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Mr. Zachary Cradock was recommended to the secreCud

retary by this gentleman, for the place of chaplain to the

to Birch, English me thants at Lisbon. He was afterwards proprefixed to voit of Eaton, and greatly celebrated for his genius and

sol, learning (t). Dr. John Pell, eminent for his skill in of the Intellectual the mathematics, in the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Syftem, p.8. Italian, French, Spanish, and High and Low Dutih lan4to Lond.

4. guages, was appointed envoy from the protector to the 3743.

Birch's protestant cantons in Swiserland (u). Mr. (afterwards Life of Sir William Petty was ordered by Oliver, to take a Boyle, P. survey, and make maps of the kingdom of Ireland, for 117, 8vo. Lond. 1744. When

1944. which he had a salary of 3651. per ann. besides many (x) Wood's other advantages which enabled him to raise a great Athena, estate (x). And it is said, however improbably, ' That vol. ii. c.

. Cromwell was so pleased with many of Mr.Hobbes's prin

ciples laid down in the Leviathan, which tended to (y) Id. c. juftify and support his usurpatio., that the great place

of being secretary was proffered to him (y):

If to these instances, we add Milton, Mr. Marvel, and Mr. Alurland besore mentioned, together with Nat. Búcon, author of the celebrated discourses on government, who was one of Cromwell's masters of requests, Francis Osborn, a writer of good repute, who had public employments under him, and Mr. Samuel Hartlib, to whom he allowed one hundred pounds a year for his" industry and expences in several publick services ; we Mall be convinced that he was not deftitute of men of abilities, or negligent of employing them in a manner honourable to themselves, as well as advantagious to the nation.

(coo) He favoured learning, and was munificent to such as excelled in science.] We have seen in the two preceding notes, the care of the protector to select men capable of tranlacting public business in an honourable and useful manner to the community of which he had taken on himself to be the head. Most of these were well versed in the sciences, and confequently would,


use of the methods of kindness and conde



3773. And

well enough, have served for proofs of Cromwell's favour to the learned. I shall add however others, that his regard to learning may be put out of a possibility of doubt. - Oliver was chancellour of the university of Oxford, and within a year after his assuming the protectorate, at his own charge, he bestowed on the public « library there, twenty five antient manuscripts; ten of I which were in folio, and fourteen in quarto, all in ! Greek, except two or three. He moreover ordered to ( a private divinity reader there (newly chosen to that s place) an annuity of one hundred pounds per annum, .. 16 out of the exchequer, for the said reader's encourage- rius Politia

ment (z).'— When the great design was on foot of cus, No. publishing the Polyglett, by Dr. Walton, the protector 223. p. permitted the paper to be imported duty free *. And Whitlock, 'tis a fact, attested by his very enemies, that he hin- p. 605. dered the sale of archbishop User's valuable library of prints and manuscripts, to foreigners, and caused it to be purchased, and sent over to Dublin, with an intention to bestow it on a new college or hall, which he ser

no Parr's Life had proposed to build and endow there (a). Dr. Part of Uther, and Dr. Smith say, the purchase was made by the of- p. 102. ficers and soldiers of the army in Irelund, but how this is consistent with Parr's saying afterwards, that " when

this library was brought over into Ireland, the usurper

and his son, who then commanded in chief there, • would not bestow it on the college of Dublin,' is very hard to say. I presume they would not have claimed the right of bestowing, if they had not acquired that right by purchasing. Dr. Smith, sensible of this, has varied from his original, (for he is little more than a translator of Parr) and attributes both purchase, re

• Towards the close of Walton's preface we find the following words: Primo autem commemorandi quorum favore Chartam a Vectigalibus immunem habuimus, quod quinque ab hinc annis, a Concilio fecretiori primo conceílum, poftea a Sereniffimo D. Protectore ejusque Concilio, operis promovendi caufa, benigne confirmatum et continuatum erat,


fcention, in several respects, to conciliate



fusal of bestowing on the college of Dublin, and inten(6) Vita

retion of erefing a new building for its reception, to the

rinnofre fino a new h Hii Scriptore, officers and soldiers only (b)- Smith however allows Thoma with Parr, that Cromwell had the merit of hindering the Smitho S.

exportation of this valuable library into foreign parts; Theologiæ, Doctore & and with astonishment crys out, ' Quis autem crederet Ecclefiæ hominem, enthusiasmi furoribus subindè correptum,

So & humanioris literatura osorem, cavisse, ne thefauPreibytero, prefixed to s rus ifte extra Angliam, non fine summa injuria genti inuUsher's An- a rendâ, exportaretur?' His astonishment would have va, 1722.

- ceased, had he known the true character of the proFolio, p. 55. tector. But to go on.- A representation have

ing been made to the parliament of the commonwealth of England, by the gentlemen of the county of Durham, and sent up by the high sheriff to the parliament, inter alia, that the college and houses of the dean and chapter, being then empty and in decay, might be employed for erecting a college, school, or academy for the benefit of the northern counties, which are so far from the universities; and that part of the lands of the dean and chapter near the city, might be set out for pious uses: it was referred to a committee to state the business and report their opinion. This was in May, 1650. From this time till about seven years after, we hear no more of it. But on the 15th of May, 1657, the Lord Protector, by writ of privy seal, erected a college at Durham, confisting of one provost or master, two preachers or senior fellows, and twelve other fellows. • And • for the endowment of the said college, the cathedral • church and church-yard of Durham, and the several • messuages with their appurtenances thereunto belong« ing were granted. To these were added a yearly

rent-charge of one hundred and seventeen pounds, • fifteen shillings and eight pence, and another of five • hundred pounds issuing out of the manors of Gate bead « and Wickham in the said county of Durham, as also one other of two hundred eighty-four pounds, four

the (PPP) affections of his enemies to his




• Thillings and four-pence, issuing out of lands lately • belonging to the bishop or dean and chapter of that • diocele. Besides all these donations, the books prinsted and manuscript belonging to the late bishop dean 6 and chapter were added, and a liberty of purchafing or receiving lands, not exceeding the yearly value

Memoirs of ' of fix thousand pounds (c).' We may see by this, that Oliver Oliver was a friend to learning, and zealous to promote it: Cromwell, but whether the means in this instance made use of, were among the the most eligible, must be left to the reader to determine. of curious --I had forgot to add, that this foundation of a college historical at Durham was opposed by the universities of Oxford

Pieces, p.

u 60. 4to and Cambridge, and that it was but of a short duration. Lond. 1745. For on Richard's resignation, it of course dropped. I will mention but one instance more of the Protector's regard and encouragement of literary merit. Dr. Seth Ward, who was afterward bilhop of Exeter and Sarum fuccessively, standing candidate, in the year 1657, for the principalship of Jefus college in Oxford, loft it through means of Cromwell's pre-engagement to another. But upon being informed of the merit and learning of Ward, (who had fucceeded the very learned Mr. John Greaves as astronomy professor in that university). he received and conversed with him with great freedom, and enquiring of the value of the principalihip, (d) Howe's promised to allow him the like sum annually (d). This Life by Ca

lanty, p. 19. Dr. Ward became after the restoration a thoroughpaced court-bishop, applying himself to politics, and adhering to the interest of those to whom he owed his preferments. I think he never shewed any return of kindness to the friends of Cromwell.

(PPP) He made use of the methods of kindness and condecention to his enemies.] Here are my authorities. • The nobles and great men, says Bates (for with some few of them he had an intimacy) he delighted with raillery and jesting, contended with them in mimical geltures, and entertained them with merry collations,


person and government. These were some


musick, hunting and hawking. When he was in

the country, he used once or oftner a year, to give the © Pat ii. neighbours a buck, to be run down in his park, and p. 195.

money to buy wine to make merry with (e).'--The
following account, we are told, was delivered by Dr.
Thomas Smith, and was first published by Mr. Thomas
Hearne, in his Appendix to the Chronicon de Dunstable.
" I will relate a passage, that the marquis told me con-
• cerning the old marquis of Hartford. A little after
" the death of the lord Beauchamp his son, in the year
61656, (which was of unspeakable grief to him) the
« Protector sent Sir Edward Sidenham to him, to con-
• dole with him for the great loss he had sustained, and
6 many fine words and compliments besides. The mar-
« quiss of Hartford would have been glad Cromwell had

spared that ceremony; but however received it in the
• best manner he could ; and returned a suitable ac-
I knowledgment for the same. . Some time after this
! Cromwell sent again to invite the marquiss to dine
o with him: which this great and brave nobleman knew
o not how to wave or excuse ; considering it was in
« Cromwell's power to ruin him, and all his family.
« Therefore sent him word he would wait upon his
( highness. In a little time after he went accordingly,
C and Cromwell received him with open arms; and at
< dinner drank to him, and carved for him with the
• greatest kindness imaginable. After dinner, he took

him by the hand, and led him into his drawing-room, ' where (only they two being alone) he told the mar6 quils, he had desired his company, that he might I have his advice what to do. For, raid he, I am • not able to bear the weight of business that is upon • me; I am weary of it; and you, my lord, are a « great and wise man, and of great experience, and I have been much verst in the business of government; • pray advise me what I Thail do. The marquiss was • much surprized at this discourse of the Protector's, and


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