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LIVING COSTUMES.

oured when among them, to learn the causo which The little canton of Soleure is wedged in between first excited them to war, and the time when it comthe territories of Berne, Zurich and Basle: its great- menced, but they can give no rational account of est breadth is thirty miles, and its length thirty-six : it either. An intelligent Chippeway chief informed bas an area of two hundred and seventy-five square me, that the disputed boundary between them, was miles, and a population of 54,300 persons. The pop- a subject of little importance, and the question reulation of the capital of this country, is only 3,600, specting it, would be easily adjusted. He appeared yet this small spot is independent and in its princi- to think they fought, because their fathers fought pal city you will find curious monuments, an inter- before them. esting arsenal, a penitentiary, a well-regulated col

This war has been waged with various success, lege, libraries rich in rare books, and a great many and in its prosecution, instances of courage and selfcapable and intelligent men. The capital of this devotion have occurred, within a few years, that canton bears the name of Soleure: it stands at the foot would not have disgraced the pages of Grecian, or of mount Jura, and is divided by the river Aar, into of Roman history. Some years since, mutually two parts ; it is fortified with walls and bastions. weary of hostilities, the chiefs of both nations met The environs are pleasant and picturesque. This and agreed upon a truce. But the Sioux, disregardcity is very ancient and many Roman antiquities have ing the solemn contract which they had formed, and been found in it.

actuated by some sudden impulse, attacked the The canton of Soleure embraces a part of the Chippeways, and murdered a number of them. The chain of the Jura, and on the river Aar the country old Chippeway chief, who descended the Mississippi is flat, well-wooded, and contains abundance of fruit with us, was present on this occasion, and owed his trees, fertile fields and prairies, which are kept moist life to the intrepidity and generous self-devotion of by the Aar, and by a number of other streams. a Sioux chief. This man entreated, remonstrated,

The population of the canton of Soleure is almost and threatened. He urged his countrymen, by every entirely composed of Catholicks : the clergy possess motive, to abstain from any violation of their faith, great influence and to their sacerdotal functions add | and when he found his remonstrances useless, he that of instruction. In the city of Soleure there is attached himself to the Chippeway chief, and avowed one ecclesiastick, for about every eighty inhabitants. his determination of saving or perishing with him. Most of the population are engaged in agricultural Awed by his intrepidity, the Sioux finally agreed that pursuits : there are some cotton factories, but the he should ransom the Chippeway, and he accordprincipal article of trade is the exportation of horses, ingly applied to this object all the property which catile, firewood, cheese, and the famous kirch-wasser. he owned. He then accompanied the Chippeway

on his journey, until he considered him safe from any party of the Sioux who might be disposed to follow him.

The Sioux are much more numerous than the INDIAN WRITTEN LANGUAGE.

Chippeways, and would have overpowered them The following very interesting incident of Indian long since, had the operations of the former been life, was written by Governour Cass, our present consentaneous; but they are divided into so many minister to France, while on one of those numerous different bands, and are scattered over such an missions to the aboriginal tribes, in which his integ- extensive country, that their efforts have no comrity, sagacity, and deep knowledge of the Indian bination. character, achieved so many beneficial results for Believing it equally inconsistent with humanity the United States, as well as for the outcast children and sound policy, that these border contests should of the forest themselves, by the amicable relations be suffered to continue, satisfied that government which he established, and the treaties which he would approve of any plan of pacification which made between them and our government; and is might be adopted, and feeling that the Indians have published now by his kind permission. It was the a full portion of moral and physical evils, without practice of Governour Cass, while on these expe- adding to them the calamities of war, which had no ditions, to record minutely all the interesting partic- definite object, and no probable termination, on our ulars, and the facts respecting the history, habits, and arrival at Sandy lake, I proposed to the Chippeway characters of the Indian tribes, which practical ac- chiefs, that a deputation should accompany us to the quaintance brought under the knowledge of a saga- mouth of the St. Peter's, with a view to establish a cious and inquiring mind. By such a man, what permanent peace between them and the Sioux. The valuable materials for an authentick history of that Chippeways readily acceded to this proposition, and remarkable and perishing race, will not these doc- ten of their principal men descended the Mississippi uments present. We hope from time to time, to with us. bave the high gratification of presenting further ex- The computed distance from Sandy lake to the tracts to the publick.

St. Peter's, is six hundred miles ; and a considerable An incident occurred, during a recent tour to the portion of the country has been the theatre of hostile Northwest, so rare in itself, and which so clearly enterprises. The Mississippi here traverses the shows the facility with which communications may immense plains which extend to the Missouri, and be opened between savage nations, without the in- which present to the eye a spectacle at once intertervention of letters, that I have thought it would be esting and fatiguing. Scarcely the slightest variain teresting to communicate to you.

tion in the surface occurs, and they are entirely desThe Chippeways and Sioux are hereditary en- titute of timber. In this debateable land the game emies, and Charlevoix says they were at war when is very abundant. Buffaloes, elks, and deers, range the French first reached the Mississippi. I endeav- unharmed, and unconscious of harm. The mutual

(From the Georgetown Metropolitan.)

hostilities of the Chippeways and Sioux, render it for the restoration of peace, had sent a number of dangerous for either, except in strong parties, to visit their young men into these plains with a similar this portion of the country. The consequence has piece of bark, upon which they had represented their been a great increase of all the animals whose flesh desire. is used for food, or whose fur is valuable for market. This bark had been left hanging to a tree, in an We found herds of buffalo quietly feeding on the exposed situation, and had been found and taken plains. There is little difficulty in approaching suf- away by a party of Sioux. ficiently near to kill them. With an eagerness The proposition had been examined and discussed which is natural to all hunters, and with an improv- in the Sioux villages, and the bark which was found idence which always attend those excursions, the contained their answer. The Chippeway who had animals are frequently killed without any necessity, prepared the bark for his tribe was with us ; and on and no other part is then preserved but the tongue. our arrival at St. Peter's, finding that it was lost, I re

There is something extremely novel and interest- quested him to make another. He did so, and proing in this pursuit. The immense plain, extending duced what I have no doubt was a perfect fac simile. as far as the eye can reach, is spotted here and The Chippeways explained to us with great facilius, there with droves of buffaloes. The distance, and the intention of the Sioux, and apparently with as the absence of known objects, render it difficult to much readiness as if some common character had estimate the number or the size of these animals. been established between them. The hunters approach them cautiously, keeping to The junction of the St. Peter's with the Missisthe leeward, lest the buffaloes, whose scent is very sippi, where the principal part of the Sioux reside. acute, should observe them. The moment a gun is was represented, and also the American fort, with a fired, the buffaloes scatter, and scour the field in sentinel on duty, and the flag flying. The principal every direction. Unwieldy as they appear, they Sioux chief was named the Six, alludiny, I believe, move with celerity. It is difficult to divert them to the band of villages under his influence. To from their course, and the attempt is always hazard- show that he was not present at the deliberatiou ous. One of the party barely escaped with his life upon the subject of peace, he was represented upon from this act of temerity. The hunters who are sta- a smaller piece of bark, which was attached to the tioned on different parts of the plain, fire as the ani- other. To identify him, he was drawn up with six mats pass them. The repeated discharge of guns heads and a large medal. Another Sioux chief in every direction, and the shouts of those who are stood in the foreground, holding a pipe in his right engaged in the pursuit, and the sight of the buffaloes hand, and his weapons in his left. Even we could at full speed on every side, give an animation to the not misunderstand that, like our own eagle with the scene which is rarely equalled.

olive-branch and arrows, he was desirous of peace, The droves which we saw were comparatively but prepared for war. small. Some of the party, whom we found at St. The Sioux party contained fifty-nine warriours, and Peter's, and who had arrived at that place by land this number was indicated by fifty-nine guns, which from the Council Bluffs, estimated one of the droves were drawn upon one corner of the bark. The only which they saw to contain two thousand buffaloes. subject which occasioned any difficulty in the inter.

As we neared this part of the country, we found pretation of the Chippeways, was owing to an inciour Chippeway friends cautions and observing. The dent of which they were ignorant. Aag of the United States was flying over all our ca The encampment of our troops had been removed noes, and, thanks to the character which our country from the low grounds upon the St. Peter's, to a high acquired by the events of the last war, I found, in hill upon the Mississippi : iwo forts were therefore our progress through the whole Indian country, after drawn upon the bark, and the solution of this enig. we had once left the great line of communication, ma could not be discovered until our arrival at Si. that this flag was a passport which rendered our Peter's. The effect of the discovery of this bark journey safe. We consequently felt assured that no upon the minds of the Chippeways was visible and wandering party of the Sioux would attack even their immediate. Their doubts and apprehensions apenemies while under our protection. But the peared to be removed, and during the residue of the Chippeways could not appreciate the influence the journey, their conduct and feelings where completeAmerican flag would have upon other nations, nor is ly changed. it probable they estimated with much accuracy the The Chippeway bark was drawn in the same motives which induced us to assume the character general manner, and Sandy lake, the principal of an umpire. The Chippeways landed occasionally place of their residence, was represented with much to examine whether any of the Sioux had recently accuracy. To remove any doubts respecting it, a visited that quarter. In one of these excursion, a view was given of the old northwestern establishChippeway found in a conspicuous place a piece of ment, situated upon the shore, and now in the posbirch bark, made flat by being fastened between two session of the American Fur Company. No prosticks at each end, and about eighteen inches long by portion was preserved in their attempt at delineation. two broad. This bark contained the answer of the One mile of the Mississippi, including the mouth Sioux nation to the proposition which had been made of the St. Peter's, occupied as much space as the by the Chippeways for a termination of hostilities. whole distance to Sandy lake, nor was there any So sanguinary had been the contest betwen these thing to show that one part was niearer to the spectribes, that no personal communication could take tator than another; yet the object of each party was place. Neither the sanctity of office, nor the impor- completely obtained. Speaking languages radically tance of the message, could protect the ambassador different from each other for the Sioux constituie of either party from the vengeance of the other. one of the three general divisions, into which the Some time preceding, the Chippeways, anxious early French writers have arranged the aborigines

of our country, while the Chippeways are a branch words, and the attempt must lead us into the regions of what they call the Algonquins—and without any of fancy. conventional character established between them, The Sioux language is probably one of the most these savages had thus opened a communication barren which is spoken by any of our aboriginal upon the most important subject which could occu- tribes. Col. Leavenworth, who made considerable py their attention. Propositions leading to a peace proficiency in it, calculated, I believe, that the numwere made and accepted, and the simplicity of the ber of words did not exceed one thousand. They mode could only be equalled by the distinctness of use more gestures in their conversation than any the representations, and by the ease with which they Indians I have seen, and this is a necessary result were understood.

of the poverty of their language. An incident like this, of rare occurrence at the present day, and throwing some light upon the mode of communication before the invention of letters,

THE EYELIDS. excited in us all, as may be expected, the greatest There is a small gristle placed like pasteboard in interest. It is only necessary to add, that on our the edge of each eyelid, which retains them in form, arrival at St. Peter's, we found that Col. Leaven- and keeps them nicely fitted to the eye. Behind worth had been as attentive and indefatigable upon this grisile there are a number of glands that prethis subject, as upon every other which fell within påre an oily fluid, which passes through certain the sphere of his command.

holes at the edge of each eyelid, for keeping them During the preceding winter, he visited a tribe of from sticking to each other, and preventing the tears the Chippeways upon this pacifick mission, and had, from running upon the cheek, as water does not pass with the aid of the agent, Mr. Taliferro, prepared readily over a vessel, the edge of which is smeared the minds of both tribes for a permanent peace. with oil. The Sioux and Chippeways met in council, at which we all attended, and smoked the pipe of peace together. They then, as they say in their figurative language, buried the tomahawk so deep that it could never be dug up again, and our Chippe

-2 way friends departed well satisfied with the results of the mission.

We discovered a remarkable coincidence, as well in the sound as in the application, between a word in the Sioux language and one in our own. The circumstance is singular, and I deem it worthy of notice. The Sioux call the falls of St. Anthony, Ha, Ha, and the pronunciation is in every respect similar to the same word in the English language. I could not learn that this word was used for any other purpose, and I believe it is contined in its application to that place alone.

7 The traveller, in ascending the Mississippi, turns a projecting point, and these falls suddenly appear before him at a short distance. Every man, savage or civilized, must be struck with the magnificent spectacle which immediately opens to his view. 'There is an assemblage of objects, which, added to the solitary grandeur of the scene, to the height of the cataract, and to the eternal roar of its waters, inspire the spectator with awe and admiration.

In his anecdotes of painting, it is stated by Hor- a The gland which prepares the tears. b The ace Walpole, that “ on the intervention of fosses for opening by which they are poured out on the inside boundaries, the common people called them Ha, Ha, of the eye. c The glands which prepare the oily to express their surprise at finding a sudden and un- Auid that prevents the tears from running on the perceived check to their walk." I believe the name cheek. The orifice of the lachrymal passage. is yet used in this manner in England.

e The points which take up the tears from the eye, It is certainly not a little remarkable that the and by which they are conveyed to the nose. same word should be applied by one of the most The gland for preparing the tears is of the size civilized and by one of the most barbarous people, of an almond, and sunk into a depression of the to objects, which, although not the same, were yet bone at the upper part of the cheek. The fluid calculated to excite the admiration of the observer. which it prepares passes to the inside of the upper

Nothing can show more clearly how fallacious eyelid by seven orifices; it is prevented from runare those deductions of comparative etymology ning on the cheek by the oily fluid from the small which are founded upon a few words, carefully i glands, and is collected at the inner corner of the gleaned, here and there, from languages having no eye from which unless too abundant it is conveyed common origin, and which are used by people hav- into the tear-bag f, through two little pipes, the opening neither connexion nor intercourse. The common descent of two nations can never be traced by ogy, by W. C. Wallace, Oculist to the New York Institution for

* "The Structure of the Eye with Reference to Natural Theol. the accidental consonance of a few syllables or the Blind."

[graphic]
[graphic]

ings of which are situated at the inner corner of , a The oblique muscle, through the edge of which each eyelid ; from the tear-bag s, it passes into the the pyramidal muscle b plays over the hook d. nose where it is evaporated.

To supply the necessities of birds, which are observed during their rapid movements among branches of trees, they have a third eyelid, which, when drawn over the eye, is an effectual protection of the organ by its toughness; and by its partial transparency, vision is not altogether obscured. It is moved by

[graphic]
[graphic]

(Eye of Rhinoceros. 1

two flat muscles, which, having no room elsewhere, b

are closely applied to the back of the eye. One of the edges of the broader muscle, resembles a string case, through which passes the tendon or cord of the other muscle, which is fixed to the membrane. In the owl there is a small hook projecting from the circle of bone which surrounds the clear part of the eye ; when the muscles act they pull the cord over this hook and draw the membrane across the eye.

The eyes of quadrupeds are also furnished with a third eyelid called the haw, on the internal surface of which there is a gland that prepares a gummy fluid, which the animal sweeps across the eye to keep it moist and transparent. In the rhinoceros, this gland is of enormous size when compared with other animals. This animal is said to plough the ground with its horn, and to throw earth and dust

on its enemies; the eye is consequently much ex(Muscles and Third Eyelid of Owl.]

posed, and requires unusual protection.

A STORY OF LAKE ERIE.

projecting branches. He sat astride upon this, alAn Indian woman and her child, who was about most beyond the reach of the surges, while she five years old, were travelling along the beach to a continued watching him in an agony of grief, hesi. camp a few miles distant. The boy observed some tating whether she should endeavour to find her wild grapes growing upon the top of the bank, and way to camp, and procure assistance, or remain expressed such a desire to obtain them, that his near her boy. However, evening was about to mother, seeing a ravine at a little distance, by which close, and, as she could not proceed through the she thought she could gain the edge of the preci- woods in the dark, she resolved at least to wait unpice, resolved to gratify him. Having desired him til the moon rose. She sat on the top of the precito remain where he was, she ascended the steep, pice a whole hour, and, during that time, occasionand was allured much farther into the woods than ally ascertained that her sun was alive, by hearing she at first intended. In the meantime, the wind his cries amidst the roaring of the waves; but when began to blow vehemently, but the boy wandered the moon appeared he was not to be seen. She carelessly along the beach, seeking for shells, till now felt convinced that he was drowned, and give the rapid rise of the water rendered it impossible ing way to utter despair, threw herself on the curf. for him to return to the spot where he had been left Presently she heard a feeble voice cry, (in Indian,) by his mother. He immediately began to cry aloud," Mama, I'm here, come and help me." She startand she being on her return, heard him, but instead ed up, and saw her boy scrambling up the edge of of descending the ravine, hastened to the edge of the bank, she sprang forward to catch his hand, but the precipice, from the bottom of which the noise the ground by which he held, giving way, he was seemed to proceed. On looking down, she beheld precipitated into the lake, and perished among the her son struggling with the waves, and vainly en. rushing billows ! deavouring to climb up the bank, which was fifty feet, perpendicular height, and very slippery. There Oysters.—The liquor of oysters contains innubeing no possibility of rendering him assistance, merable embryos, with transparent shell--one hunshe was on the point of throwing herself down the dred and twenty to the inch; and also other animal. steep, when she saw him catch hold of a tree that culæ, as three kinds of worms, etc. The sea-star, had fallen into the lake, and mount one of its most I men, cockles, and muscles, are their enemies.

DESTRUCTION OF THE MORAVIAN TOWNS, pious labourers, and dismissed them to their beloved
ON THE MUSKINGUM RIVER IN OHIO, IN 1781.

flock, for whose religious interests they braved such

dangers and suffered such privations, as the pure As early as the middle of the fifteenth century, a spirit of Christian philanthropy can alone prepare sect of harmless and peaceable Christians sprung up the soul to endure. The Indians were left to shift in Moravia, in the dominions of Austria, amid the for themselves in the Sandusky plains, where most general fermentation, which seems so remarkably to of their horses perished from famine. This, too, have seized the publick mind in Europe, about that when the labour of the Christian Indian had raised time. These Christians, under the title of Moravi. abundant corn, which they had not been allowed to ans, or United Brethren, established themselves about gather. But the misfortunes of the band of Christian the middle of the sixteenth century in Pennsylvania, Indians, who seem so unhappily to have been before at Freedenshutten, on Big Beaver, Wyolussing, and their time, and out of place, for the enjoyment of Sheshequon, on the Susquehannah. Here, these ex- their peaceful doctrines, were also destined to come emplary fathers devoted themselves to Christianizing from men, bearing the name of Christians as well as and civilizing the Indians, with signal success. themselves, and professing the same mild and merThey exerted their best energies to keep down the ciful worship of our heavenly Father. spirit of war and devastation, so prevalent in a border About the latter end of this year, the militia of the country, by teaching, that " it must be displeasing to Pennsylvania frontier, (yet, however, in dispute with the Great Being, who made men not to destroy men, Virginia,) came to a determination of breaking up the but to love and assist one another.To carry these Moravian towns. For this purpose, a party of men, beneficent views more effectually into practice with under the command of Col. David Williamson, prothe native tribes of our forests, these true missiona- ceeded to the Indian villages, for the purpose of series of the Christian cross removed in 1769 into curing these suspected enemies. They, however, the heart of the northwestern wilderness, and estab- found the towns almost deserted; the few prisoners lished the towns of Gnadenhutten, Salem, and Shoe- whom they did take, were delivered in safety to the brun, on the banks of the Muskingum.

commandant of Fort Pitt. In this perilous position, the pious and philanthrop After a confinement of some time, the prisoners ick labours of these devoted servants of humanity were released; much to the displeasure of the inwere blessed with prosperity; and they gathered a habitants, infuriated as they had almost necessarily flock of three or four hundred Christians out of the become, by the horrible barbarities of Indian warfare. Ishmaelites of our wilderness. The arts of peaceful In March, 1782, the militia of the same portion and civilized life were sown, and were producing of the country resolved upon a second expedition much fruit worthy of the good seed; the red man against the Moravian towns. Col. Williainson again was becoming reclaimed from his ferocity, and the commanded the men, if command can be applicable standard of Christian civilization was successfully to such insubordinate and lawless movements. They set up in the wigwams of the savage. But a blight amounted to eighty or ninety persons, collected withwas coming over this goodly prospect; war, without any publick authority; but solely moved by the more than its usual fury, burst out again between the private determination of the party, and so far the Indian and his white neighbours. The towns of the character of our country is saved from some portion Moravians with their proselytes occupied the middle of the flagrant enormities which were perpetrated parties; exposed, as Gibbon remarks, with his usual by this self-appointed military body. The object point, to the fire of both parties. They were situated avowed was, to remove the Moravian Indians peaceabout sixty miles from the villages of hostile Indians, ably, but certainly to destroy their houses and their and " not much farther than the whites; hence they crops. were called the hallway houses of the warriours." In this way they wanted to break up the halfway Both the parties at war passed by or through the asylums for the depredators on the frontier, if they Moravian towns, and committed whatever violations did not, as was perhaps unjustly suspected, originate of neutrality their resentments or their caprices dic- in these villages. The white party took up its line lated. Nor were the Moravians exempt from the of march from the Mingo botton, on the west side suspicions of both parties, for being auxiliaries to of the Ohio ; and on the second night thereafter, they their enemies. Often indeed had neutrality been encamped within one mile of the town of Gnadenviolated in favour of the whites, by communicating hutten, the middle town of the Moravians, which exintelligence of schemes of Indian incursion. The tended on both sides of the Muskingum. When the attack on Wheeling Fort had been distinctly an- party had reached the river, it was divided into equal nounced by the friendly Moravians; and might not portions, one of which was ordered to cross about similar intelligence have been conveyed to the Indi- a mile above the town, and to take possession of the ans? It would have been but fair, between the bel- western part of it; while the residue of the force ligerants, and quite consistent with the Moravian was separated into three divisions, one to march abhorrence of war from all quarters.

above, another below, and the third opposite to the This condition of irritation and suspicion, continu- middle of the town, with orders to occupy it. The ed with more or less aggravation, through the Indian detachment intended for the western attack, on reachwar until the fall of 1781. At this time the hostility ing the river bank, found no means of conveyance of their unconverted countrymen broke out against except a large trough designed for holding sugar-wathe praying Indians, as the Moravians were expres- ter, or maple-sap; and even that was on the opposively called ; their towns and their property were site side of the river. The ice was floating in the destroyed, and the missionaries were taken prisoners river, and its waters high, but a young man of the to Detroit. After some confinement, the British com- name of Slaughter, Cassius-like, buffeted the flood mandant became satisfied of tho innocence of the and safely brought the trough over; still it was capa

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