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very many other instances which might be


tained, he had audience of the duke of Savoy, in the presence of Madame Royale, his mother. Here, in a very eloquent and pathetic speech, he lamented the unheard of cruelties inflicted on the duke's protestant subjects, and said every thing to move him to compassion. After this the protector's letter was delivered on the same subject. Madame Royale * hereupon told the English envoy, · That as on the one side she could not but exstreamly applaud the fingular goodness and charity of « his highness the lord protector towards their subjects, < whose condition had been represented to him so exç ceeding fad and lamentable, as the perceived by that "discourse of his ; so on the other side she could not but ' extreamly admire, that the malice of men thould ever

proceed so far, as to cloath such fatherlike and tender ? chartisements of their most rebellious and insolent sub"jects, with so black and ugly a character, to render

them thereby odious to all neighbouring princes and 6 states, with whom they so much desired to keep a

good understanding and friendthip, especially with so « great and powerful a prince as bis highness the Lord « Protector ; and withall, she did not doubt, but that

when he thould be particularly and clearly informed % of the truth of all pallages, he would be so fully fa(tisfied with the duke's proceedings, that he would not • give the least countenance to thote his disobedient sub• jeets. But however, for his highness's fake, they { would not only freely pardon their rebellious subjects < for chole so heinous crimes which they had commit? ced, but also would accord to them such priviledges

and graces, as could not but give the Lord Protector hoy a sufficient evidence how great a respect they bare

?both to his person and mediation (s): ---In consequence of the Protector's application to the protestant princes and states, a general disposition appeared to fa

P 575.

$ The duke was young, and under the tuition of his mother.


mentioned of his concern for the protestant


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vour the Vaudois. And very probable 'ois, the court of Turin would have been obliged not only to have given them a pardon, but proper security for the enjoyment of their religion and liberties. Unhappily, they were too hafty in procuring themselves a little ease. For while the Dutch ambassador was on his journey in their behalf, and Oliver had sent two persons to join with Morland in negotiating a peace, a treaty was concluded by means of the French ambassador Servient, and the amballadors of the Swiss Protestant Cantons; a treaty specious in appearance, but productive of many woes. Cromwell, however, ceased not to take care of the interest of those poor people. For understanding that they were still oppresied in many instances, though a stop was put to the massacres and other notorious acts of violence, he sent a letter to Lockhart, his ambassador at the court of France, dated May 26, 1658, in which he desires him, " To redouble his instances with the French King, in such pathetick and affectionate ex< pressions, as may be in some measure suitable to the • greatness of their present sufferings and grievances, < which (the truth is, says he) are almost inexpressible.'

In this letter is contained a list of their grievances, whereof Lockhart is ordered to make his Majesty thoroughly sensible, and to perswade him to give speedy and effectual orders to his ambassador, who resides in (*) Morland, the duke's court, to act vigorously in their behalf (t).This detail, plainly shews the little exactness there is in the above-cited paflage from Burriet. 'Tis not imo possible however, if Creanwell had lived a little longer, he would have fully carried his point with regard to these men ; his connections and influence in France being about this time at their height. I will add one relation more on this subject from Clarendon, a relation honourable indeed to Cromwell, though I am afraid not much to be depended on; as no traces, except of the fumult, are to be found in Lockhart's letters, In

o the

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interest, and the protection he always grant



• the city of Nimes, which is one of the fairest in the • province of Languedoc, and where those of the se• ligion do most abound, there was a great fa&tion at " that seafon when the consuls (who are the chief ma« gistrates) were to be chosen. Those of the reformed • religion had the confidence to set up one of them« felves for that magistracy; which they of the Roman • religion resolved to oppole with all their power. The • diffention between them made so much noise, that the

intendant of the province, who is the fupream minié Ster in all civil affairs throughout the whole province, « went thither to prevent any disorder that might hap• pen. When the day of election came, those of the • religion poffeffed themselves with many armed men of

the Town-house, where the election was to be made. • The magistrates sent to know what their meaning 6 was; to which they anfwered, " They were there to • give their voices for the choice of the new consuls, . and to be fure that the election was fairly made.' « The bishop of the city, the intendant of the province, ¢ with all the officers of the church, and the present • magiftrates of the town, went together in their robes • to be present at the election, without any fufpicion • that there would be any force ufed. When they came • near the gate of the Town-house, which was fhut, • and they supposed would be opened when they came, " they within poured out a volley of musket-shot upon o them, by which the dean of the church, and two or 6 three of the magistrates of the town, were killed upon • the place, and very many others wounded; whereof 6 fome died fhortly after. In this confusion, the ma• giftrates put themselves into as good a pofture to de< send themselves as they could, without any purpose of

offending the others, till they should be better pro« vided ; in order to which they fent an express to the « court with a plain relation of the whole matter of fact; and that there appeared to be no manner of


ed it) yielded just matter of praise to his


( combination with those of the religion in other places 6 of the province, but that it was an insolence in I those of the place, upon the presumption of their great (numbers, which were little inferiour to those of the • catholics. The court was glad of the occasion, and

resolved that this provocation, in which other places 6 were not involved, and which nobody could excuse,

Thould warrant all kinds of severity in that city, even

to the pulling down their temples, and expelling ma• ny of them for ever out of the city ; which, with the « execution and forfeiture of many of the principal per• sons, would be a general mortification to all of the o religion in France, with whom they were heartily ( offended ; and a part of the army was forth with or• dered to march towards Nismes, to see this executed • with the utmost rigour. Those of the religion in the 6 town, were quickly sensible into what condition they

had brought themselves; and sent with all possible sub• miffion, to the magistrates to excuse themselves, and « to impute what had been done to the ralhness of par

ticular men, who had no order for what they did.

· The magistrates answered, that they were glad they < were fenfible of their miscarriage; but that they • could say nothing upon the subject, till the King's < pleasure should be known; to whom they had sent a s full relation of all that had passed. The others very 6 well knew what the King's pleasure would be, and • forthwith sent an express, one Moulins, who had live «ed many years in that place, and in Montpelier, to Cromwell, to desire bis protection and interpofition. • The express made so much hafte, and found so good 6 a reception the first hour he came, that Cromwell, • after he had received the whole account, bad him re

fresh himself after so long a journey, and he would • take such care of his business, that by the time he • came to Paris he should find it dispatched; and that • night, fent away another meslenger to his embassador

6 Locke

ered, them for what hners of and

refs, once, and ind interpofitood admirers (KKK), and has accordingly been


in a full par real of Fran there was d as if

Lockhart ; who, by the time Moulins came thither, « had so far prevailed with the cardinal, that orders were « fent to stop the troops, which were upon their march " to Nismes; and, within few days after, Msulins re

turned with a full pardon, and amnesty from the < King, under the great seal of France, fo fully con<firmed with all circumstances, that there was never « farther mention made of it, but all things passed as if

" there had never been any such thing. So that no body (W) VJ. vi. I can wonder, that his memory remains still in those p. 651.

o parts, and with those people, in great veneration (M).'

I will not vouch, as I hinted above, for the truth of this relation. 'Tis certain the behaviour of the proreitants is misrepresented, as will appear from the following passage of Lockhart's to Thurloe, dated Paris,

January 12, 1658, N. S. Wee were yesterday i alarmed with ill news from Nismes, one of the most • confiderable cities of the protestants. It was reported, " that they and the Roman Catholicks had been by the « ears, and that much blood had been shed. Their cou« rier arrived this morning, and informs, there hath

been some dispute upon the account, that the gover¢ nor, by the instigation of their bishops, would have ( deprived the citizens of their priviledge of choosing • their magistrates : the Catholicks, as well as the Pro(testants opposed the governor, who had armed the

« garrison against this town. There is not above half (*) Thur.. ca score killed of the garrison, and the chief of the lut, vid. vi. P: 727:

protestants saved the bishops and governor's life (x).' How different this from Clarendon? 'Tis strange he never could adhere to truth in his narratives !

(KKK) This yielded just matter of praise to his admirers, &c.] Let us hear Mr. Morland, a gentleman, a scholar, and a close observer of the actions of the protector. In his dedication of the book, so much made use of in the preceding note, addressing himself to Qliver, he speaks as follows. It is an observation of

• that

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