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It required half a day's journey from Dehr to height; and whose splendid dresses had once reach Ibrim, and, as there was nothing to interest been covered with paint and gold. There are them there, they returned to Dehr the same three chambers of considerable size, and four evening. The following is all that we are told smaller apartments. “We found,' the travellers of Ibrim. “Not a vestige of life was seen about say, ' no inscription on this temple, which is a us; the destruction of Ibrim by the Mamelukes, most astonishing monument of labor and ancient when they passed two years ago into Dongola, magnificence. The various apartments we exhad been so complete that no solitary native was plored, together with the statues that ornament to be found wandering among its ruins; there them, are all hewn out of the living rock.' A was not even a date tree to be observed. The similar magnificent though ruined structure was walls of the houses, which are in some places found at Kalaptshi. still standing, alone attest that it has once been The plain of Umbarakat is strewed with inhabited. The population was partly carried ruins. At Sardab and Debodé are also many off by the Mamelukes, and has partly' removed interesting ruins which are briefly described. On to Dehr.'-p. 76.

the second arrival of our travellers at Philæ they At Dehr the only monument of antiquity is a observed that it is impossible to behold the protemple or grotto, excavated in the solid rock; fusion of magnificent ruins with which this island but at Amada, about an hour's journey from abounds without feelings of admiration and asthence, on their return, they saw a fine temple tonishment:' at the same time it is avowed that which had been converted by the early Chris- the excavated temple of Guerfeh Hassan, and the tians into a church; the painted figures that had ruins of Dakki and Kalaptshi, appeared to rival been stuccoed over were in wonderful preserva- some of the finest specimens of Egyptian archition. Below Sibhoi they fell in with their old tecture. acquaintance shekh Ibrahim (Mr. Burckhardt), · During the whole of this interesting journey,' whom they had left at Siout in good health and says Mr. Legh,' we had found the natives unicondition, and well dressed like a Turkish gen- versally civil, conducting us to the remains of tleman ; he had now the appearance of a com- antiquity without the least suspicion, and supmon Arab, looking very thin and miserable. He plying us with whatever their scanty means had been living, he said, for some time with the would afford. It is true they viewed us with shekhs of the villages on lentils, bread, salt, and curiosity, and seemed astonished at our venturwater, and was most happy to share a mutton ing among them; and at Kalaptshi they asked chop with our travellers, though cut from a lean our guide, · How dare these people come here? and half starved sheep, for which, however, they Do they not know that we have 500 muskets in had paid the extravagant price of a dollar. our village, and that Douab cacheff has not the Ibrahim then departed on his route to the south- courage to come and levy contributions ?—p. 97. ward.

Captain Light of the artillery followed a simiAt Dakki there is a fine and perfect temple, lar track with Mr. Legh to exactly the same with the hieroglyphics in high relief. The height point in Nubia, Ibrim; whence he returned of the propylon is about fifty feet; its front down the hill, and examined the temple of ninety feet, and its depth at the base eighteen Leboo, called Legh Sibhoi ; and describes its feet. The space between that and the temple avenues of sphinxes, its gigantic figures in altoforty-eight feet; the temple itself eighty-four feet relievo, its pilasters, and hieroglyphics. He in length, thirty in breadth, and twenty-four in discovered at Ouffeddonnee the remains of a height. Many Greek inscriptions are cut on the primitive Christian church, in the interior of propylon, recording the devotion of those who which were many painted Greek inscriptions visited these sacred buildings. Of these our

and figures of scriptural subjects. The ruins of travellers copied two. The first is— 1, Apollo- a temple at Deboo are also minutely described. nius, the son of Apollonius, commander-in-chief Captain Light thus sums up his observations on of the province of Ombi, and of the district the natives of Nubia :—The people who occupy about Elephantina and Philæ, came and wor- the shores of the Nile between Philæ and Ibrim shipped.'— The second—'I, Callimachus, the son are, for the most part, a distinct race from those of Hermon, came with him and worshipped the of the north. The extent of the country is about same God, in the thirty-second year of the em- 150 miles, which, according to my course on the peror-IPOYO'

-the meaning of which they Nile up and down, I conceive may be about 200

pretend not to determine. by water, and is estimated at much more by Mr. At Guerfeh Hassan, nine miles below Dakki, Hamilton and others. They are called by the they found also an excavated temple that far Egyptians Goobli, meaning in Arabic the people surpassed any thing they had witnessed above or of the south. My boatmen from Boolac applied below Essouan, and was indeed a stupendous Goobli generally to them all, but called those monument of the labor bestowed by the ancients living about the cataracts Berber. Their color on their places of devotion.' It consists of an is black; but the change to it, in the progress area or outer court sixty-four feet in length, and from Cairo, does not occur all at once to the thirty-six in breadth, having six columns on each traveller, but by gradual alteration to the dusky side, to which are attached statues of priests. hue from white. Their countenance approaches The passage into the temple, through a door six to that of a negro; thick lips, flattish nose and feet wide, is formed by three immense columns head, the body short, and bones slender : the on each side, to which are attached colossal sta- leg bones have the curve observed in negroes : tues of priests (on pedestals three feet three the hair is curled and black, but not woolly. inches high), each eighteen feet six inches in Men of lighter complexion are found amongst

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them; which may be accounted for by intermar- but longer, and slung behind them. Some have riage with Arabs, or a descent from those fol- round shields of buffalo hide, and a few pistols lowers of Selim the Second who were left here and muskets are to be seen.'--pp. 93-97. upon his conquest of the country. On the other In January 1813 Mr. Burckhardt left Cairo hand, at Galabshee, the people seemed to have on his first journey through Nubia, and returned more of the negro than elsewhere; thicker lips, to Assuan on the 30th of March, thirty-five days and hair more tufted, as well as a more savage after setting out from this place, during which disposition.

he only allowed himself a single half-day's rest * The Nubian language is different from the at Derr. No opportunity offering of proceeding Arabic. The latter, as acquired from books and into Western Africa, he projected a second joura teacher, had been of very little use to me in ney to the banks of the Atbara, or Astaboras, Egypt itself; but here not even the vulgar dia- and from thence to Djidda or Moka, and to relect of the Lower Nile would serve for common turn by land along the eastern shore of the Red intercourse, except in that district extending Sea to Cairo. The detailed account of this exfrom Dukkey to Deir, where the Nubian is lost, pedition, as far as Djidda on the Arabian coast and Arabic prevails again : a curious circum- of the Red Sea, forms the subject of the greater stance; and, when considered with an observa- part of a volume of his travels now before us. tion of the lighter color of this people, leads to In this journey he crossed that desert to the a belief of their being descended from Arabs. westward of Dongola by which Bruce returned The Nubian, in eaking, gave me an idea of from Abyssinia, and which has been described what I have heard of the clucking of Hottentots. in such frightful terms by this enterprising traIt seems a succession of monosyllables, accom- veller; but the dangers and the sufferings of panied with a rise and fall of voice that is not Burckhardt were occasioned neither by the pridisagreeable. I saw few traces among them of vations of the desert, nor its poisonous winds, government, or law, or religion. They know no nor its moving pillars of sand ; but by his apmaster, although the cachef claims a nominal parent poverty, which exposed him to every command of the country: it extends no farther kind of insult from the wretches with whom he than sending his soldiers to collect their tax, or travelled. In fact he economised the means suprent, called Mirri. The pasha of Egypt was plied to him by the African Association, until named as sovereign in all transactions from Cairo he had nearly defeated the objects for which he to Assuan. Here, and beyond, as far as I went, was employed. On the 24th February he left the reigning sultan Mahmood was considered the Assouan, on the first of these journeys in Nubia, sovereign ; though the cachef's was evidently with two dromedaries, and an Arab guide, a nathe power they feared the most. They look for tive of Nubia, for whose services he bargained redress of injuries to their own means of revenge, as far as Derr, a journey of 140 miles, and for which, in cases of blood, extends from one gene- which one Spanish dollar was considered as amration to another, till blood is repaid by blood. ple payment. The Nubians of Assouan were, On this account they are obliged to be ever on at the time of his departure, at war with their the watch and armed ; and, in this manner, even southern neighbours, on account of the latter their daily labors are carried on,—the very boys having intercepted a vessel laden with dates bego armed. They profess to be the followers of longing to a merchant of the former. In the Mabomet, though I rarely happened to observe scufile a woman in a state of pregnancy had been any of their ritual observances of that religion. killed by a stone. The southern party, to whom Once, upon my endeavouring to make some of the deceased belonged, were now demanding them comprehend the benefit of obedience to the from their enemies. the debt of blood,' not only rules of justice for punishing offences, instead of for the woman, but for the child also which she pursuing the offender to death as they practised, bore in her womb; and this dispute had not they quoted the Koran to justify their requiring been adjusted on our traveller's return. Immeblood for blood. Their dress, for the men, is a diately beyond Assouan the mountains approach linen smock, commonly brown, with red or dark- so near to the Nile as to leave scarcely the width colored scull cap. A few wear turbans and of 100 yards of cultivable ground. Our traveller slippers. The women have a brown robe thrown passed the first night with the shikh of Wady gracefully over their head and body, discovering Debot (it may here be observed, once for all, the right arm and breast, and part of one thigh that though the term wady generally means a and leg. They are of good size and shape, but river, it is used, along the borders of the Nile very ugly in the face. Their necks, arms, and as far as Sennaar, for a valley, or ravine in the ancles, are ornamented with beads or bone rings, mountains). • Here,' says Mr. Burckhardt, • I and one nostril with a ring of bone or metal. first tasted the country dish-which, during a Their hair is anointed with oil of cassia, of journey of five weeks, became my constant food wbich every village has a small plantation. It -thin, unleavened, and slightly baked cakes of is matted or plaited, as now seen in the heads dhourra (holcus arundinaceus), served up with of sphinxes and female figures of their ancient sweet or sour milk.' statues. I found one at Elephantina which might The whole of the road to Derr, on the east have been supposed their model. Their little bank of the river, is perfectly safe, provided the children are naked. Girls wear round the waist traveller be accompanied by a native. The an apron of strings of raw hide, and boys a gir- people were every where curious and inquisidle of linen. Their arms are knives or daggers, tive. From Assouan to Dehymt the granite fastened to the back of the elbow or in the girdle, chain of mountains had been uninterrupted ; javelins, tomahawks, swords of Roman shape, from the latter place to the second cataract at

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Wady Halfa, the mountain next the river was disposition than any of the other tribes of Nubia.
sandstone, with the exception of some granite The inhabitants of a small island near the village
rocks above Tafa, extending as far as Kalabshé. Ketta are thus described :— These people, who
At Gyrshé, two days' journey from Assouan, the all speak Arabic as well as the Nouba language,
plain between the river and the mountains is are quite black, but have nothing of the negro
about a mile in width; it is a poor village, and features. The men generally go naked, except
two-thirds of the cottages were abandoned in a rag twisted round their middle; the women
consequence of the oppressions of the Mame- have a coarse shirt thrown about them. Both
lukes. At Korosko the shore widens, and a sexes suffer the hair of the head to grow; they
grove of date trees enlivens the banks of the cut it above the neck, and twist it all over in
Nile the whole way from hence to Ibrîm. Groups thin ringlets, in a way similar to that of the Arab
of houses occur at every 100 yards; and as far of Souakin, whose portrait is given by Mr. Salt
as Derr the fields are as carefully cultivated as in lord Valentia's Travels. Their hair is very
in any part of Egypt. At Derr Mr. Burckhardt thick, but not woolly; the men never comb it,
alighied, as all travellers do, at the house of but the women sometimes do ; the latter wear on
Hassan cachef, who enquired the object of his the back part of the head ringlets, or a small or-
journey. Encouraged by the success of Messrs. nament made of mother of pearl and Venetian
Legh and Smelt, he replied that he had merely glass beads. Both men and women grease their
come on a tour of pleasure through Nubia, like head and neck with butter whenever they can
the two gentlemen who had been at Derr before afford it; this custom answers two purposes; it
him; but his Turkish dress and manners, and refreshes the skin heated by the sun, and keeps
his perfect knowledge of Arabic, created a sus- off vermin.'--p. 31.
picion in the bystanders that he was practising The castle of Ibrîm and the inhabitants of its
deception. His present to the cachef, though territory have an aga who is independent of the
handsome under ordinary circumstances, ap- governors of Nubia, with whom they are often
peared when contrasted with that which he had at war. They are of white complexion as
just received from Mr. Legh, to the value of about compared with the Nubians, and still retain the
1000 piastres, very insignificant and un-English.' features of their ancestors, the Bosnian soldiers
• Besides,' said Hassan, • this gentleman pro- who were sent to garrison Ibrim by Sultan Se-
ceeded only as far as Ibrim; whereas you give lym. “In no part of the eastern world,' says
me a few trifles, and wish to go even to the se- Mr. Burckhardt, “ have I ever found property in
cond cataract !' But Burckhardt hinted that if such perfect security as in Ibrim. The inhabit-
he sent him back to Esnè, and the Beg was there ants leave the dhourra in heaps on the field with-
informed of the little attention paid to his letter out a watch during the night ; their cattle feed
of recommendation, he might be induced to levy on the banks of the river without any one to
a contribution on the merchandise of the cachef's tend them; and the best parts of their household
caravan then about proceeding to Egypt: and furniture are left all night under the palm-trees
our traveller' obtained leave to proceed to around the dwelling.'-- But he adds that the

Nubians in general are free from the vice of pil-
As far as Derr he found the eastern bank offering;' and, what is more important, that “tra-
the Nile covered with the rich deposit of the vellers in Nubia have little to fear from the ill
river; whereas on the western side the sands will of the peasants : it is the rapacious spirit
of the desert impetuously swept the very brink of the governors that is to be dreaded.?
of the river driven by the north-west winds which Near Wady Halfa is the second cataract of
prevail during the winter and spring : it is in the Nile, whose noise was heard in the night at
those places only, where the sandy torrent is ar- a considerable distance. This part of the river
rested by the mountains, that the narrow plain is described as very romantic : the banks, over-
admits of cultivation : the eastern shore is in grown with large tamarisks, have a picturesque
consequence much more populous than the appearance amidst the black and green rocks,
western. Not far from Derr our traveller no- which, forming pools and lakes, expand the
ticed a temple of the most remote antiquity. It width of the river to more than two miles. Be-
was hewn entirely out of the sand-stone rock tween this place and Sukkot the navigation is
with its pronaos, sekos or cella, and adyton; interrupted for about 100 miles by rapids, similar

the gods of Egypt,' he observes, 'seem to have to that at Assouan : in some places, however, been worshipped here long before they were the river is tolerably free from rocks and islands; lodged the gigantic temples

Karnac and in these its bed is narrow, and its banks are high ; Gorne, which are, to all appearance, the most near Mershed, Mr. Burckhardt says, “I could ancient temples in Egypt.'

throw a stone over to the opposite side.' At The Bedouin who accompanied our traveller Wady Seras our traveller put up for the night was of that branch of the Ababde who pasture at a hut of Kerrarish Arabs, who were watching their cattle on the banks of the river and its islands the produce of a few cotton fields, and bean from Derr to Dongola: they are very poor; plantations. They had not tasted bread for the mats of the leaves of palm-trees form their tents : last two months. Burckhardt made them a prethey do not permit their women to intermarry sent of some dhourra, on condition of their with the Nubians ; and they have through ages letting the women (who are seldom permitted to preserved the purity of their race. “They pride enjoy this luxury) partake of it with them; the themselves, and justly,' says our traveller, · in latter immediately set to work to grind it between the beauty of their girls. They are an honest two granite stones; • and the girls sat up eating and hospitable people, and of a more kindly and singing the whole night.' The mountain

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crossed by our traveller to the southward of characterises the negro countenance. He rolled Seras was of granite and quartz. The Arabs, his eyes at me,' says our traveller, 'like a madwho act as guides in these desolate mountains, man, and, having drunk copiously of palm-wine have devised a singular mode of extorting pre- at the castle, he was so intoxicated that he could sents from the traveller. They first beg a pre- hardly keep on his legs.' Goat skins of palmsent; if refused, they collect a heap of sand, wine were brought in, and in the course of half and, placing a stone at each extremity of it, they an hour the whole camp was as drunk as their apprise the traveller that his tomb is made. Be- chief. Muskets succeeded ; and a feu-de-joie fore he got out of this mountainous district Mr. was fired with ball in the hut where all were Burckhardt had a practical proof of this custom: sitting. “I must confess,' says Burckhardt, that having refused to give any thing to one of these at this moment I repented' of having come to grare-diggers, the man set about making his the camp.' At length, however, the whole party sand-heap; upon this our traveller alighted and dropped asleep, and a few hours brought the beran another, observing, that as they were cachef to his senses, so that he could talk rationbrethren, it was but just that they should be ally. Buckhardt's situation, however, was not buried together. The fellow laughed ; and they much improved. He was suspected of being an mutually agreed to destroy each other's labors : agent of the pasha of Egypt;

— But,' said the on Burckhardt's remounting his horse, the dis- cachef's Arabic secretary, 'at Mahass we spit appointed Arab gravely observed from the koran, at Mohammed Aly's beard, and cut off the • No mortal knows the spot upon earth where heads of those who are enemies to the Mamehis grave shall be digged.' At Wady Okame lukes.' the dominions of the governor of Sukkot begin, I was now,' says our traveller, ' without a and the country opens out on each side of the friend or protector, in a country only two days river. Having a letter of recommendation from and a half distant from the northern limits of Hassen cachef to the governor of Sukkot, who Dongola, the newly conquered kingdom of the resides at Kolbe, an island in the Nile, Mr. Mamelukes, against whose interests I was susBurckhardt crossed over in a kind of ferry-boat pected to be acting, while the governors of Macalled a ramous. It consists of the trunks of hass supported them. Under these circumdate trees loosely tied together, and worked by stances he prudently determined to return; but a paddle about four feet in length, forked at the the cachef abruptly ordered him to stay till apper extremity, and lashed to the raft by ropes next day. Burckhardt however expressed his of straw. Its close resemblance to those repre- anxiety to reach Derr as speedily as possible, sented on the walls of the Egyptian temples and was dismissed with the usual mixture of inshows that man, here at least, has not been an

sult and contempt. improving animal.

At the village of Kolbe our traveller obtained The district of Say begins at Aamara, on the a ramous for the baggage, and he and his guide plain of which are the ruins of a fine Egyptian swam the river at the tails of their camels, each temple. The shafts of six large columns of cal- beast having an inflated goat skin tied to its careous stone remain, being the only specimen neck. He now availed himself of the opportuto be met with of that material, those of Egypt nity of examining, in his way down, the hitherto being all of sandstone. Mr. Hamilton has ob- undiscovered temple of Ipsambul. The six served, that the ancient Egyptians do not appear colossal figures in front he found to represent to have employed granite in any of their build- juvenile persons; they are placed in narrow reings in Cpper Egypt, except in the obelisks and cesses, three on each side of the entrance; their some few of their propyla. The castle of Say is height from the ground to the knee is about six built of alternate layers of stone and brick, on feet and a half. The spaces of the smooth rock an island of the Nile, and, like Ibrîm and As- between the niches are covered with hieroglysouan, has its own aga, independent of the go- phics, as are also the walls of the apartments. vernors of Nubia; like these, too, its territories This temple Mr. Burckhardt thinks to have been are inhabited by the descendants of Bosnian sol- the model of that at Derr, but much anterior to diers. Beyond Say, thick groves of date trees it in point of time. On the side of the mounand numerous habitations crowded both banks tain facing the north, against which there was a of the river. The dates of Sukkot and Say are vast accumulation of sand, and at a distance of preferred to these of Ibrim, and are considered about 200 yards from the temple, the upper superior to all that grow on the banks of the parts were discovered of four immense colossal Nile, from Sennaar down to Alexandria ; they statues cut out of the living rock, all the other are of the largest kind, generaily three inches in parts being buried beneath the sands, which are length.'

drifted here in torrents from the desert. The Burckhardt, on the 13th of March, reached the head of one of these statues was yet above the territory of Mahass, and passed several villages surface ; • and,' says our author, it has a most the houses of which were constructed of mats of expressive youthful countenance, approaching palm-leaves. The castle of Tinareh had been nearer to the Grecian model of beauty than that seized by a rebel cousin of the king of Mahass, of any ancient Egyptian figure I have seen; inbut having been besieged for several weeks by the deed, were it not for a thin oblong beard, it two brothers Hosseyn and Mohammed cachefs, might well pass for a head of Pallas.'—This it had capitulated the evening preceding his ar- statue,' he adds, measures seven yards across rival. He visited the camp of the latter, the son the shoulders, and cannot therefore, if in an upon the mother's side of a Darfur slave, but right posture, be less than sixty-five or seventy without any of that mildness which generally feet in height! the ear is one yard and four




inches in length.' Mr. Burckhardt conjectured, Belzoni's subsequent operations may be here that if the sand could be cleared away, an im- briefly detailed. After eighteen days' hard labor mense temple would be discovered, to the en- he and his boat's crew arrived at the door-way trance of which the four colossal figures served of that temple, which Mr. Belzoni considers as as ornaments, in the same manner as the six be- the finest and most extensive excavation in longing to the neighbouring temple of Isis; and Nubia, and one that can stand a competition he concluded, from a hawk-headed figure sur- with any in Egypt, except the tomb newly dismounted by a globe, in the centre of the four covered in Beban-el-Molook.' As the temple of statues, that this buried temple had been dedi- Ipsambul has, in all probability, been covered cated to Osiris. It was this conjecture that in- with sand 2000 years, or more, our readers will duced Belzoni to undertake the bold enterprize not be displeased with the description of it. of uncovering it as far down as the doorway, From what we could perceive, at the first which he effected, with the able assistance and view, it was evidently a very large place; but personal exertions of captains Mangles and Irby, our astonishment increased when we found it to of the royal navy.

Mr. Burckhardt does not be one of the most magnificent of temples, enhesitate to pronounce the works of Ipsambul to riched with beautiful intaglios, painting, colossal belong to the finest period of Egyptian sculp- figures, &c. We entered at first into a large ture.

pronaos, fifty-seven feet long and fifty-two wide, The account given by Belzoni and his asso- supported by two rows of square pillars, in a ciates of these extraordinary temples, sculptured line from the front door to the door of the sekos. out of a whole mountain, induced Mr. Bankes Each pillar has a figure, not unlike those at Meto make a visit here in company with Mr. Salt, dinet Aboo, finely executed, and very little into explore these sacred recesses more minutely. jured by time. The tops of their turbans reach For the fatigue and expense of this enterprise, the ceiling, which is about thirty feet high; the and the exertions of a month in removing the pillars are five feet and a half square. Both sand, and excavating the rubbish, &c., they were these and the walls are covered with beautiful amply rewarded by many new and brilliant dis- hieroglyphics, the style of which is somewhat coveries; among the first of which must be superior, or at least bolder, than that of any reckoned that of a Greek inscription on the leg others in Egypt, not only in workmanship, but of one of the colossal statues which guards the also in the subjects. They exhibit battles, stormentrance, recording the visit of Psammeticus ing of castles, triumphs over the Ethiopians, (spelt YAMMATIXOI in the dative, and writ- sacrifices, &c. In some places is to be seen the ten in very ancient letters), which, from appear- same hero as at Medinet Aboo, but in a different ances, it was judged must have been engraved posture. Some of the columns are much injured when the temple was already encumbered with by the close and heated atmosphere, the tempesand.

rature of which was so hot that the thermometer • This is probably,' says the Quarterly Review, must have risen to above 130°. The second hall * the most ancient inscription that exists in is about twenty-two feet high, thirty-seven wide, any intelligible language, as Psammeticus died and twenty-five and a half long. It contains more than 600 years before Christ-more than four pillars about four feet square : and the walls 100 years before the conquest of Egypt by Cam- of this also are covered with fine hieroglyphics byses the Persian—and nearly 200 years before in pretty good preservation. Beyond this is a the visit of Herodotus to that country. It is in- shorter chamber, thirty-seven feet wide, in which valuable as an additional corroboration of the is the entrance into the sanctuary. At each end truth and accuracy of the Father of Profane llis- of this chamber is a door, leading into smaller tory, from whom we learn that this Psammeticus chambers in the same direction with the sancwas one of the twelve princes who ruled Egypt; tuary, each eight feet by seven. The sanctuary that by the assistance of some Ionians and Ca- is twenty-three feet and a half long, and twelve rians—men of brass-he subdued his eleven feet wide. It contains a pedestal in the centre associates, and became sole sovereign of the and at the end four colossal sitting figures, the country; that in return for this service they had . heads of which are in good preservation, not lands assigned to them, and that they taught the . having been injured by violence. On the right Greek language to the Egyptian youth. This side of this great hall, entering into the temple, inscription is valuable,' adds the above writer, are two doors, at a short distance from each ‘in another point of view, as it may assist, with other, which lead into two long separate rooms, the corresponding hieroglyphics, to decypher the first thirty-eight feet ten inches in length, those mysterious characters; and it is peculiarly and eleven feet five inches wide; the other valuable as an undoubted specimen of the ad- forty-eight feet seven inches, by thirteen feet vanced state of the arts among the ancient Egyp- three. At the end of the first are several untitians ; for the temple of Ipsambul is said to nished hieroglyphics, of which some, though contain the finest examples of sculpture, of paint- merely sketched, give fine ideas of their manner ing, and of design, now existing either in Nubia of drawing. At the lateral corners of the entrance or in Egypt. By a new and ingenious contri- into the second chamber from the great hall is a vance for giving light within the temple, Mr. door, each of which leads into a small chamber Bankes made out the complete historical design twenty-two feet six inches long, and ten feet on the wall of one of the chambers, in which, wide. Each of these rooms has two doors leadbesides the usual delineations of fortresses, war- ing into two other chambers, forty-three feet in chariots, &c., he observed three horsemen mount- length, and ten feet eleven inches wide. There :d without saddles, but with regular bridles.' are two benches in them, apparently to sit on.

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