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account of the rathness and imprudence of


s along hatching new disturbances, and endeavouring as ç well by secret and bloody assassinations, as by open < force to introduce the one, and overthrow and sub

vert the other ; it will not be thought strange upon

any account whatsoever, that we did lately secure so ! many of the men of that interest, although they were ( not visibly in arms upon the late insurrection ; vor " that we have laid a burden upon some of their estates, 6 beyond what is imposed upon the rest of the nation, s towards the defraying of that charge which they are • • the occasion of, with some other things which we

(1) Declara, ? have found necessary in this time of danger to direct tión, p. 12. • concerning them, for the peace and safety of the 4to. Prin' whole (t). After this follows a clear and distinct fed

'don, by Hennarrative of the plot, supported by such evidence as ap- ry Hills and peared to the government convincing. But what John Field, was all this to the innocent ? -Yes, proceeds the de

edo chede Printers to claration, ' Admit that some of that party were as in- the Lord • nocent, as they would now have it believed they were, Protector, ļ enough hath been done by their fellows in a common 1655. < cause (which hardly any of them know how to dis

own, which they love, aná of which they glory) to « draw the whole party under a just suspicion, and the { consequences thereof: all that are peaceably minded

in the nation are ready to say, these are the men of « whom we go in danger, and certainly it is both just ? and necessary, that all those of whom the people have (reason to be afraid (not only as their profest enemies, " but also numerous) should pay for securing the state (u) Id. p e against that danger which they are the authors of (u).' 36.

That character of difference between them and - the rest of the people, which is now put upon them,

is occasioned by themselves, not by us; there is no" thing they have more industriously laboured in than ! this, to keep themselves separated, and distinguished

from the well-affected of this nation: to which end
they have kept their conversation apart, as if they

I would

some of their party. Nor must it be for


6 would avoid the very beginnings of union, have bred 6 and educated their children by the sequestred and • ejected clergy, and very much confined their marcriages and alliances within their own party, as if they < meant to entail their quarrel, and prevent the means (to reconcile pofterity; which, with the great pains ( they take upon all occasions to lessen, and suppress the « esteem and honour of the English nation, in all their « actions and undertakings abroad, striving withal to • make other nations distinguish their interest from it, e gives us ground to judge that they have separated " themselves from the body of the nation ; and there« fore we leave it to all mankind to judge, whether we

ought not to be timely jealous of that separation, and

to proceed fo against them, as they may be at the Decla. I charge of those remedies which are required against sation, &c. the dangers they have bred (*).' Such are the prinP..3&. ciples on which this rigour was justified ! Principles un

just and tyrannous, and fit to support the most arbitrary and deftru&tive measures! And accordingly they have been made use of by L'Efrange professedly, to instigate the magistrate to crush the party that opposed him.

That which is fawce to a goofe, says he, is fawce < to a gander. They that thought this proceeding law

to ful and reasonable, from Cromwell to the cavaliers, vator, No. 367.

' will certainly never think it hard in return, from a (z) See the « rightful prince to a band of traytors ().' It were to Debates on

an have been wilhed, some have thought, that no such extraordiná- principles had been acted on in a much more modern ry Tax on period, by men who professed and gloried, in words at the Eftates of the Pa least, in asserting the cause of liberty (z). It is said pifts, in this declaration was drawn up by the lord commiffioner Torbuck's Fiennes, once governor of Bristol, for the surrender of Parliamen.

De which he was sentenced to death by a court-martial, bates, vol. but pardoned by the kindness of the Earl of Effex, then viii. p. 285. lord general for the parliament. Lord Clarendon tells us,

'. That when this declaration was sent to Cologni, the 1741,


8vo, Lond.

• King gotten here to mention his inftitution of ma


King caused an answer to be made to it upon the 6 grounds that were laid down in it; and as if it was 6 made by one who had been always of the parliament

fide, and who was well pleased to see the cavaliers « reduced to that extremity ; but with such reflections « upon the tyranny that was exercised over the king• dom, and upon the foulness of the breach of trust the « Protector was guilty of, that it obliged all the nation

to look upon him as a detestable enemy, who was to (w) Vol. vi. « be removed by any way that offered itself (a). The P: 572. writer of this, it seems, was his lordship himself, who has ! also assumed the merit, such as it is, of most of the

(6) Clarenanswers to the parliament's declarations before the war, don Life, which have been generally given to Charles himself (6). vol. i. p.

The • letter from a true and lawful member of parlia- 263, & paso ment, and one faithfully engaged with it from the beginning of the war to the end,' I believe is the answer intended; it exactly suiting the description given by his lordship, and should therefore be added to the list of his writings. Sir Peter Pett, I know, in his Future hapby state of England,' says it was attributed to Lord Hilles; though I cannot find it mentioned by any wri. ter among his works. I will conclude this note with a specimen of the answer to this declaration contained in the above letter, that it may appear how deeply Cromwell's proceeding was resented by the royal party, • You have, says the writer, cancelled all obligations of • trust, and taken away all possible confidence from all

men that they can ever enjoy any thing that they can • call their own during this government, and having so « little pleasure left them in life, they will prefer the • losing it in some noble attempt to free their country 6 and themselves from the bondage and servitude they • live under, to the dying ignobly in some loathsome

prison, when you please to be afraid of them.-" When the despair you have put them into Mall make them consider, that as the misery, calamity, servirude


jor-generals (TTT), who in a variety of in


cermined by you is fuchyhose spirits nutterable 'schofe noble, ihall not in it, cich from the abi if they

• and infamy under which the three kingdoms suffer
< proceed entirely from you, so, that they will be de.
• termined by you. That the general hatred and de-
• teftation of you is such, that it is very probable that
· those noble patriots, whose spirits shall be raised to
• destroy you, shall not only reap unutterable honour
s from it, but find safety in it, either from the confu-
* fion that must instantly attend, or from the abhorring
• your memories to those that shall survive you. If they
• shall perish in or upon their attempt, what a glorious
« fame will they leave behind them? What a sweet
• odour will their memories have with the present and
• succeeding ages ? Statues will be erected to them,
• and their names recorded in those roles, which have
• preserved the Bruti, the. Horatii, the Fabii, and all
• those who have died out of debt to their country, by

having paid the utmost that they owed it; their me

rits will be remembred, as those of the primitive mar

• fyrs, and their children and kindred will be always w letter looked upon as the descendants from the liberators of from a true their country, and esteemed accordingly; their fate and lawful - will be like his in the son of Sirach, If he die, he Member of

For shall leave a greater name than a thousand : and if he Parliament, p. 62, 63. live, he shall increase it (c).'

(TTT) Major-generals who lorded it over, and oppreljed the country.) At the same time that Cromwell had. determined to decimate the cavaliers, he projected a divifion of the kingdom into several districts, over which he placed officers of trust and confidence, who were to inspect into the conduct of the inhabitants, and treat them according to orders received from the Protector. The number of these men were eleven, diftinguished by the title of major-generals, who presided over the counties of England, in the manner following.

Kent and Surry, Colonel Kelsey.
Suflex, Hampshire, Berkshire, Colonel GoFFE.

nel GOFFE: Close

stances lorded it over and oppressed the


Gloucester, Wilts, Dorset, Somerset, Devon, Cornwall, General DISBOROWE.

Oxon, Bucks, Hertford, Cambridge, ille of Ely, Esex, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lord Deputy Fleetwood. , London, Major-General SKIPPON.

Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Warwick, Leicester, Com- , missary-General WHALLEY. · Northampton, Bedford, Rutland, Huntington, Major BUTLER. : Worcester, Hereford, Salop, North Wales, Colonel BERRI.

(d) MercuCheshire, Lancashire, Staffordshire, Colonel WORSLEY, Yorkshire, Durham, Cumberland, Weftmorland, Nor-cus, No.

281. po thumberland, Lord LAMBERT.

Westminster, Middlesex, the Lieutenant of the Tower, Thurloe, Colonel BARKSTEAD (d).

vol. iv, po

s Politi



Collectionere infere nich of Ereunto be

. The commission given to Difoorowe is preserved in Thurloe's collections. As it may be acceptable to some readers, I will here insert it. Oliver Lord Proo tector of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and « Ireland, and the dominions thereunto belonging, to our right trusty and well beloved major-general John

Diforowe, greeting. We reposing special truft and ? confidence in your fidelity, discretion, courage, expe? rience, and conduct in military affairs, do hereby con• ftitute and appoint you the said major-general Dif. browe to be major-general of all the militia forces ! raised and to be raised within the counties of Cornwall, Devon, Somersett, Dorsett, Wilts and Gloucester ; 6. which said forces you are by virtue of this commission ! to receive into your charge as major general, and the

same to train and exercise in arms, and to command, ? lead, and conduct for the service of us and the comI monwealth, keeping them in good order and disci• pline. And all officers and soldiers of the faid forces are hereby required to obey you as their major-general

" for

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