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First:— Remembering the proper stancing position, (head erect, shoulders thrown back and down, chest expanded, and feet at an angle of about seventy-five degrees, the weight of the body resting on the left foot, the right foot a little in advance of the left,) place the hands upon the hips, and move the elbows forcibly backward and forward.

Second :— After letting the hands fall at the side, move them briskly up and down.

Third: — Let the arms be placed in a vertical position; then drawn down, and projected upward with force.

Fourth :Extend the arms horizontally forward; then move them back and forth quickly and with force.

Fifth :— Place the arms horizontally forward, with the palms of the hands together; then throw them apart forcibly, bringing the back of the hands as nearly as possible behind the back.

There may le also a variety of exercises in gestures, descriptive or passionate, for the purpose of acquiring freedom and grace in movement. These must be suggested by the ingenuity and good taste of the teacher. (See page 381.)


First:-Full breathing.- Place the arms and hands as required in the first movement; slowly draw in the breath until the chest is fully expanded; emit it with the utmost slowness. (Repeat.)

Second :Audible Effusive breathing.— Draw in the breath as in full breathing, and expire it audibly in a prolonged sound of the letter h. In this style of respiration, the breath merely effuses itself into the surrounding air.

Third:Expulsive or Forcible breathing.— Draw in a very full breath, as before, and send it forth with a lively expulsive force, in the sound of h, but little prolonged - as in a moderate, whispered cough. The breath is thus projected into the air.

Fourth:Explosive or Abrupt breathing.–Fill the lungs, and then emit the breath suddenly and forcibly, in the manner of an abrupt and whispered cough. Thus the breath is thrown out with abrupt violence.

Fifth:-Sighing.- Suddenly fill the lungs with a full breath, and emit it as quickly as possible.

Sixth:--Gasping.— With a convulsive effort, inflate the lungs; then send forth the breath more gently.

Seventh:- Panting. — Breathe quickly and violently, making the emission of the breath loud and forcible.

For exercise of the voice, especially in articulation, the table of elementary sounds and the preliminary exercises should be used daily and with most assiduous practice.

The table should be used:
First, — in a distinct and moderate utterance of all the sounds.

Second, - in an explosive and forcible manner of making each sound.

Third, - in the application of all the elements of elocution wbile producing the several sounds; as, Emphasis, Inflection, Pitch, Force, Tone (especially the Orotund), Movement, &c. (See page 21.)


Articulation is the act of forming with the organs of speech, the elements of vocal language.

“ Without good articulation, it is impossible to be a correct reader or speaker. Those who have been accustomed to pronounce their words in a careless or slovenly manner, will find it difficult, even with their best efforts, to utter them distinctly. The organs of articulation, for the want of proper exercise, become, as it were, paralyzed. The pupil, therefore, at the very commencement of his studies, should be conducted through a series of exercises, calculated to strengthen the muscles of articulation."— Comstock.

“In just articulation, the words are not to be hurried over, nor precipitated syllable upon syllable; nor, as it were, melted together in a mass of confusion : they should not be trailed, nor drawled, nor permitted to slip out carelessly, so as to drop unfinished. They should be delivered from the lips as beautiful coins newly issued from the mint, deeply and accurately impressed, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, in due succession, and of due weight.” – Austin.

A vowel or tonic is a sound which has full and distinct vocality, being uninterrupted in its passage through the vocal organs.

A sub-vowel or sub-tonic is a sound which has vocality, though not so perfect as that of the vowel, being partially interrupted in its passage through the vocal organs.

An aspirate or atonic is a mere current of whispering breath.

Cognates are letters whose elements are produced by the same organs, in a similar manner; thus, p is a cognate of b, t of d, &c.

English philologists have, according to their real or affected nicety of ear, differed on the subject of the number of elements of their language. The differences refer to the character of the sounds, or to the time or manner of pronouncing them.

The arrangement by Dr. Comstock is deemed the best adapted for practical purposes of illustration and comparison. The alphabet thus consists of thirty-eight elements; these being divided into vowels, sub-vowels, and aspirates, - or, into tonics, sub-tonics, and atonics.

Vowels or Tonics.

Sub-vowels or Sub- Aspirates or Atonics.

The sound of

The sound of
b as in bow

p as in pit d day


tin 8 gay

k kite vile

f fame th then

th thin zone

sin z azure

sh shade 1 light

h hush r roll


what (r car)




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The sound of

à as in ale
å arm
à all



i in
o old
ô lose

ů tube

ů full


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COMPOUND ELEMENTS. The sound of oi as in oil The sound of j as in job The sound of tch as in etch ai air gz tugs

ks oaks. Pronounce each word in the three columns clearly and distinctly.

Make a full inspiration, and dwell for two or three seconds on the initial element; utter the remainder of the word with a sudden and forcible expulsion of the breath.

(In the second and third columns -- omitting the words song and hut this exercise will serve to designate the separate sound of euch sub-vowe and aspirate.)

Utter each element with the falling slide of the voice, – the vowels with explosive force.

Continue at pleasure any of the following exercises.

bả, bả, bả, bả; bể, bề ; bí, bí; bố; &c. Continue the exercise, prefixing to every vowel, each sub-vowel and aspirate in succession.

ab, ab, ab, ab; eb, eb; ib, ib; ob, &c., &c. Continue the exercise, affixing to every vowel, each sub-vowel and aspirate in succession. ba-pa da-ta

va-fa tha-tha ja-tcha gsa-ksa da-ta va-fa tha-tha ja-tcha

gsa-ksa ba-pa da-ta va-fa tha-tha ja-tcha

gsa-ksa ha-pa da-ta

va-fa tha-tha ja-tcha gsa-ksa be-be de-te ve-fe the-tho je-tche gse-kse be-be de-te

ve-fe the-the je-tche gse-kse


bu-pu bou-pou boi-poi bai-pai

du-tu dou-tou doi-toi dai-tai

vu-fu vou-fou voi-foi vai-fai

thu-thu ju-tchu gsu-ksu thou-thou jou-tchou gsou-ksoi thoi-thoi joi-tchoi gsoi-ksoi thai-thai jai-tchai gsai-ksaj

This exercise may be varied by changing the accent, or by increasing the number of syllables; — thus:

ba'-pa, ba-pa'; ba'-pa-pa, ba-pa'-pa, ba-pa-pa'; ba-pa'— pa-ba', &c.




wa-va-wa-va wa-va-Wa-va wa-va-wa-va wa-va-wa-va we-ve-we-ve we-ve-we-ve


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The following combinations are well adapted for these exercises :

bra, brå, brå, brå, brė, brè, &c.
dra, dra, dra, dra, dre, dre, &c.
bra-pra, bra-pra, bra-pra, bra-pra, &c.
bra-pra-pra, bra-pra-pra, &c.
bra-pra-pra-bra, bra-pra-pra-bra, &c,
bla, bla, bla, bla, ble, ble, &c.
bla-pla, bla-pla, bla-pia, pla-pla, &c.
bla-pla-pla, bla-pla-pla, bla-pla-pla, &c.
spra, spra, spra, spra, spre, spre, &c.
stra, stra, stra, stra, stre, stre, &c.
skra, skra, skra, skra, skre, skre, &c.
spla, spla, spla, spla, sple, sple, &c.
arb, arb, arb, arb, erb, erb, &c.
ard, ard, ard, ard, erd, erd, &c.
amd, amd, amd, amd, emd, emd, &c.
amds, amds, amds, amds, emds, emds, &c.
amdst, amdst, amidst, amdst, emdst, emdst, &o.
alst, alst, alst, alst, elst, elst, &c.
amst, amst, amst, amst, emst, emst, &c
anst, anst, anst, anst, enst, enst, &c.
arst, arst, arst, arst, erst, erst, &c.
adst, adst, adst, adst, edst, edst, &c.
armdst, armdst, armdst, armdst, ermdst, &c.
amdst, amdst, amdst, amdst, emdst, &c.
abl, abl, abl, abl, ebl, ebl, &c,

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