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ration of the House, the draught of a bill, which 1706. he had prepared for that purpose, as being better, and more suitably adapted, than the act which had been repealed. This the Affembly not only rejected, but drew up one themselves, instead of it, so widely different, that the Governor and they were not able to agree to certain particulars contained in it; which were alledged by the Governor, as tending to break in upon the Proprietary's powers of government, or his juft intereft;" and, after much dispute and altercation, and time spent to no pur. pose, the Governor proceeded, by an ordinance, in such case provided in the royal charter, to open the courts of justice, till further, or better provision and regulation should be made by act of Alsembly.

The House being disappointed in not carrying a word their point, in the manner they desired, were very heads the much chagrined. They were headed by David Assembly,

&c. Lloyd, their Speaker, as before mentioned, a person of good esteem and character among the people, and who had been brought up to the law; but : through most of his public conduct, appears to have distinguished himself in nothing so much, as

by

was duly cleared, at this port of Philadelphia, as the acts of navigation direct, and had the Governor's Let-pafs, and upon her voyage to Barbadoes, is not warranted by the faid act of Assembly; but that those, who fired at the said floop, after they had notice what she was, and how she was cleared, ought to be prosecuted, as persons committing hostilities against the Queen's liege people.

- Thirdly, That it is the opinion of this House, that, in case the master of the said floop had been liable to pay either Powder-money, or other mutets, imposed by the said act, yet the forcing him out of the vessel, and imprisoning him, when security was offered, for answering the supposed offence, is not warranted hy the said ac, but is most illegal and arbitrary.

“ We, having thus presented our opinion of the said act, entreat, that thou wouldīt use the most effectual methods to put a speedy stop to the faid exorbitant practices, great abuses and oppressions, mentioned in the said petition (a copy whereof we humbly lay before thee;) and that the authors of these arbitrary actions and oppressions complained of, may be prosecuced according to law, and be no longer permitted to abuse the Queen's authority, and stand in open defiance of her royal Uncle's grant, obstruct our lawful commerce, and invade our liberties, rights and properties, and under the pretence of fortifying the river, for the service of the Queen, commit hostilities and depredations upon her liege people."

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1706. by his constant opposition to the claims of the Pro

p rietary. Having failed in this their contest with Against the Governor, the Assembly, in the next place, James Lo- were determined, if possible, to take their revenge

on the Secretary, James Logan, who was also one of the Council; and they accordingly pointed the force of their resentment against him; whom they regarded, in great measure, as the cause of their miscarriage, in the bill of courts, and of much of the misunderstanding between them and the Governor.

James Logan was a man of considerable under

standing and abilities, perhaps exceeded by few, Jarries Lo- or none, in the province; he espoused and firmly

is the supported the Proprietary's interest, and had great Proprieta- influence in the Council; but to persons of inferior ry's reft, &c.

Rete abilities and less acquirements, he is represented by inte- on:

fome, not always to have conducted himself in that courteous and condescending manner, which gains respect, and is an ornament to superior parts; which rendered him somewhat unpopular, and sometimes provoked his enemies to carry their animosity against him to uriwarrantable extremes.*

The

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« James Logan was defcended of a fantily originally from Scotland; where, in the troubles of that country, occafioned by the affair of Earl Gawrie, in the reign of Fames the VI. his grandfather, Robert Logan, was deprived of a considerable estate; in co:fcquence of which his father, Patrick Logan, being in reduced circumstances, removed into Ireland, and fixed his residence at Lurgan, the place of his son James's birth. Patrick Logan had the benefit of a good education, in the university of Edinburgb; where he commenced matter of arts; but afterwards joined in religious fociety with the Quakers.-This, his son, James Logan, being endowed with a good genius, and favoured with a fuitable education, made confiderable proficiency in divers branches of learning and science; after which he went to England; from whence, in the year 1699, and about the 25th, of his age, he removed to Pennsylvania, in company with William Penn, in his latter voyage to America; aul, in 1701, he was, by commis. fion from the Proprietary, appointed Secretary of the province, and Clerk of the Council for the fame.

His life was afterwards much employed in public afrairs :- The department allotted him, in the time of the Governors, Evans and Gookin, exposed him to much altercation with David Lloyd, then at the head of the Assembly, as Speaker, and a large number that joined him. He adhered to what was deemed the proprietary interest; and exerted himself with

great

The province appears to have exhibited some- 1706. thing of the nature of party, from its early institu- u tion, even, in some, who strongly professed more noble and generous motives of conduct. Party spirit, the offspring of narrow and selfish views, is deeply interwoven in human nature; of which, perhaps, it is impossible to be wholly divested. Party fpirit But as the human passions are only injurious, when only injurithey are not kept under proper restriction and go- extreme.

ous in the vernment, 'so it is the extreme alone of party design, which, in reality, is so pernicious to human society; while its moderate exertion excites a

stricter

great fidelity to it. He held the several offices of Provincial Secretary, Commißioner of property, Chief Justice, and for near two years, governed the province, as President of the Council.

Many years before his death he retired pretty much from the hurry and incumbrance of public affairs, and spent the latter part of his time, principally at Stanton, his country feat, near Germantown, about five or fix iniles from Philadelphia; where he enjoyed, among his books, that leisure in which mien of letters take delight, and corresponded with the literati in different parts of E:rope. He was well versed in both ancient and modern learning, acquainted with the oriental tongues, a master of the Latin, Greek, French and Italian languages; deeply ikilled in the Mathematics, and in natural and moral philosophy; as several pieces of his own writing, in Latin, &c. demonstrate; some of which have gone through divers impressions, in different parts of Europe, and are highly esteemed: Among his productions of this nature, his Experimenta Meletemata da plantarum generatione, or his Experiments on the Indian corn, or Maize of America, with his observations arising therefrom, on the generation of plants, published in Latin, at Leyden, in 1739, and afterwards, in 1747, republished in London, with an Englife version on the opposite page, by Dr. 7. Fothergill, are both curious and ingenious.-Along with this piece was likewise printed, in Latin, at Leyden, another treatise, hy the same author, entitled, “ Canonum pro inveniendis refractionum, tam fimplicium, tum in lentibus duplicium focis, demonftrationes geometricæ,"" Autore Jacobo Logan, Judice supremo et Præfide provincie Pensilvaniensis,.in America." And, in his old age, he translated Cicero's excellent treatise, De fencélute; which, with his explanatory notes, was printed in Philadelpbia, with a preface or encomium, by Benjamin Franklin, afterwards Dr. Franklin, of that city, in 1744. He was one of the people called Quakers, and died on the 31st. of October, 1751, aged about 77 years;--leaving, as a monument of his public spirit and benevolence to the people of Pennsylvania, a library; which he had been fifty years in collecting; (lince called the Loganian Library) intending it for the common use and benefit of all lovers of learning. It was said to contain the best editions of the best books, in various languages, arts and sciences, and to be the largest, and by far the most valuable, collection of the kind, at that time, in this part of the world.

He had several children, who sur vived him; of whom his eldest son William, lately deceased, was mauy years a member of the Governor's Council.

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1706. stricter attention to men's real interests, and under

p roper management and direction, becomes subservient to the more effectual security of the public

good.

&c.

The nature and length of this, and other disputes,

with the dislike and odium, which some parts of The Affem- the Governor's private conduct, are said to have bly difguftcd with the created, in the more fober part of the inhabitants, Governor's by his frequently descending below the dignity of conduct,

his station, in midnight revels, and low frolicks of youthful folly, very much lessened his authority, and raised the spirit of party to a higher degree, than had been known before. The consequence of which was, what is generally that of all extremes, the product of things more or less indefenfible, on both fides: a detail of which proceedings, as they are published in the journals, or votes of the house of Affembly of those times, would be too tedious

here to be minutely stated. They produced a They im- number of accusations against the Secretary; which peach the the Assembly stiled articles of impeachment. Upon Secretary;

these the Assembly took measures to impeach him in form, before the Governor, as an evil counsellor, and guilty of high misdemeanors;—But through

the Governor's management and protection, they But are dif- were not able for the present, to effect any thing appointed, further against him; and there is on record his pe

tition to the Governor and Council, requesting that Votes of proper measures should be taken to clear his chaAssembly, racter from the falfe representations, and gross &c. abuses of the Assembly, by a fair trial. The Afiem

The Assembly, being thus repulsed, in respect bly intend to Jamas Logan, were still more exasperated; and to get the so much were they displeased with the Governor's Governor removed. conduct, that they were determined to endeavour

to have him removed. His public administration was not only disagreeable to them, in his manner of acting for his principal's interest, but also the example of his private conduct was much complain

ed

ed of, as having a bad influence and effect on the 1707. morals of many of the people. · For this purpose, therefore, in the summer of They draw the year 1707, the Assembly drew up a remon- upa remon

strance to strance to the Proprietary, containing a catalogue the Proprie of the particulars of his mal-administration, or etary. which they esteenied to be such, with a complaint against James Logan; the principal of which have already been mentioned:- In this remonstrance, after having reminded the Proprietary of their former complaints, in the year 1704, they further represent:: The Lieutenant Governor's abominable and un- Heads of

the remona warrantable conduct with the Indians, on a visit to Itrance. them, at Conestogoe.

His refusing to pass the bill of courts, without their agreeing to his amendments; though they only left two of his objections unremoved; and his setting up courts by his ordinance. • His refusal to try the Secretary, upon their im. peachment, by questioning his own authority to judge, and their's to impeach, in the method they proposed.

His imposition on the trade of the province, by means of the law passed at Newcastle; whereby he unjustly exacted large sums of the people; with the abuses and consequences of the said law.

Certain unjustifiable and oppressive proceedings, respecting the militia, which he had formed, according to his proclamation before mentioned.

His refusing to pass a bill, in the year 1704, to explain and confirm the charter of the city of Philadelphia ;-The multiplying of taverns and alehouses, in the city, as nurseries of vice, by his means; and his imposing licences on the keepers of those houses, without law, or precedent.

His

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