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Trent, b. vi.

“ followed the prejudices of those, who stuck close to the Hill. of the " Hebrew grammar." But father Simon is of opinion, that council of he “ may in some measure be justified : for he did not, says " he, pretend to condemn the ancient Latin translator, or “ the other translators of the Bible, but would only have “ translations of the Bible to be made from the original as “ literally as can be, because there are only these originals, “ which can be called the pure word of God; and because « in translations, which are not literal, there are always " some things limited, which do not thoroughly express the 66 original.'

CAIUS, or KAYES, (dr. John) a very eminent Englith physician, was born at Norwich upon the sixth of October, in the year 1510, and after he had been well instituted in the belles lettres at a school in that city, was sent to Gonvil hall in Cambridge upon the twelfth of September, 1529. He took a bachelor and master of arts de- Tanner's gree at the regular times; and was chosen fellow of his Bibliotheca college in the year 1533. To accomplish himself as much Britanico

Hibernica, as possible in his profeflion, he formed a scheme of travel ing; and in the year 1539, set out for Italy, making France, and Flanders, and Germany in his road. He studied at the university of Padua under John Baptist Montanus, and took a doctor of phyfick's degree there, in the year 1541. He returned to England in the year 1544 ; and distinguished himself so greatly by his learning and uncommon skill in his profession, that he became at length physician to king Edward VI. and was afterwards continued in that place by the queens Mary and Elizabeth, till the year 1568, when he was turned out, as it is said, upon a suspicion of being too much attached to the popish religion. He wrote a great many books in Latin, among which were, 1. De ephemera Britannica. 2. De antiquitate Cantabrigienfis academiæ. 3. De canibus Britannicis. 4. De antiquis Britanniæ urbibus. 5. De annalibus collegii Gonevilli & Caii. Besides these original works, he translated a good part of Galen and Celsus into Latin, and made large annotations upon those authors. He died at Cambridge in the year 1573, when he was in his grand climacterick, and at his death gave his estate to build a new college to Gonvil hall, and to maintain some students therein. This house is now called Gonvil and Kayes college, where the founder Cambden's has a monument in the chapel, with this inscription, Fui reign of Cajus.

queen Eliza. There beth,

There was also another John Caius, who lived somewhat earlier, and was poet laureat to Edward IV. This Caius traveled also into Italy, and distinguished hinıself by some literary labours ; particularly by a translation from the Latin of the History of the fiege of the isle of Rhodes, which he

dedicated to that king. Tannes, &c. There was likewise Thomas Caius, a Lincolnshire man,

who, as Anthony Wood tells us, “was an eminent Latinist, “ Grecian, poet, orator, excellent for all kinds of worth,

" and at length Antiquitatum Oxonienfium plane helluo." Atber. He was brought up at Oxford, and elected fellow of All Oxon.

Souls college in the year 1525. He was made register of the university, which place he quitted about the year 1530,

upon his becoming domestic chaplain to John Longland, biTanner. shop of Lincoln. In the year 1559, he was made a preben

dary of Sarum, and master of University college in Oxford in the year 1561. All which preferments, together with the rectory of Tredington in Worcestershire, to which he was presented in the year 1563, he held to the day of his

death; and this happened in his lodge at University college Wood, &c. in May 1572. He wrote Affertio antiquitatis Oxonienfis à

cademiæ, which he finished in seven days, and presented it in manuscript to queen Elizabeth at Oxford, upon her being entertained by the university, in September 1566. A copy of this work coming to the hands of John Caius, the physician abovementioned, he wrote an answer to it in his book, intitled, De antiquitate Cantabrigiensis academiæ, and published them both together in the year 1568, under the name of Londinenfis, and in 1574, under the name of John Caius. Thomas Caius wrote a reply, as Wood tells us, soon after the first edition of his Affertio was published, entitled, Examen judicii Cantabrigienfis cujufdam, qui se Londinensem dicit, nuper de origine utriusque academiæ lati : but this was never printed. Thoinas Caius transated into English, at the request of queen Catharine Parr, Erasmus's paraphrase on St. Mark : also from English into Latin, the fermons of Longland bishop of Lincoln ; from Greek into Latin, Aristotle's book De mirabilibus mundi, Euripides's tragedies, Isocrates's Nicocles, &c. &c.

CALAMY (EDMUND) an eminent presbyterian divine, Gen. Dia, was born at London, in February 1600, and educated at

Pembroke-hall in Cambridge, where he took the degree of bachelor of arts in 1619, and that of bachelor of divinity

in 1532. His attachment to the Anti-arminian party hin- Ibid.
dered him from obtaining a fellowship, when his standing
entitled him to it; but he was at length chosen tanquam
focius of that college. Dr. Felton bishop of Ely took him
afterwards into the number of his chaplains. In this station,
he pursued his studies with great vigour, employing therein
fixteen hours a day. He was presented by that prelate to
the vicarage of St. Mary's, in Swaffhamprior in Cambridge, Ibid.
{hire, which he resigned, on being chosen, after dr. Felton's
death (which happened in 1626) to be lecturer of St. Ed.
mundsbury in Suffolk.

Here he continued ten years ; and is said by some writers to have been a very strict conformist: but when bishop Wren's articles, and the book of Sports came to be infifted on, he thought it his duty to avoid conforming for the future, and apologized for his former con- Ibid. duct in a recantation and retractation sermon, preached at Bury. After this, he was presented by the earl of Essex to the rectory of Rochford in Effex. Upon the death of dr. Stoughton, he was chosen minister of St. Mary Aldermanbury; which brought him up to London in 1639. In July the fame year, he was incorporated into the university of Oxford.' Upon the opening of the long parliament, in Novem- Biogs. Brit. ber 1640, he distinguished himself in defence of the presby. terian cause, and had a principal hand in writing the famous Smectymnuus, which, himself says, gave the first deadly blow to episcopacy. The authors of this tract were five, the initial letters of whose names compose the word Smec tymnuus, viz, Stephen Marshal, Edmund Calamy, Thomas Young, Matthew Newcomen, and William Spurstow, It was published at London in 1641 in quarto, and entitled, An answer to a book entitled, An humble remonstrance: in which the original of liturgy and episcopacy is discussed, and queries propounded concerning both the parity of bishops and presbyters în scripture demonstrated; the occafion of their imparity in antiquity discovered ; the disparity of the antient and our modern bishops manifested, the antiquity of ruling elders in the church vindicated, the prelatical church bounded. Written by Smectymnuus. The Smeltymnuus is mentioned by bishop Wilkins, in his discourse concerning the gift of preaching, as a capital work against epis: Gen, Dią. copacy. In 1641 the house of lords appointed mr. Calamy to be a member of the sub-committee for considering of ways to accommodate ecclefiaftical affairs; “ in which," says dr. Calamy, in his Account of ejected members, "things were brought "iato a very hopeful posture; but the whole design was spoiled

« by bringing into the house the bill against bishops,” &c. Dr.
Heylin's account of this matter, in the History of the presby-
terians, is in these words. Though a convocation were
« at that time fitting, yet to increase the miseries of a fall-,
« ing church, it was permitted that a private meeting should
“ be held in the deanery of Westminster, to which some
66 orthodox and conformable divines were called, as a foil
« to the rest, which generally were of presbyterian or pu-
“ ritan principles. By them it was proposed that many

paffages in the liturgy thould be expunged, and others « altered for the worse. That decency and reverence in “ officiating God's public service should be brought within “ the compass of innovations : that doctrinal calvinism “ fhould be entertained in all parts of the church; and all “ their fabbath fpeculations, though contrary to Calvin's “ judgment, fuperadded to it. But before any thing could « be concluded in those weighty matters, the commons set “ their bill on foot against root and branch, for putting “ down all bishops and cathedral churches, which put a u period to that meeting without doing any thing."

Calamy was afterwards an active member of the assembly of divines, and often ordered to preach before the parliament. He was at the same time one of the Cornhill lecturers, and his ministerial abilities procured him a very great interest in the city of London. His preaching was attended not only by his own parish, but by other eminent citizens, and even persons of quality. He was a ftrenuous opposer of the fectaries, and used his utmost endeavours to prevent those violences

which were committed after the king was brought from the Biogr. Brit. Ille of Wight. The representation of the London ministers

to the general and his council of war, presented Jan. 18, 1648, (which Collier in his Church History styles an instance of handsome plain-dealing, and a bold reprimand of a victorious army) was drawn up to enforce what mr. Calamy, and fome other ministers of the same persuasion, had delivered in two conferences, the first with the general and his council, the second with the chief officers of the army.

In Cromwell's time he lived as privately as he could. The following story, which Harry Neville, who was one of the council of state, asserted of his own knowledge, is a proof that he did not approve of his usurpation. - Cromwell “ having a design to set up himself, and bring the crown

upon his own head, fent for some of the chief city di« vines, as if he made it a matter of conscience, to be de“ termined by their advice. Among these was the leading


“ mr,

“ mr. Calamy, who very boldly 'opposed the project of “ Cromwell's fingle government, and offered to prove it “ both unlawful and impracticable. Cromwell answered “ readily upon the first head of unlawful; and appealed to “ the safety of the nation being the supreme law : But, “ says he, pray, mr. Calamy, why impracticable ? He re

plied ; Oh it is against the voice of the nation; there “ will be nine in ten against you. Very well, says Crom“ well; but what if I should disarm the nine, and put the “ sword in the tenth man's hand, would not that do the Biogr. Bcit, “ business?

When a favourable opportunity offered, he was very alliduous to procure the return of Charles II. and actually fbit. preached before the parliament the day they voted the king's restoration, and was one of the divines sent over to compliment him in Holland. In June 1660, he was made one of his majesty's chaplains, and was offered the bishoprick of Coventry and Litchfield; which he refused. It was said in the city on this occasion (as we are told by mr. Baxter in his Reliquiæ) that “ if mr. Calamy should ac“ cept of a bishoprick, who had preached and written and “ done so much against episcopacy, never presbyterian « would be trusted for his fake: so the clamour was very “ loud against his acceptance of it.”

Mr. Calamy was one of the commissioners for the conference at the Savoy. He was turned out of his cure of St. Mary Aldermanbury, on St. Bartholomew's day in 1662, for nonconformity. On the 30th of August following, he presented a petition to the king, praying that he might be permitted to continue in the exercife of his minifterial office Next day the matter being debated in council, his majesty was pleased to say, that he intended an indulgence, if it were at all feasible but dr. Sheldon, bishop of London, in a warm speech, declared, “ That it was now too late to think “ of suspending the execution of the act of uniformity, for " that he had already, in obedience to it, ejected such of his “ clergy, as would not comply with it, on the Sunday be“ fore; that the fufpenfion of the facred authority of this “ law would render the legislature ridiculous and contemp“ tible; and if the importunity of such dislaffected people

were a sufficient reason to humour them, neither the « church nor state would ever be free from distractions and « convulsions.” So that, upon the whole, it was carried, that no indulgence should be granted. Mr. Calamy remained however in his parish, and came constantly to church.


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