Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Standards and Technologies for Controlling Emissions
World Bank Publications, Jan 1, 1996 - Political Science - 246 pages
Contributions by Surhid Gautam and Lit-Mian Chan. This book presents a state-of-the art review of vehicle emission standards and regulations and provides a synthesis of worldwide experience with vehicle emission control technologies and their applications in both industrial and developing countries. Topics covered include: * The two principal international systems of vehicle emission standards: those of North America and Europe * Test procedures used to verify compliance with emissions standards and to estimate actual emissions * Engine and aftertreatment technologies that have been developed to enable new vehicles to comply with emission standards, as well as the cost and other impacts of these technologies * An evaluation of measures for controlling emissions from in-use vehicles * The role of fuels in reducing vehicle emissions, the benefits that could be gained by reformulating conventional gasoline and diesel fuels, the potential benefits of alternative cleaner fuels, and the prospects for using hydrogen and electric power to run motor vehicles with ultra-low or zero emissions. This book is the first in a series of publications on vehicle-related pollution and control measures prepared by the World Bank in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme to underpin the Bank's overall objective of promoting transport that is environmentally sustainable and least damaging to human health and welfare.
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air-fuel ratio alternative fuels AQIRP aromatic Automotive batteries biodiesel buses California carbon monoxide catalyst catalytic converter cetane cetane number cles combustion chamber compression CONCAWE control systems cost cylinder developing countries diesel engines diesel fuel diesel vehicles driving cycle effect efficiency electric vehicles emis emission factors Emissions and Fuel emissions test energy estimated ethanol European evaporative emissions four-stroke fuel consumption fuel economy fuel injection gasoline-fueled vehicles gine grams per kilometer heavy-duty diesel heavy-duty vehicles hicles hydrocarbon emissions I/M programs idle ignition improved in-use increase leaded gasoline light-duty vehicles limits measures motor vehicle motorcycles natural gas natural gas vehicles nitrogen oxides NOX emissions octane operating oxygen particulate matter passenger cars percent PM emissions produced reduce regulations remote sensing retrofit SAE Paper sions smoke opacity Source spark-ignition speed sulfur Table temperature test procedure tion trucks turbocharged two-stroke engines U.S. EPA urban vehi vehicle emission Weaver
Page 149 - Researcher at the Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Securite (Arcueil, France).
Page 202 - ... production, home cooking and heating fuel, and fuel for industry. Presently, LPG supply exceeds the demand in most gas-producing and petroleum-refining countries, so the price is low compared to other hydrocarbons. Wholesale prices for butane and propane in the US have typically been around 30% less than the cost of diesel on an energy basis. Depending on the locale, however, the additional costs of storing and transporting LPG may more than offset this advantage. Because the supply of LPG is...
Page 244 - UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization...
Page 220 - Hochhauser, AM, JD Benson, V. Burns, RA Gorse, WJ Koehl, LJ Painter, BH Rippon, RM Reuter, and JA Rutherford, 1991, The effect of aromatics, MTBE, olefins, and T,,, on mass exhaust emissions from current and older vehicles - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program", SAE Technical Paper Series No.
Page 55 - Hot passenger car emissions modelling as a function of instantaneous speed and acceleration.
Page 99 - A Study of Visible Smoke Reduction from a Small Two-Stroke Engine Using Various Engine Lubricants, Report No.
Page 200 - Liquefied petroleum gas is widely used as a vehicle fuel in the United States. Canada, the Netherlands, and elsewhere. As a fuel for spark ignition engines, it has many of the same advantages as natural gas. with the additional advantage of being easier to carry aboard the vehicle. Its major disadvantage is the limited supply, which would rule out any large-scale conversion to liquefied petroleum gas.
Page 222 - Draft Regulatory Impact Analysis - Control of Gasoline Volatility and Evaporative Hydrocarbon Emissions from New Motor Vehicles, Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Mobile Sources, May 1987.
Page 46 - Motor Vehicle Emission Characteristics and Air Quality Impacts of Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas.