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very observable. True it is, that this retired and strict sort of life from the liberty of the conversation of the world, exposed us to the cenfures of many, as humorists, conceited, and felfrighteous persons, &c. but it was our preservation from many snares, to which others were continually exposed, by the prevalency of the luft of the eye, the luft of the flesh, and the pride of life, that wanted no occasions, or temptations to excite them abroad, in the converse of the world.”

The words of W. Edmundson, on this head, are W. Edmundson's these, " At the first, when the Lord called and account of gathered us to be a people, and opened the eyes of the religi

of our understandings, then we saw the exceeding the primi- sinfulness of sin, and the wickedness that was in tive Quakers.

the world, and a perfect abhorrence was fixed, in our hearts, against all the wicked, unjust, vain, ungodly, unlawful part of the world, in all respects; and we saw the goodly, and most glorious lawful things of this world to be abused; and that many fnares and temptations lay in them; and many troubles and dangers of divers kinds; and we felt the load of them, and that we could not carry them, and run the race, the Lord had set before us, so cheerfully as to win the prize of salvation; so that our care was to cast off this great load and burden of our great and gainful way of getting riches, and to lessen our concerns therein, to the compass that we might not be chargeable to any, in our stations and services required of us, and be ready to anfwer Christ Jesus, our Captain, that called us to follow him, in a spiritual warfare, under the difcipline of his daily cross and self-denial; and then the things of this world were of small value with us, so that we might win Christ; and the goodliest things of the world were not near us, fo that we might be near the Lord; and the Lord's truth outbalanced all the world, even the most glorious part of it. Then great trading was a burden, and


great concerns a great trouble; all needless things, fine houses, rich furniture, gaudy apparel, were an eye-fore; our eye being single to the Lord, and the inshining of his light, in our hearts; which gave us the light of the knowledge of the glory of God; which so affected our minds, that it stained the glory of all earthly things; and they bore no mastry with us, either in dwelling, eating, drinking, buying, selling, marrying, or giving in marriage. The Lord was the object of our eye; and we all humble and low before him, and self of small reo pute; ministers and elders, in all such cases, walking as good examples, that the flock might follow their foot-steps, as they followed Chrift; in the daily cross of self-denial, in their dwellings, callings, eating, drinking, buying, selling, marrying, and giving in marriage; and this answered the Lord's witness in all consciences, and gave us great credit among men.”

Such appear to have been the people called .Qua. kers, as to their first rise, principles, doctrines, religious system, and general practice, or manners, in early time; with whom W. Penn joined in socity; such they appear to have been, who principally first settled West Jersey and Pennsylvania :-By a conduct influenced chiefly by the principles above mentioned has this country providentially advanced to that justly admired and happy state, and importance, for which, it has now long been growing more and more conspicuous :-Of this people as a religious society, I shall, at present take my leave, tili I again revisit them, as transplanted from Europe, into these provinces, and observe their proceedings, in their new and political situation; in the mean time, I return to, and resume, my intermitted account of the life of W. Penni

About this time (1668, and the twenty-fourth year of his age) William Penn published several of his first pieces, now extant in his printed works;





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1668. one of which, entitled, “ The sandy foundation

Penn's maken," was written in consequence of a dispute, first writ." ings, &c. which he had in London with one Vincent, a Pres

byter. In this he exposed the vulgar notion of the Trinity, and some other religious tenets; which gave so much offence to those then at the helm of the church, that they immediately took the old method of reforming what they called error, by their strongest argument, viz. An order for imprisoning him in the tower of London ;''-there

he was under close confinement, and even denied His impri- the visits of his friends: but yet his enemies attained fonment in not their purpose; for when, after some time, his of London. servant brought him word, that the bishop of

London was resolved he should either publicly recant, or die a prisoner, he made this reply: “ All is well: I wish they had told me so before; fince

the expecting a release put a stop to fome business: His resolu- thou mayst tell my father, who, I know, will ask

thee these words; that my prison shall be my grave, before I will budge a jot; for I owe my conscience to no mortal man. I have no need to fear; God will make amends for all. They are mistaken in me; I value not their threats and resolutions: for they shall know I can weary out their malice and peevishness; and in me shall they all behold a resolution above fear; conscience above cruelty; and a baffle put upon all their designs, by the spirit of patience, the companion of all the tribulated flock of the blessed Jesus, who is the author and finisher of the faith, that overcomes the world, yea, death and hell too. Neither great nor good things were ever attained without loss and hardships. He that would reap and not labor must faint with the wind, and perish in disappointments: but an hair of my head shall not fall without the providence of my Father, that is over all.”

" A spirit warmed with the love of God” (says the writer of his life)" and devoted to his service,



ever pursues its main purpose: he, being now re. He writes strained from preaching, applied himself to writ- lev

treatises in ing; several treatises were the fruits of his folitude, the tower. particularly, that excellent one, entitled, No cross, no crown; a book, which, tending to promote the general design of religion, was well accepted, and soon past several impressions.”

He also, in the year 1669, writ, from the tower, a letter to the lord Arlington, then principal secretary of state, by whose warrant he was committed, in vindication of his innocence, and to remove to the lord some aspersions cast upon him; in this letter, with Arlington, christian boldness, and elegance of stile, he pleads the reasonableness of toleration in religion, shews the singular injustice of his imprisonment, and declares his firm resolution to suffer, rather than give up his cause; he likewise requests the secretary to lay his case before the king, and desires he may be ordered a release; but, if that should be denied, he intreats the favour of access to the royal presence, or at least, that the secretary himself would please to give him a full hearing, &c. And in order to clear himself from the aspersions, cast on him, in relation to the doctrines of the Trinity, the incarnation, and satisfaction of Christ, he published a little book called, " Innocency with her open face," by way of apology for the aforesaid, Sandy foundation baken: in this apology he fo fuccessfully vindicated himself, that soon after the publication thereof, he was discharged from his He is disa imprisonment; which had been of about seven

en charged. months continuance.

In the latter part of the summer this year, he went again to Ireland. Being arrived at Cork, he there visited his friends the Quakers, who were in He goes ta prison, for their religion, attended the meetings Treland. of his society, and afterwards went from thence to Dublin; where an account of his friends sufferings


being drawn up, by way of address, it was by him presented to the lord lieutenant.

During his stay in Ireland, though his business, Ilis busi- in the care of his father's estate, took up a confipels there. derable part of his time, yet he frequently attend

ed, and preached in the meetings of his friends, especially at Dublin and Cork; in one of which places he usually resided. He also wrote, during his residence there, several treatises, and took every opportunity in his power, to follicit those in authority, in behalf of his friends in prison: and, in the beginning of the fourth month, 1670, through his repeated applications to the chancellor, the lord Arran, and the lord lieutenant, an order of council was obtained for their release. Having settled his father's concerns to satisfaction, and done his friends, the Quakers, many signal services, he shortly after returned to England.

In the year 1670 was passed the conventicle aci, 1670.

which prohibited the meetings of the difsenters, under fevere penalties. The rigour of this law was immediately executed upon the Quakers; who not being used to give way, in the cause of religion, stood most exposed. They being kept out of their meeting houfe, in Grace-church street in London, by force, met in the street itself, as near it as they could: 1. Penn, preaching here, was ap

prehended, and by warrant, dated August fourIle is com- teenth, 1670, from Şir Samuel Starling, the lord mitted to mayor, committed to Nerçgate; and, at the next

sessions, at the Old Bailey, was, together with William Mead, indicted for being present at, and preaching to, an unlawful, feditious and riotous afsembly. At his trial he made such an excellent de

fence, as discovered at once both the free spirit of Famous trial of Penn an Englishnian, and the undaunted magnaniinity and Mead. of a Christian; insomuch that notwithstanding the

most partial frowns and menaces of the bench, the

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