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first, a fight of fin; secondly, a sense and godly forrow for sin; thirdly, an amendment for the time to come. This was the repentance, they preached and pressed, and a natural result from the principle, they turned all people to. For of light came fight; and of sight came sense and sorrow; and of sense and forrow came amendment of life. Which doctrine of repentance leads to justification; that is, forgiveness of fins, that are palt, through Christ, the alone propitiation and the sanctification or purgation of the soul, from the defiling nature and habits of sin present, by the spirit of Christ in the soul; which is justification, in the complete sense of the word, comprehending both justification from the guilt of the fins that are past, as if they never had been committed, through the love and mercy of God in Christ Jesus; and the creatures being made inwardly just, through ihe cleansing and fanctifying power and spirit of Christ revealed in the foul, which is commonly called fanctification: But that none can come to know Christ to be their facrifice, that reject him as their fanctifier; the end of his coming being to save his people from the nature and defilement, as well as guilt, of sin; and that, therefore, those that resist his light and spirit, make his coming and offering of none effect to them.
“ From hence sprang a second doctrine, they were led to declare, as the mark of the prize of the high calling, to all true Christians, viz. perfection Perfection from fin, according to the scriptures of truth; which from fin. testify it to be the end of Christ's coming, and the nature of his kingdom; and for which his spirit was, and is given, viz. to be perfect as our heavenly Father is perfect; and holy, because God is boly. And this the apostles laboured for; that the Chriftians should be sanctified throughout, in body, foul and Spirit.” But they never held a perfection in wisdom and glory in this life, or from natural infirmities,
or death; as some have, with a weak, or ill mind, imagined, or insinuated against them.
“ This they called a redeemed state, regeneration, or the new birth: teaching every where, according to their foundation, that without this work were known, there was no inheriting the kingdom of
God. Eternal re
Thirdly, This leads to an acknowledgment of wards and eternal rewards and punishments, as they have good punish
reason; for else, of all people, certainly they must be the most miserable; who, for above forty years, have been exceeding great sufferers, for their profession, and in some cases, treated worse than the worst of men; yea, as the refuse and off-Scouring of all things.
“ This was the purport of their doctrine and ministry; which, for the most part, is what other professors of Christianity pretend to hold, in words and forms, but not in the power of godliness; which, generally speaking has been long lost, by men's departing from that principle and seed of life, that is in man; and which man has not regarded, but lost the sense of; and in, and by which only, he can be quickened in his mind, to serve the living God, in newness of life. For as the life of religion was loft, and the generality lived and worshipped God, after their own wills, and not after the will of God, nor the mind of Christ, which stood in the works, and fruits of the holy Spirit; fo that which they pressed was not notion, but experience; not formality, but Godliness; as being sensible in themselves, through the work of God's rightequs judgments, that, without holiness, no man shall see the Lord with comfort."
Having thus far mentioned the manner of the first rise of this people, with their prime, or fun. damental principle, and some of their chief doc
* W. P. writ this about the year 1694.
trines, arising from it, in the next place, follows of their an account of that order, and discipline, with divers other doccustoms, more peculiar to themselves, than to toms and others, into which as a reformed society, by the discipline. same principle they professed themselves to be led and brought; and of that innocent, exemplary and uniform life and conduct, for which, consistent therewith, they are said to have been very remarkable among all sorts of people, to whom they were known, in early time.
Of these customs, doctrines and practices, or manners, for which they were, and still are, more particularly distinguishable, I shall first observe, that though some of them may probably appear fingula or trivial to strangers, and to those who are not fufficiently acquainted with the moderation and sincerity of this people, yet, as they profess them to arise from this fundamental and universal principle, held by them, as before mentioned; from which all the virtues spring, and every practice is more or less important, and not from any whimsical, or felfish humour, or desire to appear singular, so, in this light, if it be granted as reasonable, a contrariety of conduct will rather appear, and ought to be accounted, singular, strange or out of the way;seeing, it is very plain, their adversaries themselves, in placing so much stress, as they have done, on the practice of the contrary, in the view of this people, indefensible, have rendered some of these apparently insignificant things of much greater importance than they would otherwise have been; I shall therefore, in this abstract, arrange them under certain following heads, referring to their own writings, for their reasons and probations of their use and practice, viz.
1. Their justice, veracity and true christian fortitude.
2. Their temperance and moderation.
1. Under the first of these heads it is not my intention to specify every particular, which may properly come under it, in respect to the just and due appropriation of the true and proper attributes and rights, of God and man respectively; but as their sense of justice and propriety, in these refpects, went considerably higher, and led them further, in their practice, than that of other people, I shall, therefore, only mention those things, for which they were particularly distinguished from them, viz.
First, Their disuse of vain compliments, and ufe of com- flattering titles, bowing, kneeling, and uncover
ing the head to mankind; and their using the fingular language, thou and thee, to a single person, in discourse, according to the true form of speech; though so contrary to the general practice of people in common; believing all tokens of adoration and worship belong to God only; and that plain, but civil language, and true speeches are most becoming the professors and followers of truth. Respecting these and other things of that nature, R. Barclay observes; -“ I would not have any judge, that herehy we intend to destroy the mutual relation that either is betwixt prince and people, master and servant, parents and children; nay, not at all; we shall evidence that our principle in these things, hath no such tendency, and that these na
tural relations are rather better established, than They do any ways hurt by it.”-“ Thus (says W. Penn) not per crespect to respect persons, was, and is another of their doc
trines and practices; for which they were often buffeted and abused. They affirmed it to be finful, to give flattering titles, or to use vain gestures and compliments of respect; though to virtue and authority they ever made a difference; but after their plain and homely manner, yet fincere and subftantial way; well remembering the good examples of Mordecai and Elihu, but more especially the command of their lord and master, Jesus
Christ; who forbade his followers to call men,
They speak and thee to a single person, whatsoever was his de- the plain gree among men. And, indeed, the wisdom of language God, was much feen, in bringing forth this peo- thee, to a ple, in so plain an appearance: for it was a close single perand distinguishing test upon the Spirits of those, they came among; shewing their infides, and what predominated, notwithstanding their high and great profession of religion. This among the rest, founded so harsh to many of them, that they took very great offence at it; forgetting the language they use to God, in their prayers, and the common stile of the scriptures; and that it is an absolute and essential propriety of speech.”.
“ Nor could they humour the custom of good night, good-morrow, God Speed; for they knew the tations not night was good, and the day was good, vithout ufed by wishing of either; and that, in the other expres• fion, the holy name of God was too lightly, and unthoughtfully used; and therefore, taken in vain. Besides, they were words and wishes of course, and are usually as little meant, as are love and service, in the custom of cap and knee; and superfluity in these, as well as in other things, was burdensome to them and therefore they did not only decline the use of them, but found themselves often pressed to reprove the practice.”