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a man,

Alas, Alas, said bank-note is then a forged one; passing freely current in the market, but bringing damages to the receiver, to the payer, and to all the world; which are in sad truth infallible, and of an amount incalculable.... Considered as the last finish of education, or of human culture, worth, and acquirement, the art of speech is noble and even divine; it is like the kindling of a Heaven's light to show us what a glorious world exists and has peopled itself, in

But if no world exist in the man; if nothing but continents of empty vapor, of greedy self-conceits, commonplace hearsays, and indistinct loomings of a sordid chaos exist in him; what will be the use of light to show us that? Better a thousand times that such a man do not speak; but keep his empty vapor and his sordid chaos to himself.

“ All human talent, especially all deep talent, is a talent to do, and is intrinsically of a silent nature; inaudible, like the Sphere Harmonies and Eternal Melodies, of which it is an incarnated fraction. All real talent, I fancy, would much rather, if it listened only to Nature's monitions, express itself in rhythmic facts than melodious words, which latter, at best, where they are good for anything, are only a feeble echo and shadow or foreshadow of the former.” —Carlyle.

ILLUSTRATIONS OF ANTITHETIC EMPHASIS. “It is not by regretting what is irreparable that true work is to be done, but by making the best of what we are. It is not by complaining that we have not the right tools, but by using well the tools we have. What we are, and where we are, is God's providential arrangement—God's doing, though it may be man's misdoing; and the manly and the wise way is to look your disadvantages in the face, and see what can be made out of them. Forget mistakes; organize victory out of mistakes.” Robertson.

“There are two wings by which a man soars above the world, Sincerity and Purity. The former regards the intention, the latter the affections: that aspires and aims at a likeness to God, this makes us really like him.” Thomas à Kempis.

“ Patience and sorrow strove
Who should express her goodliest. You have seen
Sunshine and rain at once: her smiles and tears
Were like a better day. Those happy smiles,
That played on her ripe lips, seemed not to know
What guests were in her eyes; which parted thence,
As pearls from diamonds dropped.” Shakespeare.


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“Veracity implies a correspondence between words and thoughts; truthfulness, a correspondence between thoughts and realities. To be veracious, it is only necessary that a man give utterance to his convictions; to be true, it is needful that his convictions have affinity with Fact.

“ He is a man of integrity who hates untruth as untruth; who resents the smooth and polished falsehood of society, which does no harm; who turns in indignation from the glittering, whitened lie of sepulchral Pharisaism, which injures no one. Integrity recoils from deceptions which men would almost smile to hear called deception. To a moral, pure mind, the artifices in every department of life are painful; the stained wood, which passes for a more firm and costly material in a building, and deceives the eye, by seeming what it is not, marble; the painting which is intended to be taken for a reality; the gilding which is meant to pass for gold; and the glass which is worn to look like jewels: for there is a moral feeling and a truthfulness in architecture, in painting, and in dress, as well as in the market-place, and in the senate, and in the judgmenthall." - Robertson.

“What is companionship, when nothing that improves the intellect is communicated, and where the larger heart contracts itself to the model and dimension of the smaller ? 'Tis a dire calamity to have a slave; 't is an inexpiable curse to be one." Landor.

“Better be a nettle in the side of your friend than his echo. The condition which high friendship demands is ability to do without it. That high office requires great and sublime parts. There must be very two, before there can be very one. Let it be an alliance of two large, formidable natures, mutually beheld, mutually feared, before yet they recognize the deep identity which beneath these disparities unites them.

“ The only reward of virtue is virtue; the only way to have a friend is to be one. .... The essence of friendship is entireness, a total magnanimity and trust.” Emerson.

- Man cannot know unless he can worship in some way. His knowledge is a pedantry and dead thistle otherwise. It is a calumny on men to say that they are roused to heroic action by ease, hope of pleasure, recompense, sugar-plums of any kind in this world or the next! In the meanest mortal there lies something nobler. The poor swearing soldier, hired to be shot, has his honor of a soldier,' different from drill regulations and the shilling a day. It is not to taste sweet things, but to do noble and true things, and vin

dicate himself under God's Heaven, as a god-made Man, that the poorest son of Adam dimly longs. Show him the way of doing that, the dullest day-drudge kindles into a hero. They wrong man greatly who say he is to be seduced by ease. Difficulty, abnegation, martyrdom, death, are the allurements that act on the heart of man. Kindle the inner genial life of him, you have a flame that burns up all lower considerations. Not happiness, but something higher; one sees this even in the frivolous classes with their point of honor' and the like. Not by flattering our appetites; no, by awakening the Heroic that slumbers in every heart, can any Religion gain followers. . . . . Is it not better to do Right than Wrong; the one is to the other as life is to death, as Heaven is to Hell. The one must in nowise be done, the other in nowise left undone. You shall not measure them; they are incommeasurable ; the one is death - the other life eternal.” – Carlyle.

“Many disputes have been raised among men as to the difference between faith and obedience. It is probable that they are identical with God, to whom obedience, that part of our life in Him which is seen, and faith, the part which is unseen, are alike open and manifest. It is evident that an action performed or refrained from, with a reference to the Divine pleasure, is as eloquent unto God as a prayer or thanksgiving, and as likely to be answered by Him with blessing. For to the eye of love, the deeds and gestures that express it are as intelligible as its spoken words, and no less acceptable and sweet." Dora Greenwell.

“ Between Christ mocked and Christ rejected there is but a step; who shall say how easily it is taken, or how quickly we may pass from the hollow homage, the “Hail, Master!' which mocks our Lord, to the smiting and buffeting of open outrage? When Christ is invested with but the show of sovereignty, the reed placed in his hands will be quickly taken, as by the soldiers, to smite his head. This reed is nominal Christianity, a strange slip of a degenerate vine, beneath whose blighting shadow a poison-growth of unbelief never fails to root itself.” Ibid.

“He who in his heart of hearts reverences the Good, the True, the Holy, - that is, reverences God, — does not tremble at the apparent success of attacks upon the outworks of his faith. They may shake those who rested on those outworks; they do not move him whose soul reposes on the Truth itself.” Robertson.

“Truth is eclipsed often, and it sets for a night; but never is it turne l aside from its eternal path.” — W. Ware


“ Rise ! for the day is passing,

And you lie dreaming on;
The others have buckled their armor,

And forth to the fight are gone:
A place in the ranks awaits you,

Each man has some part to play;
The Past and the Future are nothing,

In the face of the stern To-day.” — Miss Procter.
“The measure of your duty is the greatness of your advantages,
and the greatness of your advantages is the standard to which you
will be subjected in the judgment of Heaven and the judgment of
history. You (men of America) are set for the hope or the disap-
pointment of the world. With such a mighty country, with such
inestimable privileges, with such means of intelligence, virtue, and
happiness; with such means of increasing and dispensing them; so
young, and yet so strong; so late, and yet so rich among the
nations; there is room to look for good interminably to future gen-
erations, which the one departing shall leave more abundant for the
one that comes. In order that such anticipations be not empty
dreams ; in order that they be not promises to change into mockery,
vanity, and grief; it should be the labor of a genuine and noble
patriotism to raise the life of a nation to the level of its privileges;
to harmonize its general practice with its abstract principles ; to
reduce to actual facts the ideals of its institutions; to elevate instruc-
tion into knowledge; to deepen knowledge into wisdom; to render
knowledge and wisdom complete in righteousness; and to make the
love of country perfect in the love of man.”Giles.

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“Distinct enunciation depends on the true and forcible action of the organs of speech. Regarded in connection with the exercise of reading or speaking in public, it requires

First, the preparatory act of drawing a full supply of breath, that the lungs may be freely expanded, and a sufficient volume of air obtained for the production of a strong and clear sound. Second, a vigorons emission or expulsion of the breath, to give force and distinctness to the action of those organs which render sounds articulate. Third, an energetic, deliberate, and exact execution, in the functions of the tongue and the lipe. It is from the combination of all these qualities of articulation, that the ear receives the true and perfect sound of every letter and syllable, and the mind, the exact form and meaning of every word; while a failure in any of these points is attended by a weak and inefficient voice, or a defective and indistinct utterance.

The qualities requisite to distinct enunciation naturally belong to all human beings in the possession of health, and under an adequate impulse of the mind; they are especially characteristic of the activity and elasticity of youth, when not perverted or depressed by arbitrary modes of educa

tion, or when uncorrupted by bad example and neglect. Instruction and practice, however, are requisite to develop and confirm these natural, good tendencies; but such aids become indispensable when the habits of enunciation have, through unfavorable influences, been stamped with error, or when individuals have commenced a course of study, preparatory to a profession which requires correctness and fluency in public address.

A habit of drawing a full breath has been mentioned as the first preliminary to energetio and distinct enunciation. This point will, perhaps, be more clearly understood, and its value more distinctly perceived, by adverting to the circumstance, that many speakers (adults, through the influence of neglected habit, and the young, from agitation or embarrassment) begin to speak without a full supply of breath, or an entire inflation of the lungs, and that the mechanical impulse of speaking commonly carries on the action of the voice, without leaving opportunity for a full supply of breath to be drawn in the course of the whole exercise. The lungs are thus exhausted and injured by being required to furnish (what they have not actually received) a volume of air sufficient to create and sustain a strong articulate utterance. The whole style of a speaker's elocution is thus rendered feeble, indistinct, and unimpressive. A due attention to the student's habits of breathing will do much towards enabling him to speak or read with ease and distinctness, as well as to acquire a full and habitual energy of voice, and a permanent vigor of the organs of speech.

The second requisite to distinct articulation is a forcible expulsion of the breath. Animated conversation on subjects interesting to the mind, and especially when a numerous company is addressed, furnishes an idea of what is meant by expulsive or forcible utterance; and the voice of a sick person, --- of an individual in health, when fatigued, — of a person overwhelmed with grief, shame, or embarrassment, may serve to illustrate the opposite quality of speech, a faint ineffective mode of expression. The act of public communication by oral address, requires a vigorous exertion of the organs,

- a thing equally essential to admiration and interest in the speaker, and to the physical possibility of his voice being heard, or his words understood by his audience. To produce an energetic and distinct articulation, the breath must be forcibly expelled, as well as freely inhaled ; a full volume of air must be transmitted, with great force, to the minor organs of speech, which give a definite character to sound.

Where the forcible emission of the breath is neglected, a grave and hollow voice, yet feeble and languid in its execution, is unavoidably contracted, by which the speaker's internal energy is much impaired; and the natural effect of his delivery lost. A strong and adequate utterance, on the contrary, carries the force outward, and causes it to reach with ease and with full effect, over a large space. Expulsive enunciation should receive full attention, as an easy and natural means of strengthening the voice, and rendering it clear and distinct. As a mode of physical exercise it is conducive to inward vigor and to general health; and as an accomplishment in elocution, it is of the utmost consequence to the appropriate expression of elevated sentiment and natural emotion.

This kind of vocal force, however, must be carefully distinguished from that of calling or vociferation, with which it has little in common, but which is habitually exemplified by some public speakers, who indulge an undisciplined and intemperate energy of feeling or of voice, and by children, generally when reading in a large room. It produces the style of utterance which most persons erroneously adopt in conversing with a deaf person.

Contrasted with a natural and habitual tone, this mode of utterance has a false note, and an effect altogether peculiar to itself; it is the tone of physical effort transcending that of mental expression. True force of

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