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cution. In all these transactions Cromwell


upon his guard. And it was as warrantable for Crom< well to secure himself from the contrivances of his

enemies in a shattered parliament, of which he had • so long before such timely notice, as it was for them " to seek his ruin. For they were not his sovereigns but « his equals. When he found that his prosperous 6 archievements raised him enemies on every side; that

they who were most beholding to his victorious fuc. « cesses, combined with the greatest animosity to his « destruction ; 'twas time for him then to look about • him, and to oppose their undermining devices with "counttrmines of the same nature. Nor does it ap

pear by any proof that carries authority with it, that • he pretended to single greatness till he was forced to • it for his own safety. It is agreed by the author of " the Memoirs himself [Ludlow) that Cromwell offered • more candid and easy conditions to the King than the

Presbyterian party did; which if the King had ac

cepted (and it does not appear to be Cromwell's fault < that he did not) Cromwell himself had then put a stop " to all his single advancement; whereas he would sure<ly have taken another course, had he at that time me

ditated single sovereignty ; but the King, who was de« figned by fate to be a victim to evil counsel, refused

those offers, trusting to vainer hopes. On the other < fide, it was manifest that the Presbyterian party aimed • at nothing more than their own advancement by their s felling the bishops lands, and when they came to treat

with the King, by their so ftifly adhering to their proposition for the abolishing of episcopacy, knowing

there could be no bishops without maintenance, and " that then they must be che paramount clergy. But " then (indeed) Cromwell perceiving that it was not fafe

to rely on the King, nor willing to truckle under a party that were treating for their own advancement

upon his ruins, 'tis rational to believe, that from that 6 time forward he began to look upon the King as a

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had (GG) a principal hand.— His name


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'Caughoved Prince, and that none could better supply Visezion" his rocm than the perfon who had subdued him (4) of 0.6:09. This seems no ix-made apolosy. well. p.4; (GG) In all these transactions Cromwell bad a princi47. 40, Est. 1698. pal hand.] After the seclusion of the members who pro

moted the treaty with the King, it was natural to expect that his Majesty never more would be permitted to bear rule. But it did not once, I believe, enter into the thoughts of him or his adherents, that he would be brought before a court of justice, tried, and executed in an open and public manner. Yet all this we know happened, to the very great amazement of many. The part Cromwell had in these transactions comes now to be related. " When it was first moved in the house of • commons to proceed capitally against the King, Cromwell stood up and told them, that if any man moved " this upon design, he should think him the greatest • traytor in the world; but since providence and necef« fity had cast them upon it, he should pray God to

bless their counsels, though he were not provided on ( ) walker's Minory of the sudden to give them counsel (e).'- The followIndependen- ing anecdote from Burnet will shew that he had well "y, pant il. considered the reasons and grounds of the proceeding. P. 54.

Lieutenant-general Drummond, afterwards Lord Strathallan, was the relator. This gentleman · happened to be « with Cromwell when the commissioners sent from Scot. land to protest against the putting the King to death I came to argue the matter with him. Cromwell bade • Drummond stay and hear their conference, which be • did. They began in a heavy languid style to lay in• deed great loads upon the King: but they still infifted "on that clause in the covenant, by which they fwore < they would be faithful in the preservation of his Ma• jefties person. With this they shewed upon what • ferms Sutland, as well as the two houses, had engag

ed in the war, and what solemn declarations of their vcal and duty to the King they all along published;

for this has been greatly reproached, though


which would now appear to the scandal and reproach r of the christian name, to have been false pretences, • if when the King was in their power they should pro6 ceed to extremities. Upon this Cromwell entered into a • long discourse of the nature of the regal power, according 6 to the principles of Mariana and Buchanan: he thought « a breach of trust in a King ought to be punished more < than any other crime whatsoever. He said, as to their

covenant, they swore to the prefervation of the King's 6 person in the defence of the true religion : if then it • appeared that the settlement of the true religion was

obstructed by the King, fo that they could not come < at it but by putting him out of the way, then their • oath could not bind them to the preferving him any

longer. He said also, their covenant did bind them,

to bring all malignants, incendiaries, and enemies to « the cause, to condign punishment : and was not this « to be executed impartially? What were all those on

whom public justice had been done, especially those « who suffered for joining Montrole, but small offenders o acting by commission from the King, who was there. • fore the principal, and so the most guilty ? Drum

mond said, Cromwell had plainly the better of them, • at their own weapon, and upon their own princi- (o vol; • ples (f):'- On the 21 Jan. 1648, old style, Hugh p. 61. Peters preaching at Whitehall, upon · Bind your Kings with chains, and your nobles in fetters of iron ;' and talking, in his bold manner, concerning the King's being liable to the law as well as other men, Cromwell was (3) Exact observed to laugh (8). And when on the motion of Mr. Narrative of

and perfect Downes, on the last day of the trial, the court adjourn- the Tryal of ed into the court of wards, and was pressed in the most the Regio

cides, p. pathetic terms by him, to give the King liberty to make 168.' some proposition to the parliament for the settlement of the kingdom, as his Majesty had in court just before desired: after Mr. Durunes had urged this, 7 Cromwell • did answer with a great deal of qtorm, He told the


osition to his Majesty and urged chi$He told

there were not wanting men of ability, at


• president that now he saw what great reason the gen. ( tleman had to put such a great trouble upon them; • faith he, sure he doch not know that he hath to do ' with the hardest hearted man that lives upon the earth;

however it is not fit that the court should be hindred s from their duty by one peevith man; he said the bot

" tom was known, that I would fain save his old mar. Sxact

ter, and desired the court without any more ado, and perfect Narrative,

would go and do their duty (1). Mr. Iľayte, another &c. p. 61. of the King's judges, says • Cromwell laughed and jeer

• ed, and smiled, in the court of wards on this occa" fion.' He afterwards adds, " That being told -by • Lord Gray that the King would not dye, the next « day he went to the house, they were labouring to get

hands for his execution at the door. I refused, and ' went into the house; faith Cromwell, those that are

• gone in shall set their hands, I will have their hands (i) Id. p. now (1) Colonel Ingoldsby was a relation of Crem269. well's, aod named a judge: but dilliking the action, he

always absented himself. But the day after the sentence was pronounced, having occasion to go to the painted chamber," he law Cromwell, and the rest of those ' who had fate upon the King, and were then, as he • found afterwards, affembled to sign the warrant for " the King's death. As soon as Cromwell's eyes were • upon him, he run to him, and taking him by the · hand, drew him by force to the table; and said, • Though he had escaped him all the while before, he • should now sign that paper as well as they; which he, o seeing what it was, refused with great paffion; fay• ing, he knew nothing of the business; and offered to

go away. But Cromwell, and others, held him by

violence; and Cromwell with a loud laughter, taking • his hand in his, and putting the pen between his fin

• gers, with his own hand writ Richard Ingoldsby, he ($) Claren- making all the resistance he could (k):'--An exact don, vol, vi. copy of

· copy of the warrant for the King's execution was pub. P: 763.

lished by the society of antiquaries of London, a few years since: in which it appears that the names of some persons who had signed it were erased, and other names inserted, and that the day, as well as the officers who were to see to the execution of it, were changed. Cromwell's name stands third on the warrant. But to go on :

Colonel Huncks declares, " That a little before the < King's execution, he was in Ireton's chamber, where o Ireton and Harrison were in bed together ; there was o Cromwell, colonel Hacker, lieutenant-colonel Phayer,

Axtell and himself standing at the door, the warrant < for the execution was there produced, and Mr. Hacker “ was reading of it, but Cromwell addressed himself to s him (Huncks] commanding him by virtue of that war

rant, to draw up an order for the executioner. I re! fused it, adds hé, and upon refusing of it, there hap« pened some cross passages. Cromwell would have no . delay. There was a little table that stood by the • door, and pen, ink, and paper being there, Cromwell

stept, and writ (I conceive he wrote that which he ( would have had me to write) as soon as he had done ' writing, he gives the pen over to Hacker, Hacker he • stoops and did write (I cannot say what he writ) away • goes Cromwell, and then Axiell; we all went out, af.

terwards they went into another room; immediately • the King came out, and was murthered (1).' The (1) P. 221. following relation (if it had not been contrary to Huncks's account) is of too doubtful an authority to be absolutely relied on, though in a work of this nature it cannot well be omitted. " While these things were acting, · [the fitting the scaffold for the King's execution] the « Lord Fairfax, who had always forborn any public

appearance in the practices of this murther, had taken ·

up (as is credibly reported) some resolutions, (either • in abhorrency of the crime, or by the follicitations of • others) with his own regiment, though none else • fhould follow him, to hinder the execution. This • being suspected or known, Cromwell, Ire!on and HarI rifon coming to him, after their usual way of deceiv<ing, endeavoured to perswade him, that the Lord had "rejected the King, and with such like language as they

I knew

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