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of the parliament. Others, on the


« fer as act, would but the godly party in the kingdom
• call us thereunto, and think themselves preserved by
• it. But the people call to us for these things, and we
" to your excellency, your known worth inviting us
• hereunto : in prosecution of which, aj an unparalleled
i instrument, we shall live or dye with your excellency,

having solemnly promised, in answer to the wonders
• Gad hath wrought amongst us, to attempt and attend
• these two last expedients through all hazards. We
• cannot so undervalue our God, and the rich experience

we have had in behalf of this nation, as to see them

lie (like Il/achar) under these sinful burdens, our colds, i heats, nakedness, want, hunger, hardships, difficulties, (dangers, cares, fears, out of which our blessed and ' ever to be praised Gud, hath brou, he us, suggesting

" these things unto us, for that flock of slaughter in this s vode. kingdom. Sir, we can dye, but not endure to fee zate Intel. ' our mother England dye before us (1).'- From this ligencer, address is easily to be collected the spirit of the army, Dec. 7,

the principles on which it acted, the authority it assum16,8.

ed, and the hazard of contefting with it. It appears to
have looked on isfelf as an independant body, capable
of advising, directing and giving the law to the senate
and people of England. This was the effect of the self-
denying ordinance, which was foreseen by many, and
now felt by all. What was alledged in defence of these
proceedings of the army, will be found in the follow-
ing note. I cannot but observe here to the reader, the
spirit of the English royalists at this time. The Scots
had raised an army in aid of the King, the parliament
was gasbelled for treating of a peace with him— was
not this meritorious in the eye of a cavalier ? Far from
it-at this very time, both Scots and parliament were
treated with the utmost virulence and contempt by those
very persons, for whose master they had subjected them.
Selves to the greatest inconveniencies. Speaking of the
army under Hamiiton, and its defeat, a writer of this

contrary, have attempted to vindicate it, and


time has the following expressions. " It was never yet

known that the blew bonnet would enter lifts upon ( the gilded promises of a public faith, or the huxters • cold hopes of best be trust. And when all this is done; o be confident, their hands will be more ready to re

ceive it, than their hearts to earn it. It has ever been s observed of the peasantry of that nation, that they • could feed better than fight. Plundering was their

only master piece: which chey could finger with such c dexterity, as if they had been nurled and bred up in • that trade from their infancy.' And again. What • else could be expected by Ca idin, being by chronologifts rendered to be the emblem of disloyalcy; a stran

(m The • ger to equity ; an harbour for injury; the magazine loyal Sactia 6 of iniquity; the counterfeit of amity (m).' With fice presentrespect to the members of parliament excluded by the ed in the

Lives and army, they were treated in the like scurrilous manner by Deaths of the same party in the following verses.

Sir Charles
Lucas and

Sir George . Farewell ye race of Judas chat betray'd

Lille, p. 27. The King your royal master; and have lay'd : 38. 12mo.

Such burthens on our shoulders, God on high 3648. « Grant you a dire and bloody tragedie. . You were the champions of a wicked cause; • You have unthron'd your sovereigne; and the laws • By you are quite subverted: you have rent « In pieces a most blessed government. ' • Now let their jult and woful cries and tears, · Whom you made widowes pierce th’ Almighties ears; • And let those orphans, who by your expresse : • Have lost their fathers, and are fatherlesse; • Roare loud for deadly vengeance, and God grait :

As they, your wives and children may know want. • We'll to your graves your herses laughing bring, • Instead of dirges we will carolls sing: " In joyful strains we'll pen your elegies,

And chronicle your stinking memories.

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(n) Mercu-, Saying here lies, and no man doth lament) . rius Prag- The rotten members of a parliament (n).' maticus, Dec. 19, 1648.”. Lord Clarendon's treatment of these gentlemen, as O See vol. well as the Scottish nation, is not much more decent (o). v. p. 114. and 240.

Milton therefore seems to have had reason for cautioning them. To beware an old and perfect enemy, . " who though he hope by lowing discord to make them

« his instruments, yet cannot forbear a minute the open () Tenure • threatning of his desperate revenge upon them, when and Magif



they have served his purposes (p). A caution howtrates, in his ever reasonable, yet neglected by those concerned, till Works, vol. their old and perfect enemy had opportunity of sati. 1. p. 357. ating the desperate revenge he had threatned. But to

proceed, in all this affair of the exclusion of the members, Cromwell's name appears not. Nay Mr. Ludlow tells us,' that lieutenant-general Cromwell the night

after the interruption of the house arrived from Scot( land and Jay at IV hitchall, where, and at other places,

he declared he had not been acquainted with this de(9) Vol. i. p. 272.

1. « sign; yet since it was done, he was glad of it, and ) See Fla" would endeavour to maintain it (9). Others say, " it gellum, po " was done by Cromwell's command (r). However

this be, we need not doubt but Ireton, and the other chief officers concerned, were fully fatisfied they had Cromwell's approbation. They would not have taken such a step without it. For though Fairfax was easy and manageable, Cromwell was very different, nor would he have failed Thewing his resentment against those who should have presumed to have acted opposite to his will. His declarations on this head are not, I think, much to be regarded. Politicians have a language of their own. They abound with quirks, subtelties and diftin&tions ; they explain away and interpret as they imagine will best suit their circumstances and conveniences. To all this, if we add Cromwell's known diffimulation, we shall see little cause to rely much on them. I will close this note


tor of it. Their reasons will be found below (FF). What followed is well known

- Suffice

with observing that the house of commons having notice of the seizing of their members, with great seeming earnestness applyed to the general for their release, and declared it to be their positive pleasure that they be forthwith discharged; but no answer satisfactory being returned, they were forced to submit, perhaps not unwillingly, to the loss of them. This was on the seventh of December, when it was ' Resolved to give hearty • thanks to Cromwell for very great and eminently faith. ful services performed by him to this parliament and • kingdom, both in this kingdom and the kingdom of - Scotland, and Mr. Speaker did accordingly give him the very hearty thanks of this house (s).'

(s) Journal. . (FF) The reasons for purging the house of commons, and the apology for Cromwell on that head, are here to be given.] On the uth of December the secluded and secured members published a printed paper, intituled ' A folemine proteftation of the imprisoned and secluded members of the commons house: against the horrid force and violence of the officers and soldiers of the army, on Wednesday and Thursday last, the 6th and 7th of December, 1648. In this protestation · They solemnly protest ! and declare to the whole kingdom, that this execrable < force and open violence upon their persons, and the

whole house of commons, by the officers and army under their command, in marching up against their

command and placing strong armed guards of horse • and foot upon them, without, and against their order, I was the highest and most detestable force and breach

of priviledge and freedom ever offered to any parlia"ment of England; and that all acts, ordinances, votes ' and proceedings of the said house made since the 6th

of December aforesaid, or bereafter to be made during o their restraint and forcible feclusion from the house, • and the continuance of the armies force upon it, were I no way obligatory, but void and null to all intents and


Suffice it therefore to say that the votes of no



« purposes. And that all contrivers of, actors in, and
« assistants to this unparalleled force and treasonable
“ armed violence, were operi enemies to, and profefred
" subverters of the priviledges, rights and freedom of
• parliament, and disturbers of the peace and settlement
• of the kingdom; and ought to be proceeded againft
• as such: and that all members of parliament and com-
'moners of England, by their solemn covenant and duty,

under pain of deepest perjury and eternal infamy, were

obliged unanimonfly to oppose and endeavour to their ' utmost power to bring them to exemplary and con• digne punishment for this transcendent offence, tend-

& ing to the dissolution of the present, and subversion (1) Walker's' of all future parliaments, and of the fundamental go. History of overnment and laws of the land (t). This bold proIndependen

i. testation being complained of in the house of commons, p. 35. and the house of lords, produced a joint declaration

from them, in which · They judged and declared, the « said printed paper to be false, scandalous and feditious, cand tending to destroy the visible fundamental govern«ment of the kingdom: and therefore ordered and or• dained the said printed paper to be suppressed ; and

all persons whatsoever that had had any hand in, or

given consent unto the contriving, framing, printing cor publishing thereof, were adjudged uncapable to bear

any office, or have any place of trust or authority in " the kingdom, or to fit as members of either house of e parliament. And they farther ordered, that every

member of either house that were then absent, upon « his first coming to fit in that house whereof he was a 6 member, for the manifestation of his innocency, should • disavow and disclaim, his having any hand in, or giv• ing consent unto the contriving, framing, printing or

publishing of the said paper, or the matter therein (w) Id. p. "contained (u).'— Here are no reasons we see given

to justify the exclusion. We must seek them ellewhere then, that is, in the writings of the advocates for



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