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being burthensome to the generality, though

agreed, that the castle of Edinburgh, after a sort, but brisk siege, should be delivered up to him, with all the ordinance, arms, magazines, and furniture of war thereunto belonging.-- It may seem strange and al6 moft incredible, says a writer of that time, that such a

strong and impregnable hold as was that, should be so

easily won, the like whereof is not in that nation; r wherefore it was the common vogue of that sime,

• and by many credibly believed, that it was assaulted () Britan. nia Trium. I with silver engines ().' It does not however appear pbalis, p. that Cromwell was wont to make use of these against 67. 12 mo. his foes.--The Scots, in the mean while, were not Lond. 1657.

intimidated by their losses : full of zeal for their King, and hatred of the sectaries, who were now their conquerors, they again railed a very considerable army, and hoped without doubt to be fully avenged on them. For they had friends and well wishers in England, especially the presbyterians, who were plotting how to advance the young King to the thrones of his fathers. But all was ineffeclual. The plots in England were discovered, and some lost their lives on that account; the Scots army cared not to face Cromwell, but chose what appeared to them, the safer game, viz. to give him the sip, and march before him into England, where they counted they should meet with aid and affiftance. This they put in execution. Charles II. at the head of a good army and gallant officers, attended by many of the chief nobility and gentry of Scotland, set forward the nearest way for England. In Lancoshire he was joined by the Earl of Dirty with others, and after in vain summoning Shrewsberry, he arrived at Worcester, where he determined to abide the coming of Cromwell, who was in full march after him. A few days brought him within view indeed; and on the third of Sept. 1651, he without ceremony, gave orders to his troops to attack the enemy, and gave them a total overthrow. "This, I says Cromwell, hath been a very glorious mercy, and

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( as stiff a contest for four or five hours, as ever I have (s) See his seen (s).' So that Clarendon, out of spight to the Letter to

the Speaker Scots, has grolly misrepresented their behaviour in this in the Pare battle, by saying, “That except on the part where Mid- liamentary <dleton was, who was quickly overpowered, there was History, vol. • no resistance made; but such a general consternation And « possessed the whole army, that the rest of the horse lock, p.

fled, and all the foot threw down their arms before 507, 5o8.. • they were charged ().' What credit can such a ..

“p. 409. prejudiced writer deserve ? Mr. Hume, however, has servilely copied this false and ungenerous account of the (") History

of Great behaviour of his countrymen (u). In this battle the Britain. King lost 3000 men, belides about 12000 made priso- ii. p. 29. ners, amongst whom were many of the chief quality. Thus an end for the present was put to the hopes of the Scots King and his party; who from this time was forced to wander abroad (where he would have wandered, had he had no affistance but from the cavaliers, for ever) vill the restoration in 1660. After this Scotland yielded to the English, and presumed no more to enter the lifts, for power and dominion. Indeed she was wholly subdued. How high a sense the parliament had of Cromwell's services, will appear from the instructions given to the commissioners whom they sent to compliment him on this last victory. They are dated sipt. 9, 1651, and are as follows: " You are in the name of the par• liament, to congratulate his lordship's good recovery • of health, after his dangerous sickness; and to take

notice of his unwearied labours and pains in the late • expedition into Scotland, for the service of this com

monwealth; of his diligence in prosecution of the • enemy, when he Aed into England; of the great • hardlhips and hazards he hath exposed himself to, and

particularly at the late fight at Worcester ; of the pru• dent and faithful managing and conducting throughout " this great and important affair, which the Lord from is heaven hath so signally blessed, and crowned with so

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whom it had taken the power of tyrannifing


• compleat and glorious an issue. Of all which you « are to make known to his lordship, the parliament

hath thought fit, by you, to certify their good ac( ceptance and great satisfaction therein: and for the ' fame you are to return, in the name of the parlia« ment and commonwealth of England, their molt hear. 6 ty thanks: as also to the rest of the officers and fol

diers, for their great and gallant services done to this commonwealth. You are likewise to let his lordship

know that since, by the great blessing of God upon bis 6 lordship’s and the army's endeavours, the enemy is so "totally defeated, and the state of affairs, as well in « England as in Scotland, such, as may very well disspense with his lordship’s continuance in the field;

they do desire his lordship, for the better setilement of « his health, to take such rest and repose as he shall find most requisite and conducing thereunto: and for that

purpose to make his repair to, and refidence at or with' in some few miles of this place, whereby also the • parliament may have the affiftance of his presence, in

' the great and important consultations for the further mentary Hl.' settlement of this commonwealth, which they are tory, p.48. - now upon (x).' Mr. Whitlock, who was one of the vo, xx. Anden. Journal, 9 h com

conimillioners, tells us, ' That they met the general Sept. cóft. ' near Aylesbury, delivered their message, and he re

sceived them with all kindness and respect : that he I gave each of them a horle and two Scots prisoners, s as a token of his thankful reception of the parliament's

regard in sending them to meet and congratulate rials, p. 509.

him ().' Cromwell was also met at Aiton, by the Speaker, the Lord President Bradshaw, many members of parliament and the council of state, with the Lord Mayor, aldermen, and theriffs ; and, entering London in a coach of ftare, was received with all possible de. monstrations of joy. And to crown all, the parliament resolved thac lands of inheritance to the yearly value of 4000 l. belonging to the state, be settled upon the lord

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over their neighbours.--Nor was this all


general Cromwell and his heirs, as a mark of favour from the parliament for his great and eminent services to (2) Parlia. the commonwealth (z). The other officers were not tor

na mentaryHir. forgotten, but were provided for out of Scotland, which p. 20.--52. being looked on in fome mealure as conquered, it was resolved to bring in an act for asserting the right of the commonwealth to so much of Scotland, as was then under the forces of the commonwealth, and to fetile it under the government thereof (a). Such being the (a) Journal, actions of Cromwell in Scotland, and at IV orcester, we are not to wonder that his panegirifts talked of them in lofty terms, and preferred him to antient heroes for valour and fortitude. The learned reader, possibly, may be pleased with a specimen of them : ' In victoriis tuis

tâm mulcis Olivari, quæ funt eò nobiliores, quò dif- , . ficiliores, periculofiores, formidabiliores pugnæ fuêre, . celeritatem certè tuam, fortitudinemquè superioribus

heroibus omnibus longè clariorem arbitror, quippe quos vel explofi Sclopi globulus cum audaciâ fuâ prof

travislet illicò. Atque ut ingenuè fatear, longè plus • æftimo virtute tuâ superatam Cambriam, atque poft « fructos tàm multos, eofquè Scotorum valentiffimos ex6 ercitus, à te captum Edenburgum, Sterlinumquè, at« que ex consequenti Scotiam universam. In Hibernia ( verò Tredan vi captam, Hiberniamque redactam ; cin Anglia, Scotorum exercitu potentisfimô defenfam, • muntillimamquè tum naturâ loci, tum arte Vigorniram, vi tamen occupatam, plus inquam, ex animi mei 6 sinceritate victorias hasce tuas facio, quàm Cyri, Al(exandris Julii Cæsaris laureas omnes, habitâ ratione.)

' rinis (b) Paralle.

Oliva o temporis, locorum, hoftiumque (b).'-Another speaking nec non 0. of him, said, “Ille eft, ille eit, auditores admiremini ! livarii, p. • Cujus unius fortitudo plus biennio profecit, quam ?5 6 centenis feculis majores nostri profuerant, vel forsan 6 nepotes profuturi. Nempe per ultimam Thulen aus spiciis obftupefcendis volitantia vexilla protulit, & ultra • Romanas aquilas, exercituum victrices alas expliI


Disputes arising with the Du'ch (MM), a


Scipione, ne

lippainam cum Anrompejus cum

(c) Oratio "cuit (c).'- A third describes the battle of Worcefier Aniversaria:

in the following manner: • Ad extremum illud & maxiin diem Inaguracionis ' mum, in quo de summa rei Scoti dimicarunt ; præOlivari, olium venio. Illua inquam Vigornianum, omnibus per Fither: totius antea actæ ætatis acerrimis comparandum : Nam Fol. Lond. 1655.

o neque apud Mantineam Thebani cum Lacedemoniis,

neque apud Zamam Annibal cum Scipione, neque in · Pharsalicis campis Pompejus cum Cæsare, neque apud

Mutinam cum Antonio Consules, neque ajud Phi(a; Panegy. • lippos cum Augufto & Antonio Brutus & Caflius acrisicus Crom. welli, p. 95:- us & pertinaciùs dimicarunt (d).' The victory at 410. 1654: Worcester, and the respect and applause almost univer

sally attending him, inspired Cromwell, probably, forft of all with the defire of dispoflefling his masters, and seizing the supream command. The reasons of this affertion will be found in the note (ww).

(MM) Disputes arising with the Dutch, a spirit ani conduct appeared in the English commonwealth, &c.] From the beginning of the quarrel between Charles and the parliament, the Dutch had acted somewhat partially in his Majesty's favour. Arms and ammunition, officers and private soldiers, together with some ships, had been procured from them at different times by the Queen and her agents. On complaint of these things from the parliament, by their agent Mr. Strickland, orders were given to put a stop to every thing of this kind, and to observe the most exact neutrality. But among a money-loving people this was but ill observed, and therefore orders were given to the commanders of the Englijo ships, to seize all Dutch ships on which were pro

visions, stores, ammunition or any other thing belonging le See Se- to or intended for the enemy: which orders were well crets disco. obeyed, and caused great complaints in Holland against

the parliament, who, however, were not to be moved England's complaint from their resolution (e). In the beginning of January, against the 1643, the States-General sent ambasladors into EngStates-Ge

land, who, though respectfully treated by the parliaLond, 1643



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