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of all that he hath, both of man and beast, and of the field of his possession, shall be redeemed; every devoted thing is most holy unto the Lord.” “None devoted, which shall be devoted of them, shall be redeemed; but shall surely be put to death." (Leviticus, xxvii. 28, 29.) The substance of these is rehearsed in Deuteronomy, xxiii. 23. << That which is gone out of thy lips thou shalt keep and perform, even as a free-will offering, according as thou hast vowed unto the Lord thy God, which thou hast promised with thy mouth." m”. To show that Shylock was not singular in his construction of these as binding obligations, the reader may remember what is generally called Jephtha's rash vow. “And Jephtha vowed a vow unto the Lord, and said, if thou shalt without fail deliver the children of Ammon into my hands, then shall it be that whatsoever cometh forth of the door of my house to meet me, when I return in peace from the children of Ammon, shall surely be the Lord's, and I will offer it up for å burnt offering. So Jephtha passed over unto the children of Ammon to fight against them, and the Lord delivered them into his hands. * And Jephtha came to Mispeh unto his house, and behold his daughter came out to meet him with timbrels, and with dances, and she was his only child; beside her he had neither son nor daughter. And it came to pass when he saw her, that he rent his clothes, and said, Alas, my daughter, thou hast brought me very low, and thou art one of them that trouble me; for I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and I cannot go back. And she said unto him, My father, if thou hast opened thy mouth unto the Lord, do to me according to that which hath proceeded out of thy mouth.'. And after bewailing her virginity among the mountains, “She returned unto her father, who did with her according to his vow which he had vowed.” (Judges, xi. 30 to 39.) Here, again, the Christian reader must do Shakespeare the justice to remember that he is displaying the odious passion of revenge, in the person of a most enthusiastic Israelite, who would be influenced to devote the life of a stranger, who had deeply wronged him, by the same mistaken zeal which drove Jephtha to sacrifice his innocent and only child, because he had vowed so to devote her. These explanations are necessary, not only to the true developement of the character of Shylock, but that the reader may understand the motives by which he is influenced, and the verbal allusions by which his actions are accompanied.

Scene. A Court of Justice.

Duke. What, is Antonio here?
Antonio. Ready, so please your Grace. Invi?

* i * .* - * ...*

Duke. Go one, and call the Jew into the Court.
Salanio. He's ready at the door: he comes, my Lord.

Enter ShylQCK.
Duke. Make room, and let him stand before our face.
Shylock, the world thinks, and I think so too, :.
That thou but lead’st this fashion of thy malice
To the last hour of act; and then, 'tis thought,
Thou’lt show thy mercy, and remorse, more strange,
Than is thy strange apparent cruelty:
And where thou now exactst the penalty,
(Which is a pound of this poor merchant's flesh;)"
Thou wilt not not only lose the forfeiture,
But touch'd with human gentleness and love,
Forgive a moiety of the principal:
Glancing an eye of pity on his losses,
· That have of laté so huddled on his back;
Enough to press a royal merchant down,
And pluck commisseration of his state
From brassy bosoms, and rough hearts of flint, ..?
From stubborn Turks, and Tartars, never trained
To offices of tender courtesy.
We all expect a gentle ANSWER, Jew.'

Shylock. I have possess'd your Grace of what I purpose ; And by our holy sabbath have I sworn, To have the due--the forfeit of my bond: If you deny it, let the danger light Upon your charter, and your city's freedom.' You'll ask me, why I rather choose to have A weight of carrion flesh, than to receive Three thousand ducats: I'll not answer that, But say,—it is my humour. Is it answer'd? What if my house be troubled with a rat, And I be pleased to give ten thousand ducats To have it baned? What, are you answer'd yet? .. Some men there are, love not a gaping pig; ; . Some, that are mad, if they behold a cat;

Now, for your answer :
As there's no firm reason to be render'd, :...
Why he cannot abide a gaping pig;
Why he, a harmless necessary cat;
So can I give no reason, nor. I will not,
More than a lodg'd hate, and a certain loathing,
I bear Antonio, that I follow thus
A losing suit against him. ARE YOU ANSWER’D?

Bassanio. This is no answer, thou unfeeling man,
To excuse the current of thy cruelty.

Shylock. I am not bound to please thee with my ANSWER.

The Duke has said, he expects a gentle ANSWER, therefore Shylock plays on the word answer.

Bassino. Do all men kill the things they do not love?
Shylock. Hates any man the thing he would not kill?
Bassino. Every offence is not a hate at first...
Shylock. What, would'st thou let the serpent sting thee
Bassanio. For thy three thousand ducats here is sir.

Shylock. If every ducat in six thousand ducats..
Were in six parts, and every part A DOCAT,...
I would not draw them; I would have my bond.

Duke. How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring none?

Shylock. What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong?
You have among you many a purchased slave,
Which, like your asses, and your dogs, and mules,
You use in abject and in slavish parts,
Because you bought them :-Shall I say to you, ,
Let them be free, marry them to your heirs!
Why sweat they under burdens ? let their beds
Be made as soft as yours, and let their palates
Be season'd with such viands! You will answer,
The slaves are ours: So do I answer you:
The pound of flesh, which I demand of him,

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Is dearly bought, 'tis mine, and I will have it: . i
If you deny me, fye upon your law ! ,
There is no force in the decrees of Venice:
I stand for judgment: ANSWER; shall I have it?

Here Shylock, triumphantly in his turn, calls on the Duke to answer.

Duke. Upon my power I may dismiss this Court,
Unless Bellario, a learned doctor,
Whom I have sent for to determine this,
Come here to day.

Salarino.—My Lord, here stays without
A messenger with letters from the doctor,
New come from Padua.
Duke.—Bring us the letters; call the messenger.

Enter NERISSA, disguised as a lawyer's clerk.
Bassanio, Why dost thou whet thy knife so earnestly?
Shylock.-To Cut the forfeiture from that bankrupt there.

This last speech is generally spoken with great malice.- It is a mistake so to pronounce it.

Gratiano.-Can no prayers pierce thee?
Shylock.No, none that thou hast wit enough to make.
Gratiano.--0, be thou damn'd, inexorable dog!
And for thy life let justice be accus’d.
Thou almost mak’st me waver in my faith,
To hold opinion with Pythagoras,
That souls of animals infuse themselves
Into the trunks of men: thy currish spirit
Govern’d a wolf, who, hang’d for human slaughter,
Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet,
And, whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallow'd dam,
Infus'd itself in thee; for thy desires
Are wolfish, bloody, starv'd, and ravenous.

Shylock.-Till thou can’st rail the seal from off my bond,

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