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Kilogram. The Winchester bushel, which is the legal mea. 9 stone .............. 1 tod .................. 191992

sure for corn and seeds, should be 184 inches wide, 61 tods ............ I wey .................. 82 513

and 8 inches deep. Its contents are therefore, as 9 Feys ............... 1 sack.................... 165087

above, 2150-42 inches. Corn and seeds are measured 12 sacks 1 last

198104

in the port of London by striking the bushel from

the brim, with a round piece of light wood, about 2 LONG MEASURE.

inches in diameter and of equal thickness from one

Fr. metres. end to the other. All other dry goods are heaped. 3 barleycorns 1 inch

0-025+ 19 inches ............ I foot ....................

There are two other bushels of different shapes, 0-3018

but containing the same quantity; the one, called S feet

0914

the drum bushel, generally used for the London 54 yards ............ ! pole or rod .......... 50291 40 poles ......... I furlong

granaries, is 13 inches in diameter, and 16.9 inches

201.1632 8 furlongs .......... 1 mile .................... 1009:3059 is chiefly used in the country, its diameter is 15.375,

in depth; and the other, called the farmer's bushel, 3 miles 1 league

4827-9179 60 geographical,

and depth 11:589 inches. These shapes are chosen

for the convenience of working and loading; but or in Eng. 1 degree.............. 11190.7442 the shallow vessel or standard, to avoid the effects Jish miles...

of pressure in filling, which depth might cause. Besides the above, there are the palm, which

The dimensions of the imperial standard bushel equals 3 inches; the hand, 4 inches; the span, 9

are as follows:- The outer diameter 194 inches, and inches ; and the fathom, 6 feet.

the inner diameter 184 The depth is 84, and the

height of the cone, for heaped measure, is 6 inches. SQUARE MEASURE.

Hence the contents of the stricken imperial bushel Fr. 54. metres.

are 2218-192 cubic inches, and it is to weigh 80 lb. 144 inches ............ 1 square foot........... 00929

avoirdupois of water. The contents of the imperial 9 square feet...... 1 square yard ......... 08361 heaped bushel are 2815.4887 cubic inches.

The 304 square yards... 1 square pole .......... 25-2916

subdivisions and multiples of this measure are of 40 square poles ... 1 rood ................... 10116002

course in the same proportion. 4 roods.....mw. I acre

54.6618

In some markets corn is sold by weight, which is The inch is generally divided, on sales, into the fairest mode of dealing, but not the most conve. tenths, or decimal parts; but in squaring the di. nient in practice. Even where measures are used, mersions of artificer's work, the duodecimal system it is customary to weigh certain quantities or pro is adopted ; - thus, the inch is divided into 12 parts portions, and to regulate the prices accordingly, ar lines, each part into 12 seconds, and each second The average bushel of wheat is generally reckoned into 12 thirds.

at 60 lb. — of barley 49 lb. — of oats 8 lb. – peas 64, In land measure there are (besides the above pole beans 63, clover 68, rye and canary 53, and rape of 10 feet, which is called statute measure) the 48 lb. In some places a load of corn, for a man, is Foodland pole of 18 feet, the plantation pole of 21 feet, reckoned five bushels, and a cart load 40 bushels. the Cheshire pole of 24 feet, and the Sherwood Forest pole of 25 feet. A rope in some kinds of mea. sureinent is reckoned 20 feet, 30 acres is called a

COAL MEASURE. yard of land, 100 acres a hide of land, and 6/0 acres a mile of land.

Coals are generally sold by the chaldron, which Land is usually measured by a chain of 4 poles, or bears a certain proportion to Winchester measure. 29 yards, which is divided into 100 links. 10 chains in length and 1 in breadth make an acre, which

4 pecks

1 bushel, equals 160 square perches, or 4840 square yards.

3 bushels ............ 1 sack.

3 sacks ................ I vat. CUBIC OR SOLID MEASURE,

4 vats ................. 1 chaldron.

91 chaldron ......... 1 score.

Fr. cubic metres. 1798 cubic inches ........ 1 cubic foot

*0283 The coal bushel holds one Winchester quart more 2 cubic feet ..........

1 cubic yard ...... 7645 than the Winchester bushel; it therefore contains 40 ft. of rough timber or 50 ft hewn ditto

1 load or ton .......

$1'1326 221762 cubic inches. This bushel must be 194 inches 14157

wide from outside to outside, and 8 inches deep. In 42 cubic feet ..-.-.-. 1 ton of shipping 1:1892

measuring coals, it is to be heaped up in the form By cubic measure marble, stone, timber, masonry, of a cone, at the height of at least 6 inches above and all artificers' works of length, breadth, and the brim according to a regulation passed at Guild. thickness, are measured, and also the contents of hall in 1806). The outside of the bushel must be all measures of capacity, both liquid and dry.

the extremity of the cone, and thus the bushel

should contain at least 28149 cubic inches, which is DRY MEASURE.

nearly equal to the imperial heaped bushel. Hence cub. in.

Fr, litres.

the chaldron should measure 58.61 cubic feet. gills ***. I pint

33.6

055053

The chaldron of coals at Newcastle is not a mea 2 pints --- 1 quart 67.2

1.10107 sure, but a weight of 53 cwt, which is found some. 2 quarts.... 1 pottle 134.4

2-20214 times to equal two London chaldrons; but the 9 pottles ... i gallon ...

268.8

4:40428 common reckoning is, that the keel, which is 8 2 gallons ... 1 peck 537.6

880856 Newcastle chaldrons, equals 15) London chaldrons. 4 pecks cm 1 bushel ... 2150.42

35-23130 In such comparisons, however, there can be no cer. 4 bushs. ....1 coom .....

4 977 feet 140-93721 tainty, as coals not only differ in their specific gra. 9 coors. 1 quarter ..

9.954 ditto ....

281-87413 vity, but even those of the same quality weigh nore, 5 TL ...... {oread} 49.770 ditto

1409-37216

measure for measure, when large, than when

broken into smaller parts. - (Mortimer's Commer2 wegs ...... 1 last ....... 99.540 ditto .... 2818-74139 cial Dictionary, art, Weights and Measures.)

UNIFORMITY OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES IN BRITAIN. The act for this purpose, which came into force in 1826, contains the following clauses which more immediately concern the agriculturist :

Standard yard defined as the measure of length. — The straight line or distance between the centres of the two points in the gold studs in the straight brass rod, now in the custody of the clerk of the House of Commons, whereon the words and figures * STANDARD YARN, 1760),” are engraved, shall be the original and genuine standard of that measure of length or lineal extension called a yard; and the same straight line or distance between the centres of the said two points in the said gold studs in the said brass rod, i he brass being of the temperature of sixty-two degrees by Fahrenheit's thermometer, shall be and is hereby denominated the " IMPERIAL STANDARD YARD," and shall be the unit or only standard measure of exten. kion, wherefrom or whereby all other measures of extension whatsoever, whether the same be lineal, superficial, or solid, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained, s. 1.

Standard pound defined vreight - The standard brass weight of one pound troy weight, made in the year 1753, now in the custody of the clerk of the House of Commons, shall be declared to be the original and genuine standard measure of weight, and such brass weight shall be denominated the imperial stand. ard troy pound, and shall be the unit or only stardard measure of weight from which all other weights shall be derived, computed, or ascertained.

8, 10.

Standard gallon to be the measure of capacity. – The standard measure of capacity, as well for liquids as for dry goods not measured by heaped measure, shall be THE GALLON, containing ten pounds avoirdu. pois of distilled water weighed in air, at the temperature of sixty-two degrees of Fahrenheit's thermoineter, the barometer being at thirty inches; and a measure shall be forthwith made of brass, of such contents as aforesaid, under the directions of the commissioners of his majesty's treasury; and such brass measure shall be the imperial standard gallon, and shall be the unit and only standard measure of capacity, from which all other measures of capacity to be used, as well for wine, beer, ale, spirits, and all sorts of liquids, as for dry goods, not measured by heap measure, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained; and all measures shall be taken in parts or multiples or certain proportions of the said imperial standard gallon, and the quart shall be the fourth part of such standard gallon, and the pint shall be one eighth of such standard gallon, and two such gallons shall be a peck, and cight such gallons shall be a bushel, and eight such bushels a quarter of corn or other dry goods not measured by heaped measure. 8. 6.

Standard for heaped measure. - The standard measure of capacity for coals, culm, lime, fish, potatoes, or fruit, anit all other goods and things commonly sold by heapeit measure, shall be the aforesaid bushel, containing eighty pounds avoirdupois of water as aforesaid, the same being made round with a plain and even bottom, and being nineteen inches and a half from outside to outside of such standard measure as aforesaid. 6. 7.

In making use of such bushel, all coals and other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, shall be duly heaped up in such bushel, in the form of a cone, such cone to be of the height of at least six inches, and the outside of the bushel to be the extremity of the base of such cone ; and that three bushels shall be a sack, and that twelve such sacks shall be a chaldron. 8. 8.

Measure of weight, or heaped measure, to be used for wheat. - Provided always that any contracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for or with respect to any coals, culm, lime, fish, potatoes, or fruit, and all other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, sold, delivered, done, or agreed for, or to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall and may be either according to the said standard of weight, or the said standard for heaped measure; but all contracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for any other goods, wares, or merchandise, or other thing done or agreed for, or to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall be made and had according to the said standard of weight, or to the said gallon, or the parts, multiples, or proportions thereof; and in using the same the measures shall not be heaped, but shall be stricken with a round stick or roller, straight, and of the same diameter from end to end. s. 9.

Wright in Ireland. – But nothing herein shall authorise the selling in Ireland, by measure, of any ar. ticles, matters, or things, which by any law in force in Ireland are required to be sold by weight only::

Contracts for sale, fc. by weight or measure. - All contracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, which shall be made or had within any part of the United Kingdom, for any work to be done, or for any goods, wares, merchandise, or other thing to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, where no spe. cial agreement shall be made to the contrary, shall be deemed to be made and had according to the standard weights and measures, ascertained by this act; and in all cases where any special agreement shall be made, with reference to any weight or measure established by local custom, the ratio or proportion which every such local weight or measure shall bear to any of the said standard weights or measures, shall be expressed, declared, and specified in such agrcement, or otherwise such agreement shall be null and void. &. 15.

Eristing weights and measures may be used, being marked. - And as it is expedient that persons should be allowed to use the several weights and measures which they may have in their possession, although such weights and measures may not be in conformity with the standard weights and measures established by this act; it is therefore enacted, that it shall be lawful for any person or persons to buy and sell goods and merchandise by any weights or measures established either by local custom, or founded on special agreement: provided that in order that the ratio or proportion which all such measures and weights shall bear to the standard weights and measures established by this act, shall be and become a matter of common notoriety, the ratio or proportion which all such customary measures and weights shall bear to the said standard weights and measures shall be painted or marked upon all such customary weights and measures respectively; but nothing herein contained shall extend to permit any maker of weights or measures, or any person or persons whomsoever, to make any weight or measure at any time after the 1st day of May, 1825, except in conformity with the standard weights and measures established under this act. 8. 16.

American Weights. — The several European colonies make use of the weights of the states or kingdoms of Europe they belong to For, as to the aroue of Peru, which weighs twenty-seven pounds, it is evidently no other than the Spanish arroba, with a little difference in the name.

African Weights – As to the weights of Africa, there are few places that have any, except Egypt, and the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, whose weights have been already enumerated among those of the ports of the Levant. The island of Madagascar, indecd, has weights, but none that exceed the drachm, nor are they used for any thing but gold and silver.

The above information is taken from an elaborate quarto volumes of Dr. Kelly, and the very use ful Commercial Dictionary of Mortimer, It is impossible to turn over the leaves of such a book as Kelly's, without lamenting the time which every cominercial man must lose in acquiring, and in practising, the art of overcoming the obstacles which not only impede the intercourse of nations, but open a fertile source for deception and chicanery. How casy it would be for one nation to become acquainted with another, even if they spoke different languages, provided their weights, mea. sures, monies, and all that was done by figures, were the same! How easy for the three leading powers of the world, France, Britain, and America, to effect this! Naturalists in every part of the world use the same language, and the same names for natural objects, and they accordingly form but one family, every member of which, however remotely situated, holds ready communication with all the others. How easy for the great powers alluded to, by prospective measures, which would occasion no inconve. nience to any one, not only to render one description of weights, measures, and monies, universal, but one language! The establishment in one nation after another of Parochial Institutions, sach as those already existing in Wirtemberg and Bavaria, and obliging some one language to be taught to every one in addition to that which was the native tongue, would have the complete effect in two generations. But legislators, at least in Europe, have hitherto been too much occupied with the concerns of their own day and generation to think of futurity; and the policy has too generally been to devise measures which should isolate nations, and separate their interests, rather than unite them in one common intercourse, cominercial and intellectual

CONTENTS.

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BOOK I.

Page

4. History of Agriculture, from the Time of

HISTORY AGRICULTURE AMONG

Henry VIII to the Revolution in 1688 . 40

AND MODERN NATIONS.

V. History of Agriculture in Ultra- European

CHAP. I.

Countries during the Middle Ages

Of the History of Agriculture in the Ages of

Antiquity; or from the Deluge to the Esta.

CHAP. IV.

blishment of the Roman Empire, in the Cen- Present State of Agriculture in Europe 47

tury preceding the vulgar Æra

I. of the present State of Agriculture in

L of the Agriculture of Egypt

Italy

47

IL Of the Agriculture of the Jews, and other

1. of the Agriculture of Lombardi

2. Of the Agriculture of Tuscany

50

III. of the Agriculture of the Greeks

S. or the Agriculture of the Maremmes, or

IV. Or the Agriculture of the Persians, Cartha.

the District of Pestilential Air

54

gi nians, and other Nations of Antiquity - 11 4. Of Farming in the Neapolitan Territory,

or the Land of Ashes

56

CHAP. II.

II. or the present state of Agriculture in

History of Agriculture among the Romans, or

Switzerland

from the Second Century B. C. to the Fifth 1. of the Agriculture of the Swiss Cantons 58

Century of our Æra

12 2. Of the Agriculture of the Duchy of Savoy 62

1 Or the Roman Agricultural Writers

12 III. Of the present State of Agriculture in

IL Of the Proprietorship, Occupancy, and

France

65

General Management of Landed Pro- 1. of the Progress of French Agriculture,

perty among the Romans

13 from the Sixteenth Century to the pre-

III, Оf the Surface, Soil, Climate, and other

sent Time

65

Agricultural Circumstances of Italy,

2. of the general Circumstances of France,

during the Time of the Romans

15

in respect to Agriculture

66

IV. Of the Culture and Farm Management of 3. Of the common Farming of France

68

the Romans

16 4. Of Farming in the warmer Climates of

L of the Choice of a Farm, and of the Villa

France

70

or Farinery

16 IV. of the present state of Agriculture in

2 of the Servants employed in Roman Agri-

Holland and the Netherlands

72

culture

18 1. of the present state of Agriculture in

3. of the Beasts of Labour used by the

Holland

72

Romana

21 2. Of the present state of Agriculture in the

4 of the Agricultural Implements of the

Netherlands

73

Romans

22 v. of the present state of Agriculture in Ger.

5. Of the Agricultural Operations of the

many

87

Romans

24 1. General View of the Agricultural Circum.

& of the Crops cultivated, and Animals

stances of Germany

87

reared by the Romans

28 2 Agriculture of the Kingdom of Denmark,

7. Of the General Maxims of Farm Manage-

including Greenland and Iceland

89

ment arnong the Romans

29 3. of the Agriculture of the Kingdom of

V. or the Produce and Profit of Roman Agri-

Prussia

90

culture

SO 4. Of the Agriculture of the Kingdom of

VL Of the Roman Agriculturists, in respect to

Hanover

General Science, and the Advancement 5. of the present state of Agriculture in

of the Art

31

Saxony

95

VIL Or the Extent to which Agriculture was 6 of the present state of Agriculture in the

carried in the Roman Provinces, and of

Kingdom of Bavaria

95

its Decline

32 7. Of the present state of Agriculture in the

Chap. III.

Empire of Austria

96

History of Agriculture during the Middle Ages,

VI. of the present State of Agriculture in the

a from the Fifth to the Seventeenth Cen: vil or the present state of Agriculture in

tury

33

Russia

1. History of Agriculture in Italy, during the

104

Middle Ages

VIII. Of the preseni State of Agriculture in

33

IL History of Agriculture in France, from the

Sweden and Norway.

IX. of the present State of Agriculture in

Fifth to the Seventeenth Century

34

113

IIL Of the Agriculture of Germany and other

Spain and Portugal

Northern States, from the fifth to the

X. Of the present State of Agriculture in Eu-

Seventeenth Century

• 121

35

ropean Turkey

IV. History of Agriculture in Britain, from the

Fifth to the Seventeenth Century

CHAP. V.

35

1. History of Agriculture in Britain during Modern History and present State of Agricul.

the Anglo-Saxon Dynasty, or from the

ture in the British Isles

123

Fifth to the Eleventh Century

35 1. Political History of Agriculture in Britain,

2. Of the State of Agriculture in Britain

from the Revolution in 1988 to the pre-

after the Norman Conquest, or from the

sent Time

123

Eleventh to the Thirteenth Century 57 11. Professional History of Agriculture, from

3. History of Agriculture in Britain,' from

the Revolution to the present Time

the Thirteenth Century to the Time of III. Of the Literature of British Agriculture

Henry VIII.

39

from the Revolution to the present Time 130

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. 192

- 165

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271

BOOK I.

II. Diseases

059

Ill. Natural Decay

263

OF TIIE STUDY OF THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM WITH
A VIEW TO AGRICULTURE.

CAAP. VI.

CHAP. I.

Vegetable Geography and History, or the Dis-

of the Study of Systematic Botany

20 tribution of Vegetables relatively to the Earth

and to Man

CHAP. II.

1. Geographical Distribution of Vegetables

. 2015

Vegetable Anatomy, or the Structure and Or.

II. Physical Distribution of Vegetables

ganisation of Plants

III. Civil Causes atfecting the Distribution of

210

1. Or the External Structure of Perfect Plants 210

Plants

270

JI. Of the External Structure of Imperfect

IV, Characteristic or Picturesque Distribution

Plants

of Vegetables

III. Of the Internal Structure of Plants

V. Systematic Distribution of vegetables

- 272

VI. Economical Distribution of Vegetables. - 973

1. Decomposite Organs

VII. Arithmetical Distribution of Vegetables - 274

2. Composite Organs

214

VIII. Distribution of the British Flora, indige.

3. Elementary, or Vascular, Organs

nous and exotic

274

CHAP. III.

CHAP. VII.

Vegetable Chemistry, or Primary Principles of

l'lants

Origin and Principles of Culture, as derived

. 216

from the Study of Vegetables

1. Compound Products

278

- 217

II. Simple Products

• 226

BOOK II.

CHAP. IV.

Functions of Vegetables

226

OF THE STUDY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM WITH

1. Germination of the Seed

227

REFERENCE TO AGRICULTURE.

II. Food of the Vegetating Plant

228

III. Process of Vegetable Nutrition

CHAP. I.

233

IV. Process of Vegetable Developement . 241 Systematic Zoology, &c.

V. Anomalies of Vegetable Developement

VI. Of the Sexuality of Vegetables

CHAP. II.

VII. Impregnation of the Seed

250

Animal Anatomy

283

VIU. Changes consequent upon Impregnation 251

1. External Anatomy of Animals

IX, The Propagation of the Species

252

X. Causes limiting the Propagation of the

II. Internal Anatomy of Animals

1. Osseous Structure of Animals

Species

254

9. Muscular Structure of Animals

XI. Evidence and Character of Vegetable Vi.

. 287

tality

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3. Structure of the Nervous System

954

CHAP. V.

CHAP. III.

Vegetable Patholngy, or the Discases and Ca. Animal Chemistry; or the Substances which

sualtics of Vegetable Life

0.58 enter into the Composition of the Bodies of

I. Wounds and Accidents

2581

Animals

• 289

• 289

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tion

. 371

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