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of delicious, and smooth damnation) and doubtless the arch-angel, my successor, will bring your angels to redeem all ; and your champions and cavaliers will return with pockets doubly furnished, for you are as sure of them, as they are of your diseases ; they are now but only purchasing, and laying up for you against their coming home ; this dearth of traffick is but a preparation to a large mart to follow, and this devouring winter of penury doth but presage a lively spring in the hot blood of the young gallantry, which when it comes, you shall again enjoy those blessings of wine, musk, good 'cloaths, money and dainty fare ; be enabled to pay your railing landladies, and defy the beadle with as much impudence, as ever you did., Well, from
you, I must follow the steps of many an old leacherous citizen, and walk into London, where, at the exchange, the only question that is asked is, what news ? Not from Aleppo, Constantinople, the Streights, or Indies, but from York, Ireland, and the parliament; the answer is, why the King is still obstinate, we shall have all our throats cut, those Epicurean throats of ours are doomed to be cut, for swallowing so many luxurious cates; we had need to prick up our ears, and elevate our broad overgrown horns for the safety of ourselves, estates, and children; marry; as for our wives, they know well enough already the dangers of courtiers and cavaliers, and therefore dare meet the roughest gamester of them all in any posture whatsoever.
From hence I travel to Guildhall, where I find the lawyers com. plaining of infinite numbers of bankrupts, men so far decayed in estate, that they will compound to pay more than half, confess judgments, render their bodies to prison, prostitute their wives, or any thing rather than stand out the prosecution of a suit at law.
Then at the halls of every several company, where, in former ages, all the elements would scarce afford variety, to please the ingenious gluttony of one single feast, now you shall hear the meaner sort of tradesmen cursing those devouring foxes, the masters and wardens, for the infinite charge their insatiate stomachs do put them to; from hence go to their particular shops, where there is nothing among t the trades. men, but condoling the want of the courtiers money, and their wives and daughters almost distracted for want of their company ; there are no upstart gallants to draw into their books, no young heirs to exchange shop-ware for lordships withal, nor any trading one with another, in which they are so familiarly acquainted with each others knaveries, that, alas! their gaines are as good as nothing: And amongst them all that quintessence of unquestionable simplicity, the very spirit of yillany, extracted out of all compounded villanies; that master-piece or idea of dissimulation, which nature made her example to protraiça ture a rogue by, the Roundhead, who had wont to eat and pray, for the propagation of the brethren and sisters of the seditious faction, now is invoking of curses upon the malignant party (the Ahitophels, as he calls them, of the King's council) he sneaks into the corners of the city, and, after a licking of his lips, a spitting, and a casting up his ugly eyes towards the place he is not worthy to look at, he whispers a tale through his rotten nose, of a great danger that is fallen upon the kingdom; and strange discoveries of imminent mischiefs, which had
happened, if by some providence towards the brethren of the selected sedition, and for their sakes only, it had not been prevented ; and then at length he tells you, that, if the prince were but at St. James's, there would be something done that St. Hilary dares not repeat after him: This thin jawed, ill-looking, hungry rascal; this beetle browed, holloweyed, long-nosed, wide-mouthed cur: This carrion that stinks worse than the corrupted river of Egypt; this cockatrice that hath hatched more serpentine distempers, than all the grave wisdom of a pregnant kingdom can pacify, hath been the sole cause of poor St. Hilary's tears ; who would think this ideot, this fathomless-bellied, thin-gutted snake should begin to hiss, and shew his sting, before the glorious splendor of those excellent worthies of our hopeful parliament could have leisure to disperse itself upon this starved kingdom; that this owl, this buzzard, should be the instrument to bring clouds upon all their proceedings, and yet, without doubt, will be the first that will oppose, and curse them, when they shall please to declare that, in the title of Puritan, they never intended blue apron preachers, Brownist or Anabaptist : And yet this secure, confident, impudent, malignant, twenty times damned Heretick dares attribute all their favour to himself; well may St. Hilary's curse pursue him: Nay the unquenchable zeal of his next prayer prolong the nonsense and foolery thereof to so large a measure of time, that all the roast-meat be burnt off the spit, before he has done ; the white broth boiled dry, and the stewed and baked meat scorched to cinders, which in his opinion is one of the greatest earthly curses that can befall him. May his wife be catched in the spiritual act of her next carnal copulation, that all the world may discover what yet they carry so closely; may the fervency of his hot zeal to the younger sisters burn his reins and kidnies to ashes; and, instead of an hospital, let him be cast into the saw-pit he so often defiled under pretence of edification; let him be buried amongst the dunghills, as not worthy to come near the church he so abused, where none may find his grave but dogs to piss against it; may the ashes of his loathed carcase be collected from the pestiferous urn, by murderers and mountebanks, to nix with their killing potions; and may no poison ever hereafter be operative, but what is compounded with that infernal dust, that, as he lived to the confusion of all goodness and virtue, so he may after death be known or mentioned by no other notion, than some fate boading character, that brings with it the dreadful summons of a woeful horrour to ensue, till which end be fallen upon him we shall never see day of good trading again; but, when it is accomplished, St. Hilary will make holidays and, instead of his tears, will send you hymns and madrigals for joy of the Roundheads confusion, and your more full employment,
1. A discourse touching regal and politick government. 2. A prince
must be just in his sentence. 3. What man is fit to be a governor, and to bear rule. 4. That a prince ought to be true to his word. 5. That a prince ought to be religious. 6. That a prince ought not to shed innocent blood. 7. That a prince ought to be circumspect in giving credit to evil reports. 8. That a prince ought to beware of parasites. 9. What kind of men ought to be of the king's council. 10. That it is dangerous for a prince to take aid of a stranger. 11. How a 'prince may get and keep the love of his subjects. 12. That a prince ought to be well advised how he begin a war.
London, printed for Henry Hutton, 1642. Quarto, containing one sheet.
As in natural things, the head being cut off, the rest cannot be call
ed a body; no more can in politick things a multitude, or commonalty, without a head, be incorporate :, Therefore a people desiring to live in society, and willing to erect either a politick body or a kingdom, must, of necessity, chuse one to govern that body, who, in a king. dom, of Regendo, is called Rex; and so by the people is established a kingdom, which government is absolutely the best. And as the head of the physical body cannot change the reins and sinews thereof, nor deny the members their proper strength and necessary nutriture; no more can a king, who is head of the politick body, alter or change the laws of that body, or take from the people their goods or substance against their wills; for a king is chosen (and bound) to maintain the laws of his subjects, and to defend their bodies and goods. So Brute, arriving in this island with his Trojans, erected here a regal and politick government which hath for the most part continued ever since: For, though we have had many changes, as first the Romans, then the Saxons, then the Danes, and lastly the Normans, yet, in the time of all these nations, and during their reigns, the kingdom was for the most part governed in the same manner as it is now. Plutarch saith, that all at first that governed were called Tyrants, but afterwards the good governors called
Kings. For, though a man by force do subdue cities and countries, yet he ought to rule according to reason, and, if he knew God, according to the law of God : But when he is admitted king by the people, and hath his power from them, he may not subject the people to any other power; yet he hath a great and large prerogative, which he may use at his pleasure.
And here I think it not amiss to set down some few laws and customs of other common-wealths, whereby their good government may appear, they not being christians. Ptolemæus, King of Egypt, feasted one day seyen ambassadors, which, at his request, shewed unto him three of their principal laws and customs. And first the ambassador of Rome said, We have the temples in great reverence, we are very obedient to our governors, and we do punish wicked men severely. The Carthaginian ambassador said, Our noblemen never left fighting, the artificers never left tabouring, nor the philosophers never left teaching. The Sicilian said, In our common-wealth justice is exactly kept, merchandise is exercised with truth, and all men account themselves equal. The Rhodians said, That, at Rbodes, old men are honest, young men shamefaced, and women use very few words. The Athenians said, In our common-wealth rich men are not suffered to be divided into factions, nor poor men to be idle, nor the governors to be ignorant. The Lacedemonians said, In Sparta envy reigneth not, for all men are equal; nor covetousness, for all goods are common; nor sloth, for all men labour. In our common-wealth, said the ambassador of the Sicyonians, voyages are not permitted, because they should not bring home new factions ; physicians are not suffered, lest they should kill the sound; nor lawyers to take upon them the defence of causes and suits. And to these may be added Anacharsis's letter to the Athenians, wherein he counselleth them to chuse a king that is just in his sentence, true to his word, constant in his act, secret and liberal, for these be the principal moral virtues most necessary.
in a prince. A prince ought to be just in his sentence, according to the words of Solomon Wisd. 1. saying, 'Love justice, you that judge the earth ;' for a just king doth advance his country; and the king, that judgeth the poor rightly, his throne shall be established for ever.
Now, to shew what manner of man is fittest to govern, I read in Livy, that men born in arms, great in deeds, and rude in eloquence, ought to be chosen counsellors; and that men of quick spirits, sharp wits, and learned in the law, and eloquence, should be for the city; for the prince ought to be a martial man, stout and courageous, to defend his subjects, and offend his enemies; not to be curious to speak eloquently, but to deliver his mind plainly and wisely, it being more necessary for a prince to do well, than speak well. Paucinus saith, those are to be hated, who in their acts are fools, and in their words philoso. phers; for wise words are not commendable, if the deeds be not answerable : They therefore, saith Plato, that will have glory in this life, and attain to glory after death, and be beloved of many, and feared of all, let them be virtuous in good works, and deceive no man with vain words. All good and worthy princes have laboured to attain to this wisdom, and to exact justice most exactly, insomuch that some have
not spared their own children, so sacred a thing they ever held justice to be: As for example, Brutus, understanding that his two sons were of the conspiracy of Tarquinius Superbus. Alexander Magnus was so far from being transported from justice, as, when any man made complaint to him of another, he stopped always one ear, saying, he must keep that for the party accused. King Edgar of England had likewise that care to do justice, as in winter time he would ride up and down the country, and make enquiry of the misdemeanors of his officers and governors, and punished them severely that offended the law. And as the followers of justice shall not only be glorious on earth, but live in eternal glory; so the princes that minister injustice, and do not judge rightly, shall reap infamy on earth, and undergo the high displeasure of God; for the royal prophet saith, that God is terrible to the 'kings of the earth,' Psal. lxxv. which doth very well appear, by the strange punishments which he oftentimes inflicts upon them, as upon Pharaoh, Nebuchadnezzar, Uzziah, Joram, Antiochus, Herod; Memprisius, King of Britain, who was devoured by wolves; Seldred, a Saxon, King of England, who was killed by the devil, as he was banqueting with his nobility. And many more for their injustice have been very strangely punished, and oftentimes lost their kingdoms, as appeareth from Eccles. chap. xi, being transferred from nation to nation for injustice and injuries; therefore it behoveth a prince to take special care hereunto.
Next, it is requisite that a prince be true to his word, both towards God and man; for Solomon saith, that a.' lying lip doth not become a prince, Prov. xvii. Many examples might be given touching several princes, who have been severely punished for breach of faith : As, for example, Charles the 70th King of France, when he was Dauphin, made John, Duke of Burgundy believe that he would make peace with him, whereupon they met at a place appointed, where Charles caused the Duke to be presently killed; but Charles after this was forced to ask Philip forgiveness openly by his ambassadors. · Charles the last Duke of Burgundy having given safe conduct to the Earl of St. Paul, constable of France, took him prisoner, and delivered him to the French King, who put himn to death for his treachery, and set the said Earl free. Thus you may see how honourable it is to keep their word, and what they deserve that falsify their faith; for, a faithless prince is beloved of none, bụt hated of all ; suspected of his friends, not trusted of his enemies, and forsaken of all men in his greatest necessity.
Also a prince ought to be religious, for. Solomon saith, 'God preserveth the state of the righteous, and is a father to them that walk uprightly,' Prov. chap. ii. and in Deut. xvii. a king is commanded, after he be placed in his kingdom, to read the book of Deuteronomy, that he may learn to fear God, and keep his words, for so doing a prince sball prosper.
It is also expedient that a prince have special care that he put not his band in innocent blood, neither by tyranny, malice, ambition, policy, or false reports or informations ; for to be a tyrant is odious to God and man, and to bring himself to, an evil end. As for example, King John of England murdered his nephew, and in the end was murdered