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minished, but enlarged. In the paragraph, then, of this history, upon which we have been now commenting, there are great and important errors, which may be thus summarily stated. Yale College is represented to have been, about the middle of the last century and for some time after, a place of refuge for Massachusetts Calvinists, which it was not; a resolve is ascribed to the president and fellows, which is merely a historical recital in the preamble to their resolves; the measures taken at Yale College for perpetuating Calvinism in the land, are said to have been highly approved by all of that faith,—which has been shown not to be a fact; and an increase of students at Yale College is ascribed to these measures as a consequence, with which it had not the slightest connection.
There are other passages in this work, in which Connecticut, or Yale College is alluded to, which furnish materials for remark; but of these, one only will be noticed. In speaking of the Episcopal controversy, the author quotes a passage from Archbishop Secker's answer to Dr. Mayhew, in which the following sentence occurs: “There is, indeed, a college in New England, where students have been forbidden to attend Episcopal service, and a young man has been fined for going to hear his own father, an Episcopal minister, preach. But in Harvard College, it seems, a better spirit prevails; and it is more likely to flourish, both for that moderation and the new church built near it.” This intolerant college could be no other than Yale College; for besides Harvard, there was at that time no other than Yale in New England. The remark of Archbishop Secker, admitting it to be well founded, strikes us as coming from him with a very poor grace. No person could then become a student at Oxford, nor can now, without subscribing the thirtynine articles as a condition of his matriculation; nor be adınitted to any degree at Cambridge, without going through the same ceremony. What student at either of the English universities would think of assigning as a reason for some delinquency, his attendance on a dissenting religious service ? Besides, Archbishop Secker was born and educated among the dissenters; and might be supposed, therefore, to understand and correctly appreciate the feelings and motives of his old associ
He must have known, that in Connecticut, at that time, Episcopalians were dissenters; and if they were subjected to any disabilities by the colonial government, or in the college, it was according to the example set the colonists by the parliaSECOND SERIES, VOL. VII. NO. I.
ment and universities in England. The fact was, however, that when Episcopal worship was established in New Haven, all students belonging to the English church were allowed to attend its service on communion days; but at other times they were required to be present in the college chapel. The penalty for absence was a few pence. The probability is, that in the case referred to, the absence was noted; but whether the student was at his room, or at church, heard his father preach or any one else, was never a subject of inquiry by the college government. These remarks are made, that the circumstances of this occurrence, if there is any foundation for the story, may be understood, and not for the purpose of defending the law. This, without question, as all would now view it, was both illiberal and inexpedient; though there is no reason to doubt, that those who made the regulation fully believed, as they had departed so far from the strictness of the Episcopal church in England, that they were acting with a good degree of catholicism and kindness.
We have aimed to confine our observations within the limits, which we prescribed to ourselves in the beginning. No attack has been intended on any individual or institution. Our object has been, to give those interested in such inquiries an opportunity to see some things which can be said against, as well as for, a few positions taken by President Quincy, that they may judge for themselves where the truth lies. We wish not to be understood to maintain, that all the measures adopted and pursued at Yale College, have been, from its foundation, free from objection. That with some mistakes, very few if any intentional, it has done some good in the world, we fully believe; and should be the last not to acknowledge the same of Harvard. It appeared to us on first looking at this history of Harvard University, and a reperusal has not altered the impression, that all, whose knowledge of the subject does not extend beyond the limits of this work,—which description includes almost all foreigners and very many in our own country,--would rise from reading it necessarily with the conviction, that Yale College had been from the first, whatever the author may have intended, the seat of narrow sectarianism, bigotry, and all uncharitableness; and this, without one redeeming quality. Not believing this correct, we have felt it to be a duty to state briefly our own views thus far, and hence the preceding observations.
We are unwilling to bring our remarks to a close, without a reference to the literary celebration, in which this history originated. In September, 1836, the two hundredth anniversary of the founding of Harvard University was observed at Cambridge, with appropriate ceremonies; and the discourse delivered by President Quincy on that occasion, much enlarged, and accompanied with many valuable original documents, forms the contents of these volumes. At this celebration it was our good fortune to be present. Never was any plan of a pageant better devised, or more successfully executed. Every thing was appropriate to the place, the occasion, and to the character of those, who took a part in the exercises of the day. The perfect order maintained, the correct deportment of the under-graduates, the civility and hospitality of the several officers of instruction and government, were all in unison with the reputation which Harvard has so long maintained. Among the graduates of Yale College, who were present, but one voice was heard ; all joined in high praise of the University, whose birth they were celebrating; and appeared to pride themselves on the relation in which they stood to Harvard ; since they were from an institution, which was the first off-shoot from so venerable a stock. They stopped not to inquire for failings and defects; but in view of the great benefits which had flowed, and were still flowing from this ancient and copious fountain, united in the general aspiration, which without doubt they will continue to repeat, Esto perpetua.
EXPOSITION OF HEBREWS 6: 4-6.
By Rev. Silas M’Keen, Pastor of the First Cong. Church in Belfast, Maine.
For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the world to come, if they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame.
In looking for the meaning of this remarkable, and, as it is generally esteemed, difficult passage of Scripture, it seems natural to inquire: “ Who are the persons here spoken of? What is supposed respecting them ? And what is affirmed concerning them, in case the thing supposed should occur ?"
When we can answer these questions correctly, we shall, of course, understand what the Apostle intended to express, when he wrote this impressive and terrible warning against apostasy from the Christian faith. That the general scope of the passage is to give such a warning, is admitted by all.
1. WHO ARE THE PERSONS HERE SPOKEN OF? Are they true Christians, regenerated persons ? Or are they those only who have been favored with special religious privileges, convictions, impressions and perhaps miraculous powers, but have never been truly renewed in heart ? As thorough an examination of the passage as we have been able to make, has convinced us fully, that the persons spoken of are true believers in Christ. What is said of them fairly implies this; and it is most agreeable to the context that the passage should be thus understood. Observe the several characteristics of these persons definitely stated by the apostle.
1. They had been once enlightened. In John 1:9, it is said: “That was the true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.” If by this we are to understand, as many
c.that Christ does, in some way and measure, enlighten the mind
ciall men, it is obvious that the expression in the text must not be taken in that general sense; for the Apostle's design, in saying that these had been enlightened, manifestly was to distinguish them from others who had not been in the same sense enlightened. We must also understand something more than being enlightened with the common light of the gospel. For very many on whom this light shines are still declared in the Scriptures to be in darkness. They are so mentally. “This is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil. For every one that doeth evil hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be reproved.” John 39: 19, 20. The light shines around them ; but as they have either no eyes to behold it, or close their eyes against it, they are not illuminated; but, like the naturally blind, grope at noonday as in the night. The meaning is not that those who are said to be in darkness under the light of the gospel, have no more information with respect to religious subjects than they would have if the light of the gospel did not shine upon them; but that they still remain without any true knowledge of divine things. They do not perceive their importance, consistency and exceeding glory. “ The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned.” 1 Cor. 2: 14.
The term porio tévras, enlightened, appears to be used occasionally in the New Testament, in a peculiar sense, to designate such as have been inwardly illuminated by the Spirit of God, so as to behold and appreciate the glory and loveliness of divine things. Thus, in the tenth chapter, verse 32, of this epistle, the writer says to his brethren: “Call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions.” This, being addressed to the Hebrews, was spoken of persons who had been always favored with divine revelation; and yet the Apostle refers to some particular time when they were illuminated. They were doubtless true believers, regenerated persons, and their illumination is mentioned as an evidence of the fact. With what is here said the language of the Apostle in the text perfectly coincides; and evidently refers to the same sort of persons. The same Apostle, addressing the saints at Ephesus, observes that he ceased not to make mention of them in his prayers, that the eyes of their understanding being enlightened, they might know what is