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and encourage any of profligate manners.


Though, after all, it were well if there was not ground, fully sufficient, to complain. In this respect, how. ever, as well as many others, the court of the protector was distinguished. All here had an air of sobriety and decency; nothing of riot or debauch was seen or heard of. Cromwell's own manners were grave, and such were the manners of those around him, though seasoned, on occasion, with pomp, ftate and pleasantry. • What palace,' says a contemporary writer, was ever • less adulterated than his? Nay, in that very place, where pimps and panders were used to trafrique, and

sport in the base revellings of luft, there is now fitting ca religious covent of our best and most orthodox di« vines ; and whereas formerly it was very difficult to • live at court without a prejudice to religion, it is now • impossible to be a courtier without it. Whosoever looks

now to get preferment at court, religion must be • brought with him instead of money for a place : here • are none of those usual throngs of vicious and de• baucht swash bucklers, none of those servile and tayl

• shaking spaniels, none of those moe hair, linfie-wool(5) Unpa- ' sy, nits and lice gentlemen, no such changeable caralleled Mo." mclions ($).'- Let us add hereunto the testimony Sarch, p. 70. of an adversary. His own court, says he, was regu

• lated according to a severe discipline; here no drunk. (1) Bates, "ard, nor, who

...ard, nor whore-master, nor any guilty of bribery, p. 191. " was to be found, without severe punishment (h).'

But that we may not reft wholly on words, we will produce fome facts which will fully evince the truth of the text. The two following pallages are related by H 'hitlock. Being now in London, and hearing of " the Queen of Sweden's intention to come into Eng. olani, I made it known to the protector ; but he I would not give her any encouragement; he put it • all upon tie ill example the would give here by her • course of life, and would not be satisfied by me to • the contrary.- Graef Hannibal Sofibeird, a lord of

He filled the benches with able and honest



< Denmark, who had married the king's half sister there,
« and been vice-roy of Norway, but afterwards grew
• out of favour with his king, came into England to see
? the protector, and made his applications to me, whom

he had been acquainted with in Germany. I brought
« him to the protector, and he used him with all cour-
s tefy; he dined with him several times, and the pro-
1 tector was much taken with his company; he being
' a very ingenious man, spake many languages, and
English perfectly well, and had been employed in fe.
6 veral great charges and ambassies, but he was a very
« debauched person ; which, when the protector knew,
• he would not admit him any more into his conversa-
« tion; and, not long after, he departed out of Eng?

(i) Memori.

- goals, p. 599. « land ().

Bishop Burnet informs us, that the earl of Orrery told him, " That coming one day to Cromwell, during

the debates about his accepting the title of king, and s telling him he had been in the city all that day, CromI well asked him what news he had heard there : the s other answered, that he was told he was in treaty ' with the King, who was to be restored, and to marry 6 his daughter. Cromwell expressing no indignation at « this, lord Orrery faid, in the state to which things

were brought, he saw not a better expedient: they

might bring him in on what terms they pleased: and 6 Cromwell might retain the same authority he then had r with less trouble. Cromwell answered, the King can • never forgive his father's blood. Orrery said, he was s one of many concerned in that, but he would be alone

in the merit of restoring him. Cromwell replied, he < was so damnably debauched he would undo us all;

and so turned to another discourse without any emo'ocioník):' Lady Miry Cromwell, in a letter wiit- vol. i. p.

ten to her brother Henry Cromwill, June 23, 16;6, 167.' ' fays, that the reason of her father's not embracing of the terins offered by the earl of Warwick, in conlile.. Ee 2


judges, and caused (MMM) justice, for the
moit part, to be equally and impartially ad-


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ration of the marriage proposed between his grandson
Mr. Rich, and their lister Frances, for some time, was

not so much eftat, as some private reasons, which

( was a dillik to the young person, which he had (1) Thurloe,

from som reports of his being a visious man, given voi. v. play and such lik things, which offis was done by 146. 5 fom that had a mind to brak of the match (1).' The

reports, however, on examination, proving false, the
match was concluded with the consent of the protector.

These pallages suficiently evince the care of Oliver
to avoid giving even countenance to vice; and also the
regularity of manners in those who partook of his fa-
vour and encouragement. We may well suppose the
nation must be improved in their morals by such exam-

(MMM) He filled the benches with able and honest

judge', &c.] The historians of all parties have, by the lo) Claren, notoricty of the fact, been forced to pay this tribute of dcí, vol. vi. praise to Cromw.ll. I could mention many; but will p. 650. content myself with the authorities of Clarendon and (*) Detec

e Coke, who, though of different principles, were equally tion, vol. ii. foes to the government and memory of the protector. p. 72. The former affirms, “That in matters, which did not

' concern the life of his jurisdiction, he seemed to have (6) Cata. locue of the

her great reverence for the law, rarely interposing between

Dükes, "party and party (ni.' The latter assures us " That
Marquises,, IVejininfer-hal was never replenished with more
the honours

- learned and upright judges than by him; nor was justhat his tice either in law or equity, in civil cases, more equalHighness "ly diftributed, where he was not a party (n). The hath be

e names of his judges, posibly, may not be unacceptahe began his ble to some readers. They were as follows: the lordgoverntzent chief justices Gl n and St. John; the justices IVarburion, fent. By

N.wizare, Atkins, Eale, Windham; the barons NichoT. W. 1. e, las, Parker, Hil (0). · The commillioners of the great Tho. Waik. Seal, at first, were the famous Mr. ll Bitlock, Iliuring, boy, &ro.

foued since

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ministred. He fought out every where


weli pear by the formportant pofta bot able and up

ton and Lenthal; afterwards Fiennes, Lisle and Lenthal. The gentlemen of the long robe still mention the names of some of these persons with great honour. How follicitous Cromwell was to appoint the most able and up. right persons to fill the important posts of the law, will best appear by the following quotations.---Crom

well seeing him (Mr. Hale) pofleft of so much practice, and he being one of the eminentest men of the

law, who was not at all afraid of doing his duty in I those critical times, resolved to take him off from it, 6 and raise him to the bench. Mr. Hole faw well

enough the snare laid for him, and though he did not ' much consider the prejudice it would be to himself,

to exchange the easy and safer profits he had by his s practice for a judge's place in the common pleas, ' which he was required to accept of, yet he did delibe

rate more on the lawfulness of taking a commission

from usurpers ; but having considered well of this, she came to be of opiniop, that it being absolutely ' necessary to have justice and property kept up at all ' times, it was no fin to take a commillion from usurp• ers, if he made no declaration of his acknowledging • their authority, which he never did. He was much ( urged to accept of it by some eminent men of his own s profession, who were of the King's party, as Sir Or. o londo Brid man, and Sir Geoffery Palmer ; and was ( also satisfied concerning the lawfulness of it, by the resolution of some famous divines, in particular Dr.

Shellon, and Dr. Henchman, who were afterwards pro( noted to the sees of Canterbury and London. To these " were added the importunities of all his friends, who " thought, that in a time of so much danger and op

pression, it might be no small security to the nation,

to have a man of his integrity and abilities on the 6 bench ; and the usurpers themselves held him in that

estimation, that they were glad to have him give a countenance to their courts, and, by promoting one E e 3

" that

for men of abilities (nnn), in order proper

that was known to have different principles from (s) Burnet'so them; affected the reputation of honouring and trustLe of string men of eminent virtues, of what perlwafion foeMatthew 18 mu vinent VII Hale, p. 35.“ ver they might be, in relation to publick matters (p).' Svo. Lond. Another work speaks more plainly on this subject. 1682.

- He [Cromwell] ftudied to seek out able and ho• neft men, and to employ them. And so having heard " that my father had a very great reputation in Sint' land, for piety and integrity, tho’ he knew him to be "a Royalist, he sent to him, defiring him to accept of

(a judge's place, and to do justice in his own country, (9) History ' hoping only that he would not act against his goet his own “ vernment, but he would not press him to subscribe limes, vol, « or swear to it (9). How great! how generous ! it i. p. 125,

So was hardly possible, but a man of such a disposition must

be well served.

(NNN) He fought out every where for men of abilities, and gave thım proper employment.] That princes have such poor tools oftentimes about them is owing to their own weakness, or negligence. They have not either sense enough to discern, or fortitude to refuse or repel fuch as, without merit, aspire to their favour. So that their ministers are sometimes of different and contradictory characters, and hinder more than forward the bufinels in which they pretend to engage. Mobs are in most courts; wise men are distinguished alone in those whose princes themselves excel. From the choice of ministers and favourites the characier of the sovereign may be oftentimes taken.-- Cromwell was all eyes. He saw every thing, he judged of every thing ; few perfons escaped his notice ; merit was the object of his choice. The authorities I shall now produce, will, I am perfuaded, justify may aliertions. The following anecdote is prior, indeed, in point of time, to the protectorate, but 'tis properly a part of Cromueli's hiftory, and tends to illustrate most this part of his character. It is given by Mr. Morrice, a gentleman of cha


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