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doubt could be made of the validity of titles (x).' (2) ContiThe reader need not be told how much honour this

" Clarendon's relation does to the parliament of the commonwealth Life, vol. ii, of England, by whose wisdom

com uigreiningar

these great things were p. 174– thus settled and accomplished. His lordship strongly indeed infinuates cruelty in these proceedings: but his word is not to be depended on. That they intended the utter extirpation of the Irish nation is meer calumny, as appears from the preamble to the act for settling Ireland, in which, among other reasons for passing it, one is, That the people of that nation might « know that it is not the intention of the parliament to o extirpate that whole nation, but that mercy and par

don, both as to life and estate, may be extended to I all husbandmen, plowmen, labourers, artificers, and (a) Scobel's 6 others of the inferior sort (a). The curious reader collections, will do well to consult the act. I will not dilate on his Ant

c. 13. lordship's ftiling Tipperary a province ; such a mistake is pardonable in a man who confesses himself to have been ignorant of there being any such place in England as b) s Sheerness (b). However, I cannot find that Cromwell nuation, vol, reserved it as a demesne for the state or his own family. iii. p.752.

I will only add, that Lord Molesworth gives it as his opinion, that to Cromwell's distributing of the enemies lands to the so'diers in Ireland, we owe to Hollo• that kingdom's being a protestant kingdom at this man's Fran

of E co Gallia, day, and its continuing subject to the crown of Eng-..

s ad edit. po land (c).

Lieutenant-general Ludlow had a great fare in all these transactions. The spirit with which he acted will appear from the following answer given to a letter of the Marquis of Clanrickarde, defiring a conference with him for the settling the repose of the nation, and a safe conduct for commissioners to treat with him for that purpose.



the actions of Cromwell (LL) in Scotland,


My Lord,

IN answer to yours of the 24th of March, by which

you propose a treaty for the settlement of this country, and defire a safe conduct for the commissioners you Thall judge fit to employ in the management of that af-' fair, I think fit, in pursuance of the advice of the commiffioners of the parliament of England, and of many officers of the English army, to advertise you, as hath been already answered to those who have sent propositions of the like nature, that the settlement of this nation doth of right belong to the parliament of the commonwealth of England, to whom we are obliged in duty to leave it, being assured that they will not capitulate with those who ought to fubmit to them, and yet oppose themselves to their authority, and upon vain and frivolous hopes have refused such offers of favour as they would gladly accept at present : so that I fear they will be constrained to proceed against them with the highest feverity, which that you may prevent by your timely submifiion, is the desire of,

My Lord,

Your humble servant, (d) Ludlow, vol. i. p.

EDMUND Ludlow (d).


This reduction of Ireland, in so short a time, when the affairs of the commonwealth were in so low a itate there, does, undoubtedly, great honour to Cromwell, as well as the other commanders in chief after him. His actions here have always juftly made one part of his panegyric. We shall soon see that he did not disgrace them by any after military ill behaviour.

(11) Cromwell's actions in Scotland, and the viatury of Worcester.] 'Tis well known, that the Scots were extremely ill used by Charles the first; that they opposed his measures ; marched an army into England; joined with the parliament, and helped to reduce hini to a


which, with the victory at Worcester, so to


Kingdomof the youthe Scotsures of the line bad mood, beer

Kwany.coking originarobable

ftate of captivity. They stopped short, however, here, and very violently opposed his trial and condem, nation, looking on him as their King, and the judges as murtherers. Thus matters stood when the commonwealth was erected in England. Soon after appli, cation was made to Charles II. by commissioners from the Scottish nation, in order to his entrance into that kingdom, and mounting the throne of his ancestors, Many of the young King's counsellors were against this, looking on the Scots as a rebellious nacion who had been the original cause of the late King's misfor, tunes. And very probable it is, that had not Lord Ormonde, and the catholic confederates in Irelaid, been defeated by Jones and Cromwell, he would not have had a thought of going thither. Lord Byron, in a letter to the Marquis of Ormende, dated Hague, April 12, 1649, N.S, writes as follows: Commissioners are come out < of Scotland, consisting of one Earl (the Earl of Caf: sels) two burgesses, and four divines, to treat with • his Majesty concerning the affairs of that kingdom, « or rather to impose unsufferable conditions upon him. • To give the better assurance of their good intentions

to his service, immediately before their coming out • of Scotland, the Marquis of Huntley was put to death s for no other crime but his loyalty to the King. Their o propositions are as insolent as can be imagined; for " they require that all malignants and evil counsellors « (and particularly the Marquis of Montrose) should be

banished the court; that his Majesty should take both the national covenant and the holy league and cove,

nant (as they term it) and establish a presbyterian « government in all his kingdoms. But the King be+ ing now unfortunately in a presbyterian country, • cannot resent these indignities so as otherwise he ! would. Howtoever, his intention is, not to enter

into any particular debate of these propositions, but to remic the commissioners till his coming into Ire

6 land,

tally broke the power of Scotland, that it


and unskilfull., Caward Hydebe King's de

given an

« land, the matters propounded by them concerning his (c) Oro monde's

other kingdoms as well as Scctland (e).'— Sir EdSiate pa. ward Nicholas, in a letter to the same nobleman, dated pers, vol. i. Jersey, October 13-23, 1649, says, “There are Scots p. 268.

• commissioners coming hither; but their propositions
• are as unreasonable as the former sent into Holland.
· They have now a strong faction about the King :
• and the Lord Jermyn (who is esteemed the head of
< the Scots presbyterian faction) hath, its said, gained
o many that are now about his Majesty to his party,
(and, some say, will come hither to aflilt with all bis
• interelt and power the advancement of the King's de-
s signs. The truth is, Sir Edward Hyde being so un-
o necessarily and unskilfully employed in Spain, hath

given an infinite advantage to the Scots presbyterians; (F) Id. p. for he was expert in all their jigs and artifices ().' 322.

What the good secretary would have had the young King do is hard to say. There was no place for him in England or Ireland where then could he go but into Scotland? How expert soever Sir Edward Hyde might be in the Scots jigs and artifices, it would not have been in his power to have hindered the King's resolving to agree with the commissioners of that kingdom, though, 'tis very certain, his in. clination was not much that way. For he had no love for the Scots league and covenant; he relished not the manners and behaviour of the ruling part of that nation ; nor could he well put on the stiff and formal air which was almost essentially necessary to gain their favour. But necefficy has no law : the King leaving Breda took ship in Holland; landed in Scotland; and, having taken the solemn league and covenant, and signed a declaration, wherein he renounced the sins of his father's house, and of his own, and the idolatry of his mother, was folemnly crowned there. This filled the royalists with hopes, as appears from a letter of Lord Ormonde to Sir Edward Nicholas, dated Louvre,


was no longer in a condition to support its


February 12, 1650. • Though it be very true, that his < Majesty's condition must be to himself most irksome,

and to his servants, that have endeavoured to serve his

happy father and himself in their own method, most « uncomfortable, yet, by what Mr. Seymour relates, and . which seems confirmed by the London prints, ic may . be truly said to be in some degree amended by his co• ronation, and the conjunction of that people, which, " as it gives some foreign reputation to his business, so

it promises more of resistance against the rebels, than

when they were divided; and, consequently, may . more probably afford an opportunity to others of bet• ter inclinations to show themselves; and the same • God, who, contrary to, and beyond the original in(tention of the English rebels, haih permitted them to • perpetrate so unexampled villanies against the royal « family and freedom of England, may, contrary to,

and beyond the purpose of the Scots (who gave the o rise to the perpetration) make them inftrumental in the restoration, I hope he purposes, to the King's juft (s) 01.

monde's s power, and his people's free claim (g).' But his lord. 50

". State paship's hopes were ill founded. The Scots were zealous pers, vol. i. indeed to serve their covenanted King, and they hated p.405. heartily the English government and army, whom they were taught by their clergy to look on and call sectaries, a name, in the ears of the priests and prieft-ridden, most odious and abominable. Great preparations were every where made to raise an army, which might destroy these men, and restore his Majesty to the English throne. But the thing was not so easily effected as planned. Those who sat at the helm of affairs were upon their guard. On the 12th of June, 1650, the parliament voted, that the lord-general Fairfax, and lieutenant-general Cromwell, should both be commanded to go upon the northern expedition : and that the council of state (which had been constituted at the be. ginning of the new government, and consisted of some


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