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from whom that noble Prince got no small advantage in his military way: He was also ever precious to King James, of blessed memory; so also no less in the esteem of our now gracious sovereign, witnessing their royal affection towards him in several expressions of their favours. To the illustrious princess, the Queen of Bohemia, who, hearing of his death, cried out in a great passion, Oh! that ugly town of Maestricht, that hath bereaved me of so faithful a servant. Also to that mirrour of his time, the last Lord Harrington, to whom he was so endeared, that he offered to hazard estate, liberty, and life for his good, as by divers of his letters, still extant, appears. To the late Duke of Buckingham, who, after the defeat at the Isle of Ree, remembering what service he did at Cadiz voyage, in bringing off the retreat, cried out, Oh! Ned Harwood! Ned, Harwood! that I had had 'thee here: To the last Lord Steward, to the old Earl of Southampton, to the late Earl of Bedford, to this now Earl of Essex, and to the now Earl of Leicester, who was some time his colonel; to the Earl of Warwick, to the Lord Carlton, and to most of the chief nobility of this kingdom; whose letters, found amongst his papers, mention such real affection, as is scarcely credible, from men of their quality. Neither was he a little dear to that highly honoured Lord, the Lord Craven (who, besides the late real expression of love to his brother, and, for his many, great, noble, and pious works, deserves to have his name written upon pillars of brass) who, when he heard of his death (as was related to his brother) cast himself on his bed, crying out, he had lost his father; such was his love and opinion of him.

Moreover, when his death was noised in the army, there was such a general lamentation for his loss, that his excellency was fain to send, special command to still it, lest the enemy should take courage, as thinking it were for some of greater quality And his excellency himself, in my own hearing, I, being appointed to go before his excellency, after the hearse, heard him say, to Count Ernest, he had lost his right hand, in the loss of Monsieur Harwood.' To be brief, his name amongst soldiers was, In omni ore, tanquam mel suavis, et tanquam instrumenta musica in convivio lauto. He lived, desired; and died, lamented.

He soon ascended in the states service) to the highest step that Englishmen usually tread, and that was a colonel, in which condition, I had my knowledge of him; and these things my eye observed, that religion, fidelity, and prowess so met in him, that there seemed a constant strife amongst them, which should most appear, and often shewed themselves together, by which he broke the back of that proverb, Nulla fides pietasque viris qui castra sequuntur.

The first of these shewed itself in attendance upon the word, intimate" acquaintance with, and respect unto the faithfullest dispensers of it; the exercise of his family therein, his purse standing open to the advancement of every work of that nature, in England and Holland: He gave a large sum annually to the redeeming impropriations, the ruin whereof was none of his least griefs, together with the many souls that suffer by it; his conceit was, that nothing less than atheism hellish malice could blast it. He kept a diary of his inward man; wherein he wrote his own slips, infirmities, and God's several ways of providence


towards him, which stood him in no small stead. He was very often in humiliations, and loved those days in his life-time, and to his death, being slain in a publick day of fasting. In all his actions, he gave testimony, that he thought as much of dying, as of living. For the second, he was famous and precious to both the Princes of Orange, in that respect.

In the quelling the Arminian faction, he alone was trusted with a message to King James, and, upon his return, Barnevelt went to his last home. In the Leaguer of the Busse, he had the charge of the Velloe, when Piccolomini was in the bowels of the country with ten thousand men: His excellency intrusted him with the sole trust, managing, and ordering of that service; without limiting his commission, left it, though a matter of main concernment, to his wisdom and fidelity ; in which service, he watched thirty whole nights on horseback, and never in that time came to bed; and, in conclusion, by his providence and vigilancy, discharged that great trust, and fully secured the country.

At Cadiz Voyage, which was a matter of trust and great difficulty, he had imposed him the charge of bringing up the rear, where, the ene my setting upon many scattered troops, he brought them off with safety, by an honourable retreat; for want of which, at the Isle of Ree, how many brave English lost their lives, and our nation, much of their honour?

Lastly, his valour was unstained, as all the services he was in can bear large testimony thereof. To be short, He was first hurt by a granado in the foot, at Maestricht (a sufficient warrant to have exempted him from the service for that day) yet would he not leave the prosecu: tion of the design, though often dissuaded and advised of the great danger he adventured, by the worthy gentleman, Capt. Skippon, now Serjeant Major-General, for the City of London; but, going often into the trenches, to view the enemy's works, in a scarlet coat, gave the enemy so fair a mark, that he received from the wall a sudden shot out of a small brass piece, which struck him through the heart, and was from thence, by command of the Prince of Orange, carried to the Hague, where he was interred with as much honour, as ever was any that died in those parts, of his quality. In fine, thus much I must say of him, He was true to his principles (a rare virtue in this age.) He was nei their above, nor beneath his calling, but very adequate and true unto it. So sad, serious, and skilful in his way, that you may do well to believe what he writes. He was a good man, a good soldier, a good christian, and is now wearing his crown. Much more I might have said, but I must not make the porch greater than the building, and therefore I conclude,

Sic O precabor, usque vivere
Me posse, dein sic mori,
Mori me posse, dein sic vivere.

So I desire of God, to live and die,
And so to die, to live eternally.


IF rhimes might raise him columns, I believe,
Nor hearts, nor heads, nor pens would wanting be;
But, sure, such varnish can small Justre give
To blaze his worth, his friends may spare that fee:
For less desert, we may such pains yet keep ;
Let's now remember Harwood, and then weep.


Colonel Harwood's Advice to King Charles : Or, a Discourse on the

Rumour of the French King's Preparation at Sea.

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THE particulars of his preparations not being certainly known, there is no certain judgment to be made of them; I will therefore only take the case, as I suppose it will be granted, That the French King endeavours to make himself strong at sea, and that by two means; one, encouraging his subjects to trade at sea, giving his merchants great privileges and immunities ; another, of his own proper cost, buying, and building many great and good ships, and ordaining a yearly and brave proportion out of his revenue, for the increasing

and maintaining his navy, as some say three hundred thousand pounds sterling; others, but three hundred thousand crowns ; one or other are considerable, and may prove of danger to this state: For this disposition of his argues, that he intends either to enter into a new war with his Majesty, or, at least, to put himself into such a condition, as, when he shall think fit, he may do so, without his disadvantage. That this his arming at sea must be intended, in emulation of his Majesty's lordship of the narrow seas, to equal, or over-top him at sea, is probable. For against whom else? Not against the Hollanders, they are his obsequious friends, desirous of his friendship, fearful of his displeasure: Not against the King of Spain, for he can more easily invade him by land, when he will, as Spain can him; besides, the French King shews no disposition to enter into open war with him, for, having taken on him protection of Mantua, and not well dealt with by him in the last treaty for Italy, making a peace in shew, and yet after, taking his advantage, renewing the war in the Emperor's name; yet doth he not enter into open war with him, but will only be an assistant, else had it not been more easy for him to have invaded Flanders, or Artois, and, so by diversion aided the Duke of Mantua, than by sending an army into Italy in the winter. Therefore, this preparation of the French King, for the sea, hath his chief aim, in present, or future, at hiş Majesty : I suppose, not to invade England, or it may be none of his Majesty's islands, though that is more than we can be assured of: Some of his ships of war were this winter on his Majesty's coast, went from harbour to harbour, doubtless to discover them, and not for any good to his Majesty: Besides, who can tell, since the Islands of Guernsey and Jersey are the only remainders of the large dominions his Majesty's


predecessors formerly have possessed in France, if he have not an itching to join them to France again; or, if not them, nor Wight, yet to share the dominion of the narrow seas with his Majesty, and that is to take it from him, if he can? To which bitherto he hath not pretended, as not being able to match his Majesty at sea; but, if he continue these his preparations, and that his Majesty, out of hand, prepare not also against it, he will in short time undoubtedly effect it. It will be said, it may be, he hath no good ports or havens. That is an error ; it is true, he hath not so many good harbours, as his Majesty hath, yet some he hath, not inferior to any of his Majesty's; it may be also said, that his subjects are not so proper for the sea, nor so affected to trade, as his Majesty's are. It is true, but if he continues to encour

his merchants, turn merchant himself, Will not his princes, great lords, and gentlemen follow his example? For sailors, if he gives great pay, and pay well, he will not want them of other nations; nay, if his Majesty's own subjects have not the like great and good payment, it is to be feared, he máy draw many of his, to his service, at first, until

there be open wars betwixt the kingdoms; for do no at this present, "many hundreds, I might say, thousands of his Majesty's subjects, serve other states at sea, as the Hollanders, nay, the Turks, without either leave, or knowledge of his Majesty ?

Now, if the French King should come to be as powerful, or more, than his Majesty, at sea, he will be a more dangerous and fearful neighbour to England, than Spain, whom hitherto this kingdom has of latter years only had cause to fear; for that, against Spain, the Low Countries will ever be a good bulwark; who, if the King of Spain at any time make any great preparations at sea, will be ever jealous it is intended against them, and so ever arm against him, and be always ready to join with, and to assist his Majesty against Spain; which, it may be doubted, they will not so readily

do against France, with whom they are in league, and not jealous of. Besides, the King of Spain haih not so populous a country, that he can so easily prepare either a great fleet, or land-army, and much less both, without long time; and so his Majesty may have the more warning thereof: Then Spain is further from England, and so the journey is the longer,' and from thence cannot come many horse, which are the forces most to be feared in England: Whereas, France being so near us, and so full of soldiers, both horse and foot, if it once come to be able to equal England at sea, by sudden and quick proparations, stealing opportunities, he may overtop England at sea, and then transport such an army of horse and foot, as we might justly be afraid of ; for old soldiers, both horse and foot, France abounds in, and the French have a virtue proper to them, That not a gentleman thinks himself any thing, until he has seen the wars, and learned at least good and perfect use of his arms; and naturally they are all good horsemen: Their land affords horses fit for service, and every man almost knows how to use pistol and carabine; whereas in England, unless those which have been soldiers, few or none can use their arms, and, of those which have been soldiers, it may be, not all can well use their arms, especially the musquet, which is of most offence, which our nation are'nol naturally so prompt to learn the use of, as the French are: And, for horse, this kingdom is so deficient, that it is 'a question, Whether or not the whole kingdom could make two thousand good horse, that might equal two thousand French.

To redress these deficiencies, in all humility, I here present my poor and slender advice, under correction, and with submission to better. judgments.

First, and principally, I would advise that his Majesty would arm at sea, for that is the surest defence, for we can never be hurt by a foreign enemy by land, till we be first beaten at sea ; and therein I cannot give better advice, than to do what the French King doth; as, To repair and increase his own royal navy, which is the greatest and beşt-assured strength of England ; and, to that end, to set a-part some certain large proportion of his revenue, that his seamen may have good pay, and be well paid; and, if there be good and strict courses taken, that there be no abuses in the musters, victualling, and consumption of ammunition (which, without good payment, cannot well be executed) his Majesty will be a gainer thereby in matter of profit, besides the reputation and advantage of his service: And it is my opinion, that there is no prince or state, but had better give forty in the hundred, for monies to pay his militia well, than not to pay well: Then to encourage his merchants and other subjects to trade, and in making new plantations. For his land-forces, That his Majesty would take order, that the num. bers of trained men were increased, or rather that the whole kingdom, from eighteen or twenty, to thirty-five or forty, as many men, as were able of body, were armed; one third with pikes and armours,

another with musquets, and the third with calivers : That there were powder, bullets, and match through the whole kingdom; magazines thereof in sundry places of the kingdom in such a quantity, as that, if it were invaded in one, or divers parts, there might be no want of ammunition in any place; for it would be then too late to fetch it elsewhere, and much worse than to make it, or send over seas for it. That there were care taken, that these men, then armed, might be well exercised; and, to that end, that there be in every hundred, or wapentake, some old soldier, serjeant, or other inferior officer had out of the Low-Countries well chosen, that might teach men the use of their arms; and that there were certain days set and appointed for the shewing their arms and exercising them: And, if the statutes, which were formerly for shooting in the long-bow, were revived, or converted (with deliberation) for the musquet and calivert to practise by shooting at marks on ordinary holidays, and such like times, and at some times some small prize for them that shoot nearest; under correction, I think it were much for the strength of the kingdom. Then, that there were good choice of the muster-masters; none to be, but such as had borne office in some actual war of reputation for better there were none, and their allowances divided unto sundry inferior men, than for one to draw a great pay, that either knows not to do, or doth not any thing for it: And, because there are, or may be, such as have borne office in the wars, and yet discontinue so long, that they have forgotten their trade, or that the fashion of the wars and exercising be changed, since they were last soldiers, that every muster-master shall not only at his first entrance

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