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with zeal he joined in it. The tyranny of the bishops had been long odious in his eyes,


haps, never was than what is formed by these two passages of the same writer. However, in this latter, we may observe it is allowed they began well, tho' their aster-deeds are represented as black, odious and detestable. Be they what they may, I am not concerned in their vindication. Those of them that fall in my way I will represent fairly, censure candidly, and leave them to the determination of the reader. That there was a glorious band of patriots in the house of commons, in the beginning of the long parliament, is too evident to be denied. Milton, by mentioning their actions, known facts, has established their character beyond all contradiction. Elated by prosperity, influenced by the priesthood, ensnared by wealth and power, or heated by opposition, 'tis very possible many things were done by them which can never be justiñed, though allowances be made for times of disorder and confusion: more especially the permitting their clergy to tyrannize over the consciences of men, like the prelates that went before them. This latter, indeed, seems to have given Milton the greatest disgust, who was a mortal foe to the dominion of priests, ard a zealous affertor of the rights of conscience. He could not bear that the fame kind of men should complain of and exercise oppression ; that those, in whose cause he had drawn his pen, should defeat all his hopes, and manifeft, that 'twas not liberty, but power, they had been contending for.

Because you have thrown off your prelate lord,

And with stiff vows renounc'd bis liturgy,

To seize the widow'd whore plurality,

From them, whose sin ye envied, not abhorr'd;
Dare ye for this adjure the civil sword

To force our consciences that Christ set free,
And ride us with a classic hierarchy.-

and therefore he adhered to their enemies in all their attacks on them: though he was far enough from having formed a plan of a different government. I can tell you, Sirs,' said he to Sir Thomas Chickely and Sir Pbi

1 lip

Montesquieu seems to account well for a behaviour which appears at first fight so unnatural. • It is a prin• ciple, says he, that every religion which is persecuted - becomes itself persecuting; for as soon as by some ac• cidental turn it arises from persecution, it attacks the • religion which persecuted it; not as a religion, but as [*] Spirit " a tyranny [*]

of Laws,

vol. ii. p. The parliament however rectified their conduct, 180. even on this head, to the sore displeasure of the lordly Presbyters, and kept them from misusing and oppressing their brethren. So that upon the whole, though they were not free from faults, yet were they, in the eyes of the knowing and unprejudiced,the ableft noblest set s of people this nation ever produced. But let us appeal to facts. When Van Tromp set upon Blake in * Foleston-bay, the parliament had not above thirteen " Thips against threescore, and not a man that had ever • seen any other fight at sea, than a merchant ship and sa pyrate, to oppose the best captain in the world, at• tended with many others in valour and experience • not much inferior to him. Many other difficulties

were observed in the unsettled state : few ships, want

of money, several factions, and some who to advance s particular interests betrayed the publick. But such ' was the power of wisdom and integrity of those that • sat at the helm, and their diligence in chusing men s only for their merit, was blessed with such success, " that in two years our fleets grew to be as famous as

our land armies; the reputation and power of our na

tion rose to a greater height, than when we possessed - the better half of France, and the Kings of France and Scatland were our prisoners. All the States, Kings and

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moirs, p.

• War. lip Warwick, ( what I would not have; wick's Me- though I cannot what I would * : the 177 case of many others I suppose at that time.

He appeared very zealous for the remonftrance (P) of the ttate of the kingdom,

which, • potentates of Europe, most respectfully, not to say sub

misfively, sought our friendship; and Rome was more • afraid of Blake, than they had been of the great King 6 of Sweden, when he was ready to invade Italy with a < hundred thousand men. This was the work of thole, 6 who, if our author (Filmer] say true, thought basely • of the publick concernments; and believing things • might be wel enough managed by others, minded (only their private affairs. These were the effects of

the negligence and ignorance of those, who being sud(d) Sidney • denly advanced to offices, were removed before they of Govern. I understood the duties of them (d).'- -Mr. Iren hard ment, p.

jis celebrates their actions in the following manner. "The Lond. 1698. • parliament governed for five years, who made their

" name famous through the whole earth, conquered < their enemies in England, Scotland and Ireland; re• duced the kingdom of Portugal to their own terms;

recovered our reputation at sea; overcame the Dutch « in several famous battles ; fecured our trade, and ma• naged the publick expences with so much frugality, • that no estates were gained by private men upon the "pubick miseries; and at last were pafling an act for

their own diffolution, and settling the nation in a free (e) Short " and impartial commonwealth ; of which the army History of being afraid, thought it necefiary to diffolve them (e).' mies, p. 19.1

"The bare recital of these facts is an elogium fufficient: 8vo. 1739. and every man who knows them to be facts, will be And notes disposed to think favourably of those who performed (KK), (LL),

) them; and to contemn a wiiter who has the infolence ir Lanf- and ill breeding (though a frequenter of courts and a lodowne's , ver of the police arts) to call them" a pack of knaves (f). Works, vol. ii. p. zo." (P) The remonftrance of the state of the kingdom.] This 1200, 1736. remonlirance deserves very particular notice, as it oc

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which, after long and sharp debates, was carried in the house of commons, and ordered to be printed December 15th, 1641. On the sixth of this month he was appointed of a committee with Mr. Pymme, Mr.


cafioned high debates in the house of commons ; divifions among the members, and perhaps haftened the resolution of the impeachment and intended seizure of the Lord Kimbolton and the five members, which foon issued into a war between his Majesty and the two houses. • The house of commons, says Whitlock, prepared a “ remonftrance of the state of the kingdom; wherein they

mentioned all the mistakes, misfortunes, illegalities, and " defaults in government, since the King's coming to the 5 crown, the evil counsels and counsellors, and a ma

lignant party, that they have no bopes of settling the • distractions of this kingdom, for want of a concur• Tence with the lords. This remonftrance was some. ( what roughly penned, both for the matter and the ex

preffions in it, and met with great oppositions in the « house; insomuch as the debate of it lasted from three « o'clock in the afternoon, till ten o'clock the next morning; and the fitting up all night caused many

through weakness or weariness to leave the house, and • Sir B. R. (Sír Benjamin Rudyard I suppose] to com- (3) Memo• pare it to the verdict of a starved jury (8).'

rials, p. 55. The truth is, this remonftrance contains a concise history of the enormities of Charles's government, the evil counsellors who had, and did guide him, and the mischiefs which they had been meditating against the house itself for their opposition to, and correction of abuses. "The • oppositions, obstructions and other difficulties, says ' the remonstrance, wherewith we have been encoun

tred, and which still lye in our way with some strength • and much obstinacy, are these: The malignant party

whom we have formerly described, to be the actors r and promoters of all our misery, they have taken heart


" again ;

Lisle, Sir Guy Palmes, Lord Falkland, Mr. Strode, Sir John Strangeways, Sir *** Armyn, *** Hide; to present some such course to the house, as may be fit to prevent all abuses in the election of members to

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6 again; they have been able to prefer some of their • own factors and agents to degrees of honor, to places • of trust and employment even during the parliament.

'I hey have endeavoured to work in his Majelly ill im• presions and opinions of our proceedings, as if we had

altogether done our own work, and not his, and had (6; The Remonitrance - obtained from him many things very prejudicial to the of the State ( crown, both in respect of prerogative and profit (h).' of the King. Again n Again

They have jou

. They have fought, by many subrile practices, dom, p. 18. 410. Lond. ' to cause jealousies and divisions betwixt us and our 3641. « brethren of Scotland, by Nandering their proceedings

" and intentions towards us; and by secret endeavours
« to instigate and incense them and us one against an-
6 other. They have had such a party of bishops and
• popish lords in the house of peers as hath caused much
• opposition and delay in the prosecution of delinquents,
« hindered the proceedings of divers good bills paffid in
• the commons house, concerning the reformation of
" sundry great abuses and corruptions both in church and
< state. They have laboured to seduce and corrupt some
6 of the commons house, to draw them into conspira-
« cies and combinations against the liberty of the par-
« liament: and by their inftruments and agents, they
< have attempted to disaffect and discontent his Majer-

ties army, and to engage it for the maintenance of

their wicked and trayterous designs, the keeping up of « bishops in their votes and functions, and by force to - compel the parliament to order, limit and dispose their 6 proceedings in such manner as might best concur with

o the intentions of this dangerous and potent faclion. . And when one mischievous design and attempt of theirs to bring on the army against the pailiairent

" and

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