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ble of holding but two persons. It was then conclu- | commended their souls to God, and were ready. ded to place the arms and ammunition of the men in The particulars of this atrocious butchery, in cold this vehicle, while they should swim over. Thus, at blood, without form of trial, or shadow of publick the very outset of the attack, were the invaders pla- authority, are too horrible, too bloody for detail. ced at the mercy of the Moravians, had they intended Suffice it to say, that the two houses in which the hostilities even in defence of their houses and their prisoners were confined, were made slaughter-pens families. When about sixteen men had effected the for these betrayed Indians, who were, according to passage of the river; two of the sentinels, who had the strongest grounds of presumption, the suspicions been posted in advance, discovered a Moravian In- of both parties, innocent of white men's blood. There dian by the name of Shahosh; they shot and toma- was no exception of age or sex in this massacre, hawked him. The eastern detachment was then perpetrated by misnamed Christians; all perished "at directed to commence the attack, in order to antici- one fell swoop" of these degenerate Americans. pate the alarm which must be produced by the firing: Ninety-six out of one hundred and fifty of these peoit was done. The detachment on the west proceed-ple, fatally confiding in the faith of their murderers, perished in this worse than Indian massacre. Worse because committed against all the lights of religion, law, and civilization.
Of the number massacred, "sixty-two were grown persons, one third of whom were females, and the remaining thirty-four were children." The houses and the remains of the dead were burned together.
ed to the town on that side, where they found the Indians in a cornfield, gathering the crop of corn, which had been left on the stalk, when they had been hurried off by their own countrymen in the preceding fall. This Indian party had obtained leave from the Delawares, to return to their old town, for the purpose of getting a supply of provisions to keep their people from starving. Could the situation of a people well be more deplorable than this? Permitted by the mercy of the Indians to come back and collect the fruits of their labour, for the support of their suffering people, and at their own towns to meet a hostile party of the whites, who treated them with a ferocity alone worthy of that corrupt religion which the Moravian Indians had in abhorrence abandoned.
Gladly does the author pass from an enormity, which makes him blush to own its authors as fellowcountrymen, to some of the circumstances which may, in some slight degree, palliate, though nothing can justify, a transaction so utterly at war with justice and mercy, and the professed principles of the American people. In the first place, "very few of our men imbrued their hands in the blood of the "On the arrival of the white men at the town, they Moravians, even those who had not voted for saving proposed peace and good will to the Moravians, and their lives, retired from the scene of slaughter with informed them, that they had come to take them to horrour and disgust." Still they were accessaries Fort Pitt, for their safety. The Indians surrender- to the foul massacre by their dastardly inactivity. ed, delivered up their arms, and appeared highly In such momentous cases of high moral principle, delighted with the prospect of their removal; they he who is not for it, is against it. There is no methen began with all speed to prepare victuals to sub-dium, no middle ground, between crime and innosist the white men and themselves on the journey." cence, in such extremities; then, backwardness is
After this insidious capture, another party was the highest guilt.
despatched to Salem, to bring in the Indians there, Next, the country in which this expedition originwho were also gathering corn. They too were suc-ated was a debateable land, claimed by Pennsylvacessful. The Indians were all brought from Salem, nia and Virginia, and had become the theatre of to Gnadenhutten. Here they were secured as pris- many disorders. The reins of government, never oners, and a council of officers was held upon their held very tight on a wild frontier, were more than fate. This tribunal would not determine the matter, usually lax in this territory. The boundary between but with unmanly and unofficer-like dereliction from the two states, although agreed upon in 1779 by their duty, referred it to the men. Upon this, the Pennsylvania, and 1780 by Virginia, was not finally private soldiers were drawn up in a line, and the extended until 1785, when the counties in question awful question was accordingly submitted to them, were found to be comprehended in the jurisdiction by their own colonel," whether the Moravian Indi- of the former state. To this slight extenuation of ans should be taken prisoners to Pittsburgh, or put the outrage must be added the fact, that there were circumstances calculated to implicate the Moravians in the exasperating and heart-rending ravages of a savage enemy. These had filled the heart of the soldiery with bitterness many of them were men who had recently lost relations by the hands of the savages, several of the latter found articles in the Moravians, which had been plundered from their own houses or those of their relatives. One man, it is said, found the clothes of his wife and children, who had been murdered by the Indians but a few days before. They were still bloody; yet there was no unequivocal evidence that these people had any direct agency in the war. Whatever of our property was found with them had been left by the warriours in exchange for the provisions which they took with them.
One conclusive proof of the innocence of the Moravians is found in the fact, that "when attacked
Those who were in favour of saving their lives, were directed to step out of the ranks; upon this, sixteen, some say eighteen, were only found in favour of mercy. The prisoners were then told to prepare for death. This cruel result seems to have been foreseen by the deceived Indians, when they were once confined in the guard-house. They began their devotions by singing hymns, praying, and exhorting each other to place a firm reliance in the mercy of the Saviour of men. When their fate was announced to them, these devoted people embraced, kissed, and bedewed each other's faces and bosoms, with their mutual tears, asked pardon of the brothers and sisters for any offence they might have given them through life. Thus at peace with their God and each other, on being asked by those who were impatient for the slaughter, they answered, they had
No doubt the frontier was festering under the wounds of Indian barbarity; and that Indians were not thought entitled to the mercy they had never shown to others. Still this is but slight extenuation admitting at once the truth of a transaction which brands its perpetrators with indelible infamy.
by our people, although they might have defended | plainness of food may in some degree counteract the themselves, they did not. They never fired a sin-evils resulting from so artificial a mode of life, our gle shot. They were prisoners and had been prom-commercial relations are so much extended, that ised protection, and every dictate of justice and hu- Eastern luxuries, spices and condiment spirits, and manity required that their lives should be spared." fermented liquors, are attainable by almost every inhabitant of our large towns. Thus it is the stomach that becomes the seat in which almost all modern ailments begin, and from which they, as it were radiate through the whole system; and, therefore, the remedies which act on the stomach and its adjacent and assistant organ, the liver, are the most likely to be beneficial to the system. It is for these reasons we think that those purgatives which act especially on the upper part of the bowels, are to be preferred, and to this class belong rhubarb and bluepill. If an occasional purgative only is wanted, the " compound rhubarb pill" is, perhaps, the best preparation; and of this, ten grains may be taken, with or without one, two, or three grains of blue-pill. But if an aperient is to be taken regularly, the best way is to procure a piece of the root of Turkey rhubarb, and, breaking a portion off with the teeth, to chew it thoroughly, and not to swallow the woody part. The palate very soon becomes accustomed to the taste of rhubarb, and in a very short time it ceases to be nauseous. The woody part is astringent, and is, therefore, very apt to disorder the stomach, and to interfere with the operation of the purgative principle which rhubarb contains.
POPULAR MEDICAL OBSERVATIONS.
A PAGE of practical remarks on purgative medicines will not, perhaps, be without its use to the readers of this magazine.
Purgatives are divisible, according to their mode of action, into three classes: first, those which act chiefly on the upper part of the bowels; second, those which act chiefly on the lower part of the bowels; and third, those which act on the whole intestinal canal. The first are especially useful in correcting disordered states of the stomach and liver; such are the preparations of mercury, that is, calomel and blue-pill, rhubarb and jalap. The second act especially on the lower part of the bowels; such are aloes. The third act on the whole extent of the bowels; such are castor oil, and the various salines, to wit, Epsom salts, tartrate of soda, &c.
Now it will require no great stretch of sagacity to perceive, that it is important to know which of these classes should be preferred; and that, while some purgative may be strongly called for, one will be much more likely to be beneficial that another; indeed, that while one would essentially relieve the overloaded, or the lethargick, or the irritable state of the system, another would only aggravate these complaints.
Aloetick purgatives have long been the prime favourites with the mass of the people, and a large proportion of the quack pills have aloes for their principal ingredient. This has arisen from the fact that aloes act only, or almost only, on the lower part of the bowels; and, therefore, there is less likely to be subsequent costiveness, than there is after the aperients, which empty the whole intestinal canal. But aloetick purgatives are apt to irritate the lower part of the bowels; if continued even for a short time, they are apt to cause piles, &c., and hardly ever afford that decided relief to the system which is given by the other kinds of purgatives. On these accounts we think that aloetick purgatives do not deserve the extensive popularity they have acquired.
Every body knows that the great cause of our bodily ailments is repletion-that is eating a larger quantity of food than is wanted to supply the necessities of the system. The mass of the people are more sedentary in their habits than they ever were before. A larger number is engaged in manufactories, &c., where little or no active bodily exercise is enjoyed; and while they are thus deprived of the benefits of exercise, they are also deprived of the health-fraught influences of a pure and undulterated atmosphere; and, although these considerations point out the necessity of attention to diet, that the
There are, however, many people who cannot take rhubarb in the way we have spoken of. It disturbs the functions of their stomachs, loading the tongue, and impairing the appetite, and in some it causes squeamishness or nausea for hours after taking it. Many such will find, that by taking a little of the powdered rhubarb in milk, the taste is in great measure covered, a not unpleasant bitter only remaining, and very often rhubarb, taken in this way will agree with the stomach, where, otherwise exhibited, it had produced nausea and stomach disturbance. The effect of rhubarb is often greatly increased by mixing it with an alkali, as soda; or an alkaline earth, as magnesia or lime. Five or ten grains of bi-carbonate of soda, or a scruple of carbonate of magnesia or a tablespoonful of lime water, with two tablespoonfuls of water may be added to the dose of rhubarb for this purpose.
The addition of Castile-soap to rhubarb when made into pills, answers the same end, although not quite so efficiently. Should the rhubarb produce pain or griping in the bowels, it will commonly be well to add some aromatick to it. Powdered ginger is perhaps the best. The proportion is half the quantity of aromatick to that which constitutes the the dose of rhubarb. Rhubarb is, beyond all doubt, the aperient, the use of which may be the longest persevered in with safety, or without risk; and it should never be lost sight of that it does agree, in some of the forms we have mentioned, with most people; and that, where it does agree, it strengthens instead of weakens, the stomach and the bowels; and this is an observation which is applicable to few others of the various medicines which act as aperients.
We have slightly mentioned the preparations of mercury, and especially blue-pill. It will be useful if we say a few words about this powerful drug. The action of mercury is usually thought to be only on
the liver and its secretions; in fact, it is generally | addition of from ten to twenty grains of bi-carbonate conceived that if the bile is healthy, and if it is se- of soda to the dose will, in all probability, prevent creted in sufficient quantity, there can be no possi- the inconvenience on a subsequent occasion. We ble motive for conjoining blue-pill with an aperient. have very often found the sixteenth part of an ounce This is a narrow and a mistaken view of the action of salts to be active enough when taken in the way of mercury. It acts not only on the liver, but on we have pointed out; and an eighth of an ounce the secreting glands, with which the whole track of may be said to be an average dose. If the stomach the intestines is supplied; and, therefore, is as use- will allow the water to be cold, and if the dose is fully added to the aperient where the abdominal taken the first thing in the morning, and if no more secretions are deficient, or disordered, as it is where than a sixteenth of an ounce is taken, the use the mischief is only in the liver. But mercury is a of salts is seldom, if ever, followed by any debilita. medicine the exhibition of which must not be trifled ting consequences; indeed, in very many instances, with. Taken habitually, or frequently, and, as it it has been found to strengthen both the stomach often is, unnecessarily, it makes serious, although it and the system, and it may usually be continued for may be insidious, inroads on the constitution: and a few weeks, when purgatives are really wanted should the individual be attacked with severe illness, and when salines agree, with decided advantage. as every one is daily liable to be from cold, &c., he We ought to mention another marked superiority will bear that illness worse, and it will be more which this way of taking salts has over that in which likely to prove directly fatal, or to leave serious they are usually taken, they are seldom followed by evils behind it, such as organick disease, (alteration troublesome costiveness. Lest it should be thought in the structure of some organ or tissue,) than it that this way of taking salts must be particularly otherwise would have been. Mercury should be nauseous, we must say that such is by no means rarely, most rarely, resorted to, unless under the ad- the case. When so largely diluted, salts lose a vice of some medical man. great deal of their intense bitterness, and are undoubtedly much less unpleasant than when a concentrated solution is taken.
The saline purgatives are entitled to be classed next to those we have mentioned, because they likewise act on the upper part of the bowels. Salines, however, act on the lower as well as the upper part of the bowels; and they are, therefore, more debilitating than those we have mentioned, and more likely to be followed by costiveness. This class of purgatives is very much abused as to the dose that is taken, and the mode of taking it. Epsom salts (sulphate of magnesia) is that which is now in most general request. The use of Glauber's salts (sulphate of soda) is now deservedly abandoned; for these salts are more nauseous to the taste, and more drastick in their action. The dose of Epsom salts that is commonly taken is an ounce; and the mode of exhibition is to dissolve them in the smallest possible quantity of warm water. This is all wrong. The dose is excessive-is much greater than it need be; the quantity of water is much too small; and they debilitate very much more than they ought to do, irritate most unnecessarily the whole extent of the bowels, not to speak of the stomach; they disturb the system, and rob it of its powers. Now neither of these need be the case in taking salts. All the saline aperients ought to be dissolved in the largest possible quantity of water, in as much water, in fact, as the stomach will bear. When they are taken in this way, the irritation is applied equally to the whole of the intestinal glands, and that with the smallest needful amount of irritation; the disordered state of those glands is, therefore, more completely corrected, the system as little as possible disturbed, and the degree of debility produced incalculably lessened. Instead of taking an ounce of salts, a uarter, or even an eighth, or at the most not more than three eighths of an ounce will be requisite. If the stomach will bear the distension, this should be taken in a full half pint of cold or tepid water; and if, in half an hour after taking the dose, the stomach will allow a half pint of simple water, cold or tepid, to be taken, the tremadura in Spain, who suffered him to be exposed action of the salts will be greatly facilitated, and as a foundling at the door of a church; but being their operation will be very much easier. If the discovered to be the father, he was compelled to action of the salts is attended with flatulence, the take him under his own care; but he fulfilled the
SEVERAL Spanish writers have represented Francisco Pizarro as a nobleman by birth, while others, with greater appearance of probability, maintain, that he was the illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro, an officer at Truxillo, a town in the province of Es
duty of a parent very indifferently, giving him no education, employing him in the most servile offices, and in particular that of keeping his hogs..
At length young Pizarro ran away from the herd, and got on board a ship bound for the West Indies, where he so distinguished himself in the wars of Hispaniola and Cuba, that he obtained a commission; and at length sailed with Hojeda to the gulf of Darien, by whom he was left to govern, in his absence, a colony which he had settled there.
With a view to be satisfied in this particular, he asked one of the Spanish soldiers if he could write the name of God upon his thumbnail; and the soldier answering in the affirmative, he begged that he would do it. This inscription Atabaliba showed to several of the captains and soldiers, all of whom explained it; so that he began to entertain an opinion that reading and writing were natural to them; when unfortunately, Francisco Pizarro falling in his way, he produced his nail, asking him the sense of the inscription; but Pizarro, who could neither write nor read, blushed and turned from him without resolving the question. From this, the inca inferred that these accomplishments were the effect of study; and entertained a very low opinion of the general, whose origin he thought must needs have been very mean, since he was exceeded in knowledge by the
After this, he served under Nunez de Balboa, and having acquired a handsome fortune, settled at Panama, on its being first built, and seemed wholly disposed to a life of ease and enjoyment; from which, however, he was diverted by that thirst of riches which almost always attends, and increases with the possession of them.
In 1525, the adventurers over whom the enter-poorest of his followers. prising disposition, and daring temper of Pizarro, had gained him considerable influence, sailed from Panama. Diego Almagro, a man or obscure origin, and Hernandez Lucque joined him in the command. After many difficulties, the Spaniards arrived at Peru, where they availed themselves of a civil war then raging in that country, and became the ENAMELLING is the art of variegating with colours allies, and eventually the enslavers of Atabaliba, the laid upon or into another body; also, a mode of reigning inca. This monarch and his court were painting, with vitrified colours, on gold, silver, copinvited by Pizarro to attend a friendly banquet; per, &c., and of melting these at the fire, or of mawhile here they were treacherously seized; and king curious works in them at a lamp. This art is the monarch was made to purchase at an enormous of so great antiquity, as to render it difficult or imprice a temporary reprieve from a death which they possible to trace it to its origin. It was evidently had determined he should eventually undergo, and practised by the Egyptians, from the remains that after extorting from him, it is said, enough gold and have been observed on the ornamented envelopes of silver to fill a room in the castle of Caxamalca, with mummies. From Egypt it passed into Greece, and those metals as high as a common man could reach afterward into Rome and its provinces, whence it his hand; he was after a mock trial for a pretended was probably introduced into Great Britain, as variconspiracy, condemned to be burnt, but was allow-ous Roman antiquities have been dug up in different ed to be first strangled as a reward for becoming a parts of the island, particularly in the Barrows, in Christian. The news of Pizarro's success brought which enamels have formed portions of the ornaa considerable accession of strength from Europe ments. The gold cup given by King John to the to the invaders; and to consolidate his empire, corporation of Lynn, in Norfolk, proves that the art Pizarro founded in 1535, the city of Lima, which was known among the Normans as the sides of the he intended to be the capital of his possessions; cup are embellished with various figures, whose but the discord between the chiefs of the expedi-garments are partly composed of coloured enamels. tion, which even a sense of their common danger Enamels are vitrifiable substances, and are usually could not suppress, now broke out into open vio- arranged into three classes; namely, the transparent, lence, and in the struggle which ensued, Almagro, the semi-transparent, and opaque. The basis of all now seventy-five years old, was defeated, taken kinds of enamel is a perfectly transparent and fusiprisoner, and strangled by Ferdinand Pizarro, broth-ble glass, which is rendered either semi-transparent er to the general. This catastrophe, which took or opaque, by the admixture of metallick oxides. place in 1537, was avenged four years afterward by The art of colouring glass seems to be of nearly the Almagro's son, who organized a conspiracy against same antiquity as the invention of making it; which the murderers of his father, broke into the palace at is proved, not only from written documents, but likeLima, and after a severe fight succeeded in despatch-wise by the variously-coloured glass corals, with ing Pizarro. This happened in June, 1541. Piz- which several of the Egyptian mummies are decoarro, although cruel and bloodthirsty, undoubtedly rated. possessed great military and political talent, although the following anecdote would show that his early education was neglected :
Atabaliba was of a penetrating and curious disposition; he was extremely anxious in his inquiries respecting the customs, manners, and abilities of the Spaniards; that he might be the better able to deal with them, if he should be so happy as to obtain his liberty; but what most of all puzzled him, was their writing and reading; and he was for a long time utterly unable to discover whether these were natural or acquired gifts.
White enamels are composed by melting the oxyde of tin with glass, and adding a small quantity of manganese, to increase the brilliancy of the colour. The addition of the oxyde of lead, or antimony, produces a yellow enamel; but a more beautiful yellow may be obtained from the oxyde of silver. Reds are formed by an intermixture of the oxydes of gold and iron, that composed of the former being the most beautiful and permanent. Greens, violets, and blues are formed from the oxydes of copper, cobalt, and iron; and these, when intermixed in different proportions, afford a great variety of intermediate colours. Some
times the oxydes are mixed before they are united to | is poured off, kept as before, for enamelling the un
the vitreous basis. All the colours may be produced der surfaces of the plate.
by the metallick oxydes.
The principal quality of good enamel, and that which renders it fit for being applied on baked earthenware, or on metals, is, the facility with which it acquires lustre by a moderate heat, or cherry-red heat, more or less, according to the nature of the enamel, without entering into complete fusion. Enamels applied to earthenware and metals possess this quality. Enamels are executed upon the surface of copper and other metals, by a method similar to painting. Enamelling on plates of metal, and painting with vitrified colours on glass, are practised with great suc
One of the most curious and useful branches of this art consists in the manufacture of watchdials. The following account gives the process employed at the present in the best manufactories in Europe and in this country:—
"Not only the convex face of the dial plate, or that on which the hours and minutes are to be painted, is enamelled, but also the concave face. This counter enamelling, as it is called, is necessary, lest when the enamel of the upper face is melted, the action of it on a plate, while hot, should change its curvature; upon which account both faces are enamelled at one and the same time.
"The dial plates of clocks and watches are made in a variety of ways. In general, they are composed of enamel upon a single plate of copper, unless they are more than a foot in diameter: larger ones are made in separate pieces, which are afterward joined together; or they are made of glass, placed upon a white ground. Some dial plates are made of silver, gold, and silvered or gilt brass.
"The enamel is first put on the concave or under face, which is done, as has been just said, with the fine settlings obtained in washing the granular enamel. For this purpose, a tool is put into the centre hole, and the water being poured off the settlings, it The enamelled dial plates are formed of a thin is taken up with a steel spatula, and spread as equalplate of copper, enamelled upon both sides, and hav-ly and as thin as possible over the concave surface; ing hours and minutes painted upon the ground. To the tool is then taken out, and there is put in its make one of these dial plates, a thin plate of copper, place a bit of clean linen, which draws and absorbs of the requisite size, is taken, and hammered upon the water; if this precaution were not taken, the a slightly concave anvil of hard wood, with a con- counter-enamelling would fall off when the dialplate vex-headed hammer, which speedily reduces it to was turned over. the proper convexity: a hole is then made in the middle, which is enlarged with a tool put into it from the concave side, in order to form a ridge round the hole on the convex side, to retain the enamel when in a melted state. The copper plate is then placed upon the platine of the works, fitted to it by passing a tool through the centre holes of each, and being kept in its place by a vice, the holes for the screws by which the dial plate is to be fastened to the rest of the works, and that by which the key is to be introduced, are made; which last is to have a ridge round it, for the same purpose as that round the central hole. Copper wires are then forced into the holes by which it is to be attached to the works, and cut to the proper length, after which they are soldered. The plate is cut of such a size, that the edge may be hammered up to form a similar ridge round the whole face.
"The copper plate being thus manufactured, it is cleansed, by being left a short time in water sharpened with a little aquafortis, until the surface is perfectly clean; it is then dipped in common water, and brushed with a brush of brass wires.
"The grains of enamel being thus well washed, they are put into a glass vessel, and aquafortis is poured on them, so as to float them about a quarter of an inch. The whole is stirred with a glass or spatula, and the acid left on the enamel for twelve hours, in order to dissolve away the metallick particles it has rubbed off the steel mortar, and which would foul the whiteness of the enamel when applied on the face of the plate. The nitrick acid is then poured off, and the enamel washed again with water, until all the acid is got rid of; after which it is again covered with clean water, and kept under it to preserve its cleanness and whiteness.
"The enamel used ought to be very white: it is imported and sold by the ironmongers in flat cakes. The cakes are broken in a hardened steel mortar, and reduced, for the most part, into small pieces, about the size of small grains of sand, as nearly equal as possible. These are first washed in very clear water, and the milky liquor poured off, and left to settle, by which the finer powder is separated. The grains of enamel are then washed again several times with a clear water, and the settling of the water that
"To enamel the convex face the plate is turned over, a tool put in the centre hole, and then spread over the whole surface a layer of the bruised enamel, as evenly as possible, taking care to cover well the edges of the dial plate, and those of the various holes, to prevent the heat from burning them. To draw off the water which adheres to the enamel, a piece of fine linen is put round the edge of the plate, which draws out nearly all the moisture; and, in order that the particles of the enamel may arrange themselves properly, and be packed as close as possible, a few slight strokes are given to the tool in the centre hole. The neatness with which this is executed is essential; for to this is owing the beauty, polish, and glassy surface of the dial plate, by reason that the enamel becoming well packed, there are, when it melts, no hollows below the surface, and hence the surface remains perfectly smooth. In order to be sure that no water remains in the enamel, the dial plates are dried upon a square sheet of iron turned up on the edges on three sides, and placed over a chafing-dish, where it has its temperature raised.
The preparation of the dial plate being finished, it is introduced by degrees under a muffle placed in a furnace, in order that it may be heated gradually. The furnace used in London for this purpose has some peculiarities in its construction: but any muffle furnace, if it be well made, will suffice for the purpose. It is left in this state, until the enamel is perceived to begin to melt, when the sheet of iron, on which the plate is placed, is turned round very gently, in order that the heat may effect every part of the