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and, with the rest of the nation, he was



6 She professes the antient catholick faith; and yet the

Romanist condemns her of novelty in her doctrine. • She practises church government, as it hath been in I use in all ages, and in all places, where the church of

Chrilt hath taken any rooting, both in, and ever since " the Apostles times; and yet the seperatist condemns « her for antichristianism, in her discipline. The plain • truth is, she is between these two factions, as be• tween two milftones; and unless your Majesty look 6 to it, to whose truft she is committed, she'll be ground " to powder, to an irreparable both dishonour, and loss

to this kingdom. And 'ris very remarkable, that « while both these press hard upon the church of Eng

land, both of them cry out upon persecution, like • froward children, which scratch, and kick, and bite, ion to his ç and yet cry out all the while, as if themselves were conference " killed (k).' Thele passages, long as they are, will be

p. 10---14. deem'd curious by many. They discover the man, and Foio. his measures, and shew what his adversaries had to ex• Lond. 1673. pect. Lord Straff rde, though of a much more elevated understanding, came not a whit behind the prelate in rigour. His own account of part of a speech at the council board, in England, written to his intimate friend, Sir Christopher Wandesford, master of the rolls in Ireland, will fully shew this. I will give his justification of himself, on the accusation of rigour, at large. I

craved admission to justify myielt in some particulars,

wherein I had been very undeservedly and bloodily tra• duc'd. So I related unto them all that had pait be"twixt myself, Earl of St. Albans, Wilmot, Mounin rris, Piers, Crosby, and the jury of Gallway, that hereupon ' touching and rubbing in the course of my service upon o their particulars, themselves and friends have endea"voured to pofles the world, I was a severe and an • austere hard-conditioned man, rather indeed a batha « of Buda, than the minister of a pious and christian • King. Howbcit, if I were not much mistaken in

o myo

E 3.

made to feel and fear the yoke of tyranny.


myself, it was quite the contrary, no man could shew ' wherein I had expressed it in my nature, no friend I

had would charge me with it in my private conversa' tion, no creature had found it in the managing of my

own private affairs, so as if I stood clear in all these

respects, it was to be confessed by any equal mind " that it was not any thing within, but the necessity of • his Majesties service, which enforced me into a feemcing strictness outwardly. And that was the reason in• deed, for where I found a crown, a church, and a 6 people spoil'd, I could not imagine to redeem them < from under the pressure with gracious smiles and gentle • looks, it would cost warmer water than so. True it • was, that where a dominion was once gotten and set• tled, it might be stayed and kept where it was by soft • and moderate counsels, but where a sovereignty (be it • spoken with reverence) was going down the hill, the i nature of men did so easily flide into the paths of un' controu'd liberty, as it would not be brought back « without strength, not to be forced up the hill again • but by vigour and force. And true it was indeed, I • knew no other rule to govern by, but by reward and 6 punishment, and I must profess that where I found a

person well and intirely set for the service of my mar• ter, I should lay my hand under his foot, and add to « his respect and power all I might, and that where I « found the contrary, I should not handle him in my • arms, or footh him in his untoward humour, but if he 6 came in my reach, so far as honour and justice would ( warrant me, I must knock hinn foundly over the • knuckles, but no sooner he become a new man, ap• ply himself as he ought to the government, but I also ( change my temper, and express myself to him, as « unto that other, by all the good offices I could do him. . If this be sharpness, if this be severity, I desired to be « better instructed by his Majesty and their lordships, 6 for in truth it did not seem so to me; however, if I

were the Lond. 1733.

We know little more of Cromwell's ac

. . tions,


were once told, that his Majesty liked not to be thus • served, I would readily conform myself, follow the

bent and current of my own disposition, which is to ( be quiet, not to have debates and disputes with any. • Here his Majesty interrupted me and said, that was no ( severity, wilhed me to go on in that way; for, if I served him otherwise, I should not serve him as he in

(!) Letters I expected from me (?). Thus it was the welfare of and Difthe church, and the necesity of his Majesty's service, re- patches, vol. quired persecution and oppression, and forc'd these men, ". P. 2 if you'll believe them, to act contrary to their own inclinations.-- But whatever was the occasion, the government, of which they had the chief direction, was very severe. "The levere censures in the star-chamber,

and the greatness of the fines, and the rigorous proceedings to impose ceremonies, the suspending and < silencing multitudes of ministers, for not reading in " the church the book for sports to be exercis’d on the • Lord's day, caused many of the nation both ministers (and others to sell their estates and to set sail for New « England, where they held a plantation by patent from (m) Rush. " the King (m).' "The Lord Brooke, and the Lord Say Worth, vol.

ii. P. 410. • and Seale had actually pitched upon a spot in New England, whither they purposed to transport them

selves, when the excesses of the court threatned de<struction to the freedom of their country. In 1635, " the two lords sent over Mr. George Fenwicke to pre• pare a retreat for them and their friends, in conse- (n) Wal.. i quence of which a little town was built, and called by pole’s Cata• their joint names Saybrooke (n). Among others, thus

Royal and inclined, was the patriot Hampden, and his cousin Oli- Noble Auver Cromwell (o): but being on board they were stop'd thors, vol.i. by a proclamation, whereby all merchants, masters Por

12m0.1759. •'and owners of ships were forbidden to set forth any (c) Neale's • ship or ships with passengers, till they first obtained History of • special licence on that behalf from such of the lords

" tans, p. 332. • of his Majesties privy council as were appointed for vol. il. 8vo. E4


e Puri

tions, (his opposition to the draining (N) of . the fens, projected by a powerful nobleman, excepted) till the parliament summoned,


the business of foreign plantations. Nothing could be more barbarous than this! To impose laws on men which in conscience they thought they could not comply with; to punish them for their non-complyance, and continually revile them as undutiful and disobedient subjects by reason thereof, and yet not permit them peaceably to depart and enjoy their own opinions in a distant part of the world, yet dependant on the sovereign : to do all this, was bale, barbarous and inhuman. But persecutors of all ages and nations are near the same : they are without the feelings and without the underItandings of men. Cromwell or Hampion could have given little opposition to the measures of Charles in the wilds of North America. In England they engag'd with spirit against him, and he had reason to repent his hindring their voyage. May such at all times be the reward of those who attempt to rule over their fellow men with rigour: may they find that they will not be saves to Kings or prielis! Bui that they know the rights, by nature conferr’d on them, and will allert them! This will make princes cautious how they give themselves up to arbitrary counsels, and dread the consequences of them. And may every minister, who forgets or tramples on the laws of humanity, have his character at least as much branded as are Sir fordes and Laua's.

(N) He spposed the draining of the fen, &c.] The fenny country reaches fixty eight miles from the borders of Suffolk, to IVainfleet in Lincolnshire, and contains some millions of acres in the four countics of Cambridge, Huntington, Northampton and Linciin. The draining of it had frequently been considered and debated in Parliament in former times; but, though deem'd useful, was laid aside, through fear that it would soon return to its old {tate, like the Pontine marshes in Italy, after their drain

through neceffity, by Charles I. in November, one thousand six hundred and forty ; a parliament ever memorable in the British an


ing (0). “The Earl of Bidford, and divers of the prin- w cama i cipal, gentlemen, whose habitations confined upon den's Bri

the fens, and who, in the heat of summer, faw vast tannia i quantities of lands, which the fresh waters overflowed by

cd vol, i. c. in the winter, lie dry and green, or drainable: wbe- 489, 4 (ther it was publick spirit, or private advantage, which Fol. Lond. • led them thereunto, a stranger cannot determine; they. 1722. I make propositions unto the King to issue out commis

fions of sewers to drain those lands, and offer a proportion freely to be given to the crown for its coun

tenance and authority therein: and as all these great ? and publick works must necessarily concern multitudes

of persons, who will never think they have exact jurtice done to them for that small pretence of right they have unto some commons; to the commissioners, let

them do what they can, could never satisfy such a « body of men. And now the King is declared the • principal, undertaker for the draining ; and by this

time the vulgar are grown clamorous against these ? first popular lords and undertakers, who had joined

with the King in the second undertaking, though they · had much better provisions for them than their inte' rest was ever before : and the commissioners must by • multitudes and clamours be withstood ; and, as a head ! of this faction, Mr. Crimwell, in the year 1639, at Huntington, appears; which made his activity lo well • known to his friend and kinsman, Mr. Hampden, that " he, in this parliament, gave a character of Crimwell, ( of being an active person, and one that would sit well, • at the mark (9):'- Dingdale tells us, his boldneso wick, p.

and eloquence in this business gained him so much 250. • credit, as that, soon after, being necessitated, through « his low condition, to quit a country farm, which he

held at St. Ives, and betake himself to mean loig. ! ings in Cambridge, the schismatical party there chose

o him

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