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s it, and withall, remembring the late effusion of blood

upon no other account than to secure religion, liberty

and property, and the freedom, power and privileges 5 of parliaments, as the bulwarks thereof; and that by

those very hands who now overturn the very founda? tions of all liberty, right and property, and of the be<ings of parliaments; and our very souls trembling at o the loud cries of that sea of blood, and at the horrid

clamours of the many falsified oaths and promises

made upon the same account.'- 'For the acquitting o therefore of their souls, they folemnly protested and re« monstrated unto all the good people of England, that

the violent exclusion of the people's deputies in parlia' ment, doth change the state of the people from free

dom into meer Navery; that such members of parlia« ment as fhall approve the forcible exclusion complain

ed of, or İhall fit, vote and act, while many members I are by force shut out, are betrayers of the liberties of « England, and adherents to the capital enemies of the ' commonwealth ; and that the present afsembly at

Westminster, being under the awe and terror of the • Lord Protector, is not the representative body of England, nor can tax or tallage be justly or lawfully raised () White by them (k).'

·lock, po This remonftrance being printed was sent in great 651. ( white boxes fome 1000 of them, to be left in several " houses in London, and by them to be delivered out

when called for.' But the court having private intelligence of the matter, ' got four or five of the boxes “from the owners of the houses,' and thereby prevented their being dispersed according to the intention of the (?) Thurloe, subscribers (1).- I am sorry to add, that many of the vola

che vol. v. p. gentlemen, who put their hands to this admirable remonItrance, were but meer talkers, and foon found a way to ingrariate themselves with the Protector, take their seats in the house, and servilely adore him whom in such terrible colours they here blacken ! So uncertain are the figns of patriotism ! But in justice it must be said that there were others of them who were true to their prin. ciples, and above being worked on by fear or fattery, These at length, in virtue of an article in the Humble

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Petition and Allviie, which required « that those persons ( who were legally chosen by a free election of the peorple to serve in parliament, should not be excluded from • fitting therein, but by judgment and consent of the • house whereof they were members,' were also admitted to their seats January 20, 1657, O. S. The oath taken by them on this occasion, was in these words. «I A. B. do, in the presence, and by the name of God .• Almighty, promile and swear, that, to the uttermost

of my power, in my place, I will uphold and main"tain the true reformed, protestant, chriftian religion,

in the purity thereof, as it is contained in the Holy « Scriptures of the Old and New Testament, and en' courage the profeslion and professors of the same ; and 6 that I will be true and faithful to the Lord Protector

of the commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland, ' and the dominions and territories thereunto belonging, " as chief magistrate thereof; and shall not contrive or s design, or attempt anything against the person or

lawful authority of the Lord Protector ; and shall en

« deavour, as much as in me lies, as a member of par4.) Jour- ' liament, the preservation of the rights and liberties of

" the people (19.).'----Thus was the wise taken in his own crastiness! Men under a deep sense of injury, were now admitted into the house, who, it might have been foreseen, would use their utmost endeavour to embarrass and perplex that government, which they had looked on and treated as usurped and tyrannical. It must not be omitted that this parliament was diffolved also in great resentment by the protector. Thefe

were the high and arbitrary proceedings of Cromwell ; con Liberty proceedings which might easily induce a very ingenious and Right; writer to observe that ' he who hated the tyrant, adpart 1: p. mired the tyranny (n).' For what more odious in the 39. 8vo. Pond. 1947, reign of the conquered King, than these? What more

opposite to the principles of liberty and freedom? In • the reign, or rather under the tyranny, of this single

• hand,

als.

an apology for some of these (zzz) pro

ceedings,

• hand, the whole government and administration con• tradicted the national constitution ; but this contra

diction, was planned by a craft and policy as dexterous, ( as it was new; and carried on by a genius as bold,

as cunning. Cromwell, when mounted to the head of

affairs, found the materials of liberty and freedom ( rooted in the people, but saw, that these materials were

without form, without orders, and without laws, to " bind and secure them. The people were powerful, • but ignorant and divided ; divided in opinion, and ig' norant of true government and real security. Cromwell therefore applied himself to the times; encou

raged, discountenanced, protected and oppressed by : turns, different sects and parties; and thus artfully - keeping them divided in their religious and civil views,

prevented the nation from uniting in any thing that ' was natural and proper to freedom and liberty. The < fame army which had conquered for the people, he (e) Libertine o taught by mutilation, augmentation, largesles and pri- and Right,

vileges, to oppress the people (O).'- How far this parti, &• is a just representation, the foregoing notes will enable 39. the reader to determine.

(zzz) Some may find an apology-in the situation and circumfiances of the Protector.] Civil war is naturally ( more subject to rigour, says Mr. - Ascham, than other • wars : because they who yesterday were enemies, would

be inhabitants always. The conqueror suspects that • these will be the first infringers of his new laws; the « violation of which ought at the beginning to be severe• liest censured, as of dangerous consequence.• Wherefore for these reasons though the usurper thought (p) Confu• not of establishing himself in an absolute jurisdiction, fio

! Revolutions yet at last he will find himself obliged to secure his of Govern

conquest by the same means he obtained it. And men's, p. Dido gave Æneas the true reason of the same case (0)297.12

P Lond. 16.9. Res

Gions and

ceedings, in the situation and circumstances

of

Res dura & regni novitas me talia cogunt
Moliri, & latè fines cuftode tueri.

VIRGI

- My cruel fate, And doubts attending an unsettled state, Force me to guard my coasts ---- DRYDEN.

This had long before, been taught by Machiavel, in the following words: When a prince would keep his < subjects united and faithful, he must not heed the re« proach of cruelty; for if he makes a few examples of • justice, he acts with less cruelty than those who,

through an excess of mercy, fuffer many disorders to 6 arife, which occasion rapine and murder. Now these 6 are prejudicial to the whole society; whereas particular « executions, which are ordered by the prince, affect

« only particular mon. Besides, all new governments (9) Prince, « are exposed to so many dangers, that it is imposible C:!?; Con- for a new prince to avoid the scandal of being cruel.' melor de la Thus Virgil makes Dido say, Houssay's notes on the Res, &c. (9) place,

If ever any prince upon earth had reason to act on - these principles, it was Cromwell. Without some acts

of severity what could he have done? How tottering would have been his throne? How precarious his life? The cavaliers, the presbyterians, the republicans, and the fifth-monarchy-men were all his foes, and even his most intimate friends did not approve his management in a variety of respects.- Mr. St. Yohn, between whom and the Protector there had been the nearest uni. on, highly disliked his setting up himself. "He, [St. John) lays Mr. Thurloe, was so far from advising Olie over to set up himself, that to the best of my know

ledge and observation he was a great enemy to it, and .. hath often to me spake against it. And as for that

e called

of the Protector. Had he accepted the

king

$ called the Instrument of Government, I never spake with 6 my Lord St. John, either about the whole, or any

part of it (nor ever heard that any body else' did) un

til some months after it was published in print, when • going to visit him after a long and dangerous sickness,

he told me, he had just then read our govern( ment; and taking it up in his hands, he cast it from [ him in great disike, and sayed, is this all the fruit the ! nation shall have of their warre ? or words to that • purpose; and then tooke occasion to speak much a! gainst it. And as he had nothinge to doe in settinge ( up this government, soe neither was there, soe farr as ! I knowe or have heard, any communication of coun• sells between Oliver and him, mediately or ymme• diately, touchinge the management of any part of the « publique affairs, my Lord St. John always refusinge to s meddle in any thinge, but what concerned his place

as a judge ; and in that he refused to proceed upon any 6 of the laws made under that government; for which « he was complayned of to the counsell, and it was im

puted to his example, that the judges refused to act 6 upon the last high court of justice. Nor was hee • (to my knowledge) advised with in the Petition and ? Advice. The truth is, that my Lord St. John was so « far from being a confident, that some, who loved and ! valued him, had something to doe to preserve him (w) Thare under that government (r). In a letter to Henry loe, vol. vii, Cromwell dated 16 December, 1656, he says, “His high-P.914. " neffe meetes with his tryals here at home of all sorts, $ beinge under daylye exercises from one band or other ; • and I wish he may not have occasion to say, My fa

miliar friends, in whom I trusted, have lifted up the Volis • heele against me (s).' It appears also from a variety . 508. of Mr. Secretary's letters, that the Protector's government was clogged with great difficulries, and that the opposition made to it was fierce and violent. In a letter to Henry Cromwell, then major-general of the army in

Irso

of injudge, any thing Lord sementediatelyn of Comas

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