion and its name prove its Asiatick origin. In San- which he won, and expressed in a lively manner the scrit it is called schthrantsh, a word which is believed pleasure which he derived from his victory Charles to indicate the most important component parts of an XII. of Sweden played at chess when he was so ancient Eastern army-elephants, infantry, baggage- closely besieged in a house near Bender, by the wagons, and horses. But this name was supplanted Turks. Al Amin, calif of Bagdad, would not be by the Persian term shah, (king,) which the game disturbed in chessplaying when the city was carhas retained, more on less corrupted, in all languages. ried by assault. Frederick the Great loved chess A proof of the great antiquity of the game of chess much. Napoleon did not play it particularly well. in Great Britain, will be found in the curious discov- Laws of ihe game.-1. If the board, or pieces, be ery which was made in Scotland in 1831. A num- improperly placed, the mistake cannot be rectified ber of ancient chessmen were found, which are now after four moves on each side are played. 2. When deposited in the British Museum.
a player has touched a piece, he must move it, unless Generally, chess is played by two persons upon a it were to replace it; when he must say, J'adoube, or board, the same as that used in draughts or checkers, I replace. 3. When a player has quitied a piece, he of sixty-four squares. The board must be so placed cannot recall the move. 4. If a player touch one of that each player has a white square at his right hand. his adversary's pieces without saying J'adoube, he The squares are named from the pieces, viz. : that may be compelled to take it, or, if it cannot be taken, on which the king is placed is called the king's to move his king. 5. When a pawn is moved iwo square ; that on which the king's pawn is placed, the steps, it may be taken by any adversary's pawn king's second square ; that before the pawn, the king's which it passes, and the capturing pawn must be third square ; the next, the king's fourth ; and so on placed in that square over which the other leaps. with all the pieces of each side. Each player has 6. The king cannot castle if he has before moved, eight pieces and eight pawns. In placing the pieces, if he is in check, if in castling he passes a check, or the ancient rule is to be followed-servat regina co- if the rook has moved. 7. Whenever a player checks lorem (the queen maintains the colour)--that is, the his adversary's king, he must say Check, otherwise black queen is to be placed on the black square in the adversary need not notice the check. If the the middle of the line next to the player; in a simi- player should on the next move attack the queen, or lar way the white queen on the white field. On the any other piece, and then say Check, his adversary side of the king and the queen stand the bishops : may replace his last move, and defend his king. 8. then follow the two knights; and last, the rooks, or when a pawn reaches the first row of the adversary's castles. The object of the game is to bring the ad- side, it may be made a queen, or any other piece the versary's king into such a situation that he cannot player chooses. 9. If a false move be made, and move, which is called checkmating. The king can is not discovered until the next move is completed, never be taken. The play ends with a checkmate. it cannot be recalled. 10. The king cannot be mor(It is related of Dr. Franklin, that once playing chess ed into check, nor within one square of the adverse in Paris, and being checkmated, he said, " Take the king, nor can any player move a piece or pawn that king; I am a republican, and don't care for him.”) leaves his king in check. It is not uninteresting to consider the different names which the pieces have received in various countries. In the East the queen is called by the more proper name of vizier or general.
HOUSEHOLD DUTIES. The bishops are called in Germany runners; and
Clear starching, to be well done, requires very in France fools, (fous) These were originally ele careful previous washing; and in the case of lawns, phants, with giants on them. The knights are called muslins, and similar fine articles, they must be washin German leapers. The castles were originally war- ed the way the selvage runs, to prevent fraying, in chariots, which is also indicated by the word rook, very clear hot water, but not too hot, as very hot wafrom the Indian roch or roth. With the old Germans ter is apt to give them a yellow tinge. Strain the the pawns, now called peasants, were styled Wen- water before using it through a clear cloth into a pan, den, (Vandals,) a tribe despised by the Germans. then take a small quantity, or according to the extent Don John of Austria had a room, the floor of which of the wash, of the best soap, put it upon a clean was made like a chessboard. On this he played stick, and therewith beat up a lather ; but avoid using with living persons. The peasants of a German vil- a whisk in this process, as it is apt both to leave lage, Stropke, or Strobeck, near Halberstadt, for splinters in the water which may tear the things, about three hundred years, have been distinguished and to render the water yellow. as chessplayers. The most probable opinion is, When the lather has been thus prepared, let the that a certain bishop who lived among them made foulest of the light articles be put in one by one to them acquainted with this game, and freed them soak out the dirt. They are then, while the water
is still warm, to be washed out one by one, which a little gum-arabick or isingglass may be added. Warm prevents tearing. When well washed, let them be the water a little more than milk warm, in a very squeezed very hard between both hands, so as to clean saucepan over a clear fire, and strain it, if isingpress out all the foul suds; and, with the same view, glass be used; put in the starch, and slowly stir it when rinsing them out, shake them open into the pan round in one direction, till it just boils up and no they are put into.
more ; for, if it is allowed to boil long it renders it Now prepare a second lather similar to the first, yellow. Take it off and pour it into a clean pan, and let the water in this be considerably hotter, covering it over with a plate till it becomes cold. though not quite scalding hot. Into this lather let It will prevent the starch from being too sticky, the articles be put one by one as before, letting them if a small piece of rendered mutton suet be added to stand a little, but washing them out as before, while it; but some use a mould candle, stirring the starch the water is warm, and squeezing them hard when about with it just before it boils. taken out.
It will also make the starch much clearer, and Prepare a third lather with water scalding hot, but consequently will render the articles clearer, and not boiling, as that is apt to render the things yellow. make them keep longer, to prepare the water by putThen put a small quantity of powder-blue into a cup ting into a pint of water, a piece of alum the size of with about as much water as will wet it, shaking the a walnut, letting the whole come to a boil in a clean cup about to mix it when it is to be poured into the saucepan. Pour this out into a pan containing three scalding water, and stirred about till it is sufficiently pailfuls of water, cover it over, and let it stand iwelve blue. Then a lather is to be made of it with soap hours, when it will be rendered very clear and well as before, the yellowest articles being put in first, adapted both for making clear starch, and for washand the whole covered with a clean cloth. They ing or rinsing fine articles. may either be washed out whilst warm, or be allowed The made starch, when cold, is to be mixed with to stand all night, for all the foulness ought now to a little blue, by taking some blue in one hand and a have disappeared, and standing in the water will portion of starch in the other, so as to incorporate tend to clear them.
them thoroughly. When blued starch is used, this In washing these articles out of the last lather, the is, of course, unnecessary.
Care must be taken not blue ought all to be washed out, then they must be to make the starch too blue, and no more should be laid in clear spring or pump water. If there be not made at once, than is to be immediately used; besufficient time to starch them all at once, let no more cause, when allowed to stand, it tinges the articles be done than there is time to finish; because lying yellow. in the starch will make them look yellow, and ihey Let the articles, according to circumstances, be may remain in the spring water till there is leisure doubled by the selvages, and taking them one by one to go on with the starching, provided this be not in the left hand, spread the starch upon them with longer than two days, for fear of mildew.
the right, taking care not to put it on too thick. Put It is not considered proper to boil fine articles, as the starch firsi on one side and then on the other, it not only wears them soon out, but is apt to give without opening such articles as are double. It will them a yellow tinge. Fine articles should not have be best in this process to begin first with the finest soap rubbed upon them, because the washing and caps or the like, letting those of thicker fabrick come rinsing them to get out the soap causes them to fray. last, for the starch ihat comes out of the finer things
Rinsing.-In order to rinse fine articles before will do well enough for those that are coarser, such starching, put some spring or pump water into a clean as aprons and handkerchiefs, thin starch being best pan; and, putting a small. portion of blue in a cup, for thick fabricks, as thick starch renders them too wet with a little water, shake it so as to mix it, and stiff. put it into the water, in small quantities, stirring it When the caps and other fine articles have been about with the hand. Into this water, put the whitest done over with the starch, and well kneaded with of the fine articles one by one, previously squeezing the fist doubled, till the starch sticks about the hands; them hard. Two or three will be enough at a time, they must then be wrung pretty hard and wiped with for if many be put in, the blue will settle upon them, a dry cloth. They must afterward be opened out and make them appear clouded and marbled. When and rubbed very slightly through the hand. any blue does settle in this manner accidentally, let Clapping.-In the case of caps and other fine arthe parts be rubbed lightly by hand in the water, and ticles, when they have been opened and rubbed it will not be difficult to get it off.
through the hands, take the two ends of the lappets If any of the finer articles be yellow, a greater or the corners of things so shaped to the middle of portion of blue added to the rinsing water will be the article, and holding them in this manner, let advantageous.
them be clapped altogether between the hands very After rinsing out the articles, let them be squeez- hard. During the process of clapping, the hands ed one by one between the hands very hard, for must be washed whenever any starch or wet adheres if any water be left in they will not take the starch. to them. After clapping, with very dry hands, let Then pull them out one by one with very dry the articles be carefully pulled in two directions, behands ; double them, and lay them on a clean ing attentive not to produce any fraying ; and this is dry cloth previously to the operation of starching. readily caused by portions of starch sticking to the Some people starch the articles in a dry state, but hands. While the articles are being pulled as just this is not only apt to fray them, but makes them directed, they must, from time to time, be held up yellow and stiff
against the light, to ascertain whether they have Starching.--For caps, muslins, and other fine ar- been sufficiently clapped. ticles, prepare the starch by taking a pint of spring On looking through the articles when held up or pump water to a quarter of a pound of starch ; and against the light, if any spot appears shining, from
the starch remaining there, it must be gently rubbed procured with cloth nailed round the ends ; then with the hand quite dry. When the things are clap- pulling out the cap in two directions, and holding by ped enough, they will stick to the hands and sepa- the edging with very dry hands, pin it down very rate easily. It is important to clap very hard and straight to the cloth on the ends of the board, taking very quick, to prevent the articles from being limber care to put the pins into the edging rather than in when dry. As soon as no shining spots appear when the body of the cap, which would leave holes that held against the light, the things will be clapped would not easily come out again. In this way, three enough. Nothing must be clapped single, for fear or four articles may be pinned down on the board of fraying and tearing. It will spoil the colour also according as it may be of size to receive them. The if the clapping is done near the fire, except in frosty articles must remain pinned on the board till they weather, when the cold will render this necessary. are quite dry, when the pins may be taken out and
Ironing and getting up.—In the case of plain ar- the edging picked out with very dry hands, by holdticles, when they have been ascertained to be suf- ing the body of the cap quite right. Every little ficiently clapped, let the hands be washed and very pucker and fold must thus be picked out on the board thoroughly dried, when the articles must be pulled by going twice over the edging. in two directions, and laid double on the ironing The articles thus picked out, must be ironed on a board, as evenly and smoothly as possible. Another damp cloth with an iron not too hot. article is to be doubled in the same manner and laid In the case of lawns and cambricks, after washover the first, and then a third, till about six have ing and rinsing them in the same manner as fine been so laid. The first, which will be the driest, muslins, let them be dipped into very thin starch, may then be ironed with a box iron. The articles squeezed out very hard, and wiped very hard with a should be nearly dry, but not quite, as they will iron dry cloth. They must also be clapped with great more smoothly when slightly damp.
care, as they are apt to slit. When they have been Fine plain muslin articles ought to be ironed on a folded up after clapping, let them be put into a clean clean soft woollen cloth; but in the case of thicker pan, taking great care not to let them louch any wet, and coarser cottons, they ought to be first ironed on which, both in these articles and in muslins, leaves a damp cloth, and finished by ironing them on the a thick sort of appearance instead of the fine semiwrong sides upon the ironing cloth.
transparent look on which their beauty depends. In the case of edged caps, when they have been Lawns and cambricks ought, like thick muslins, ascertained to be sufficiently clapped—and this is as to be ironed on the wrong side on a damp cloth, with easily done as in plain articles—a board ought to be an iron not too hot.