Description of a Railway on a New Principle: With Observations on Those Hitherto Constructed. And a Table, Shewing the Comparative Amount of Resistance on Several Now in Use. Also an Illustration of a Newly Observed Fact Relating to the Friction of Axles, and a Description of an Improved Dynamometer, for Ascertaining the Resistance of Floating Vessels and Carriages Moving on Roads and Railways

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Page 25 - Palmer, in his description of his railway, justly remarks, that if some accurate means of ascertaining the resistance of roads and railways were on all occasions used, their improvement would be much advanced. The real value of either being then unequivocally compared, the amount of defect could no longer be a matter of mere opinion. The proprietors would then know whether an apparent inferiority arose from the difference of horses, or difference of circumstances ; and it would be of great advantage...
Page 27 - The resistances are not equable from the irregularities of the surface ; neither does the force which draws the carriage continue equable. When horses are employed, those instruments are of no service whatever. The effect of the unequal force or resistance occasions a vibratory motion to the indicating point, and we can never have confidence in any result they exhibit. Similar defects are observable in all the instruments I have seen. " Having had frequent occasion to ascertain these resistances,...
Page 35 - Description of a Railway upon a New Principle, observes, — " to elevate two lines of rail for the purpose of supporting a carriage, could not be done at a sufficiently moderate expense ; I therefore endeavoured to arrange the form of a carriage in such a manner that it would travel upon a single line of rail without the possibility of overturning.
Page 26 - The methods by which resistance of roads and railways have been ascertained, have not been sufficiently accurate, or have been too inconvenient for general use. The dynamometers, which denote the resistance by the degree of extension given to springs attached to the carriage, are convenient as portable instruments, but do not denote the measure with the necessary precision. The resistances are not equable from the irregularities of the surface ; neither does the force which draws the carriage continue...
Page 22 - On again measuring the resistance, the circumstances were found as before, but differing in amount, the resistance being slightly increased . I was by this time convinced that the quantity rather than quality of oil occasioned the appearances ; to prove which the axles were made perfectly clean, and then simply moistened with oil by the finger, previous to inserting them in the wheel. In this state the resistance was again measured, and found to be similar to the standard usually observed after the...
Page 28 - ... constructed, that the resistance of the loaded carriages downwards, may be equal to that of the empty carriages upwards; the seventh, the effect produced under such circumstances; the eighth, the useful effect under the same, the weight of the carriages being deducted. In each experiment, the power of the horse is assumed at one hundred and fifty pounds, moving at the rate of two miles and a half per hour.
Page 48 - With respect to loading, if both receptacles be not loaded at the same time, that which is loaded first must be supported until the second is full. Where there is a permanent loadingplace, the carriage is brought over a step or block ; but when it is loaded promiscuously, it is provided with a support connected to it, which is turned up when not in use. From the small height of the carriage, the loading of those articles usually done by hand becomes less laborious. The unloading may be done in various...
Page 23 - C, touches A, B, C, D, only in the point C. A very acute angular space then remains between A, E, and C, on either side of E, C. If that space be filled with oil, the oil may be considered as a wedge, and if the outer circle be set in motion, that wedge will endeavour to pass the point C. But it cannot pass in its present form without raising the circle E, C ; and E, C, having the weight of the carriage upon it, would resist its passage.
Page 21 - I invariably perceived, that when fresh oil was applied to the axles of the carriage, the resistance was increased, and it required the ordinary motion of the carriage for several days to restore the resistance to its usual standard.

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