« PreviousContinue »
Ft. *q. metrn.
144 inches... 1 square foot. 0-09*9
9 square feet—.. 1 square yard 0*8361
50$ square yards... 1 square pole 25"291h
40 square poles ... 1 rood 1011 6662
4 roods... 1 acre 4064-6648
The inch is generally divided, on scales, into tenths, or decimal parts; but in squaring the dimensions of artificer's work, the duodecimal system is adopted; — thus, the inch is divided into 12 parts or lines, each part into 12 seconds, and each second into 12 thirds.
In land measure there are (besides the above pole of 164 feet, which is called statute measure) the woodland pole of 18 feet, the plantation pole of 21 feet, the Cheshire pole of 24 feet, and the Sherwood Forest pole of 2d feet. A rope in some kinds of measurement is reckoned 20 feet, 30 acres is called a yard of land, 100 acres a hide of land, and 640 acres a mile of land.
land is usually measured by a chain of 4 poles, or 22 yards, which u divided into 100 links. 10 chains in length and 1 in breadth make an acre, which equals 160 square perches, or 4840 square yards.
The Winchester bushel, which is the legal measure for corn and seeds, should be 184. inches widr, and 8 inches deep. Its contents arc therefore, as above, 2150 42 inches. Corn and seeds are measured in the port of London by striking the bushel from the brim, with a round piece of light wood, about 2 inches in diameter and of equal thickness from one end to the other. All other dry goods are heaped.
There are two other bushels of different shapes, but containing the same quantity; the one, called the drum bushel, generally used for the London granaries, is 13 inches in diameter, and 162 inches in depth . and the other, called the farmer's buihel, is chiefly used in the country, its diameter is 15.375, and depth 11*589 inches. These shapes are chosen for the convenience of working and loading; but the shallow vessel or standard, to avoid the effects of pressure in Ailing, which depth might cause.
The dimension! of the imperial standard bushel are as follows: — The outer diameter 19} inches, and the inner diameter I84. The depth is 84,, and the height of the cone, for heaped measure, is 6 inches. Hence the contents of the stricken imperial bushel arc 2218 192 cubic inches, and it is to weigh 80 lb. avoirdupois of water. The contend of the imperial heaped bushel are S8I54887 cubic inches. The subdivision! and multiples of this measure are of course in the same proportion.
In some markets com is sold by weight, which is the fairest mode of dealing, but not the most convenient in practice. Even where measures are used, it is customary to weigh certain quantities or pro. portions, and to regulate the prices accordingly. The average bushel of wheat is generally reckoned at 60 lb. — of barley 49 lb. — of oats 38 lb. — peas 64, beans 69, clover 68, rye and canary 53, and rape 481b. In some places a load of corn, for a man, is reckoned five bushels, and a cart load 40 bushels.
Coals are generally sold by the chaldron, which bears a certain proportion to Winchester measure.
I 4 pecks 1 bushel.
3 bushels 1 sack.
3 sacks 1 vat.
4 vats 1 chaldron.
21 chaldron 1 score.
The coal bushel holds one Winchester quart more than the Winchester bushel; it therefore contains 2217 62 cubic inches. This bushel must be 194 inches wide from outside to outside, and 8 inches deep In measuring coals, it is to be heaped up in the form of a cone, at the height of at least 6 inches above the brim (according to a regulation passed at Guildhall in 1806}. The outside of the bushel must be the extremity of the cone, and thus the bushel should contain at least 28141) cubic inches, which is nearly equal to the imperial heaped bushel. Hence the chaldron should measure 58.61 cubic feet.
The chaldron of coals at Newcastle is not a mca sure, but a weight of 53 cwt, which is found sometimes to equal two London chaldrons; but the common reckoning is, that the keel, which is 8 Newcastle chaldrons, equals 15^ London chaldrons. In such comparisons, however, there can be no certainty, as coals not only differ in their specific gravity, but even those of the same quality weigh more, measure for measure, when large, than when broken into smaller parts. — [Mortimer's Commercial Dictionary, art. Weights and Measures.)
UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES IN BRITAIN.
The act for this purpose, which came into force in 1826, contains the follow ing clauses which more immediately concern the agriculturist: —
Standard yard defined as the measure of length. — The straight line or distance between the centres of tnetwo points in the gold studs in the straight brass rod, now in the custody of the clerk of the Home of Commons, whereon the words and firures « Standard Yamo, 1*60," are engraved, shall be the original and genuine standard of that measure of length or lineal extension called a yard; and the same straight one or distance between the centres of the said two points in the said gold studs in the said brass rod, the brass being of the temperature of sixty-two degrees by Fahrenheit's thermometer, shall be and Is hereby denominated the " Imperial Standard Yabd," and shall be the unit or only standard measure of extension, wherefrom or whereby all other measures of extension whatsoever, whether the same be lineal, superficial, or solid, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained, s. 1.
Standard pound defined weight. — The standard brass weight of one pound troy treigkt, made in the year I~58? now in the custody of the clerk of the House of Commons, shall be declared to be the 01 iginal sod genuine standard measure of weight, and such brass weight shall be denominated the imperial stand, ■fl troy pound, and shall be the unit or only stardard measure of weight from which all other weights shall &t derived, computed, or ascertained, s. 4.
Standard gallon to be the measure of capacity. — The standard measure of capacity, as well for liquids as for dry goods not measured by heaped measure, shall be The Gallon, containing ten pounds avoirdupois of distilled water weighed in air, at the temperature of sixty-two degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, the barometer being at thirty inches: and a measure shall be forthwith made of brass, of such contents as aforesaid, under the directions of the commissioners of his majesty's treasury; and such brass measure shall be the imperial standard gallon, and shall be the unit and only standard measure of capacity, from which all other measures of capacity to be used, as well for wine, beer, ale, spirits, and all sorts of liquids, as for dry goods, not measured by heap measure, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained; and all measures shall be taken in parts or multiples or certain proportions of the said imperial stand arc! gallon, and the quart shall be the fourth part of such standard gallon, and the pint shall be one eighth of such standard gallon, and two such gallons shall be a peck, and eight such gallons shall be a bushel, and eight such bushels a quarter of corn or other dry goods not measured by heaped measure, s. 6.
Standard for heaped, measure. — The standard measure of capacity for coals, culm, lime,fish^ potatoes, or fruit, and all other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, shall be the aforesaid bushel, containing eighty pounds avoirdupois of water as aforesaid, the same being made round with a plain and even bottom, and being nineteen inches and a half from outside to outside of such standard measure as aforesaid, s. 7.
In making use of such bushel, all coals and other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, shall be duly heaped up in such bushel, in the form of a cone, such cone to be of the height of at least six inches, and the outside of the bushel to be the extremity of the base of such cone ; and that three bushels shall be a sack, and that twelve such sacks shall be a chaldron, s. 8.
Measure qf weight* or heaped measure, to be used for wheat. — Provided always that any contracts,, bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for or with respect to any coals, culm, lime, fish, potatoes, or fruit, and all other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, sold, delivered, done, or agreed for, or to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall and may be either according to the said standard of weight, or the said standard for heaped measure; but all contracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for any other goods, wares, or merchandise, or other thing done or agreed for, or to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall be made and had according to the said standard of weight, or to the said gallon, or the parts, multiples, or proportions thereof; and in using the same the measures shall not be heaped, but snail be stricken with a round stick or roller, straight, and of the same diameter from end to end. s. 9.
Weight in Ireland. — But nothing herein shall authorise the selling in Ireland, by measure, of any articles, matters, or things, which by any law in force in Ireland are required to be sold by weight only.' s. 10.
Contracts for sale, S/c. by weight or measure. — All contracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, which shall be made or had within any part of the United Kingdom, for any work to be done, or for any goods, wares, merchandise, or other thing to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, where no special agreement shall be made to the contrary, shall be deemed to be made and had according to the standard weights and measures, ascertained by this art; and in all cases where any special agreement shall be made, with reference to any weight or measure established by local custom, the ratio or proportion which every such local weight or measure shall bear to any of the said standard weights or measures, shall be expressed, declared, and specified in such agreement, or otherwise such agreement shall be null and void, a 15.
Existing weights and measures may be used, being marked. — And as it is expedient that persons should be allowed to use the several weights and measures which they may have in their possession, although such weights and measures may not be in conformity with the standard weights and measures established by this act; it is therefore enacted, that it shall be lawful for any person or persons to buy and sell goods and merchandise by any weights or measures established either by local custom, or founded on special agreement: provided that in order that the ratio or proportion which all such measures and weights shall bear to the standard weights and measures established by this act, shall be and become a matter of common notoriety, the ratio or proportion which all such customary measures and weights shall bear to the said standard weights and measures shall be painted or marked upon all such customary weights and measures respectively; but nothing herein contained shall extend to permit any maker of weights or measures, or any person or persons whomsoever, to make any weight or measure at any time after the 1st day of May, 1825, except in conformity with the standard weights and measures established under this act, s. Id
American Weights. — The several European colonies make use of the weights of the states or kingdoms of Europe they belong to For. as to the aroue of Peru, which weighs twenty-seven pounds, it is evidently no other than the Spanish arroba, with a little difference in the name
African Weights— As to the weights of Africa, there are few places that have any, except Egypt, and the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, whose weights have been already enumerated among those of the ports of the Levant The island of Madagascar, indeed, has weights, but none that exceed the drachm, nor arc they used for any thing but gold and silver.
The above information is taken from an elaborate quarto volumes of Dr. Kelly, and the very useful Commercial Dictionary of Mortimer. It is impossible to turn over the leaves of such a book as Kelly's, without lamenting the time which every commercial man must lose in acquiring, and la practising, the art of overcoming the obstacles which not only impede the intercourse of nations, but open a fertile source for deception and chicanery. How easy it would be for one nation to become acquainted with another, even if they spoke different languages, provided their weights, measures, monies, and all that was done by figures, were the same! How easy for the three leading powers of the world, France, Britain, and America, to effect this! Naturalists in every part of the world use the same language, and the same names for natural objects, and they accordingly form but one family, every member of which, however remotely situated, holds ready communication with all the others. How easy for the great powers alluded to, by prospective measures, which would occasion no inconvenience to any one, not only to render one description of weights, measures, and monies, universal, but one language! The establishment in one nation after another of Parochial Institutions, soxh as those already existing in Wirtemberg and Bavaria, and obliging some one language to be taught to every one in addition to that which was the native tongue, would have the complete effect in two generations. But legislators, at least in Europe, have hitherto been too much occupied with the concerns of their own day and generation to think of futurity ; and the policy has too generally been to devise measures which should isolate nations, and separate their interests, rather than unite them in one common intercourse, commercial and intellectual.
blishment of the Roman Empire, in the Cen-
OP THE STUDY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM WITH
Chap. IV. Page
preparing Com for Market