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Let me intreat you, speak the former language. (4)

Ang. Plainly conceive, I love you.

Ifab. My brother did love Juliet; And you tell me, that he shall die for it.

Ang. He shall not, l'abel, if you give me love.

I/ab. I know, your virtue hath a licence in't, (5)
Which seems a little fouler than it is,
To pluck on others.

Ang. Believe me, on mine honour,
My words express my purpose.

Ifab. Ha ! little honour to be much believ'd,
And most pernicious purpose!-seeming, seeming!-(6)
I will proclaim thee, Angelo; look fort:
Sign me a present pardon for my brother,
Or, with an out-stretch'd throat, I'll tell the world
Aloud, what man thou art.

Ang. Who will believe thee, Isabel?
My unfoil'd name, th' austereness of my life,
My vouch against you, and my place i'th' ftate, (7)
Will so your accusation over weigh,
That
you

shall stifle in your own report,
And smell of calumny. I have begun;
And now I give my sensual race the rein.
Fit thy content to my sharp appetite,
Lay by all nicety, and prolixious blushes,
That banilh what they sue for ; redeem thy brother
By yielding up thy body to my will:

-speak the former longuage.) We should read POPMAL, which he here uses for plain, direct.

WARBURTON. Isabella answers to his circumlocutory courthip, that the has but one longue, she does not understand this new phrase, and desires bim to talk his firmer language, that is, to talk as he talked before.

(5) I know your virtue bath a licence in't,j Alluding !o the liceoces given by Ministers to their Spies, to go into all suspected companies and join in the language of Malecontents,

WARBURTON. (6) seeming, seeming! -] Hypocrisy, hypocrisy ; counterfeit virtue.

(7) My vouch ogainf you.] The calling his denial of her charge, bis vouch, has someining fue. Vouch is the teltimony one man bears for another. So that, by this, he insinuates his authority was so great, that his denial would have the same credit that a vouch or teítimony has in ordinary cases,

WARBURTON. I believe this beauty is merely imaginary, and that voucle against means no more Iban denial.

Or

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Or else he must not only die the death, ($)
But thy unkindness shall his death draw our
To ling’ring sufferance. Answer me to-morrow ;
Or by th' affection that now guides me most,
I'll

prove a tyrant to him. As for you, Say what you can; my false o'erweighs your true. [Exit.

Isab. To whom should I complain? did I tell this, Who would believe me? O molt perilous mouths, That bear in them one and the self same tongue, Either of condemnation or approof ; Bidding the law make curtsy to their will ; Hooking both right and wrong to th' appetite, To follow, as it draws. I'll to my brother. Tho' he hath fall'n by prompture (9) of the blood, Yet hath he in him such a mind of honour, That had he twenty heads to tender down On twenty bloody blocks, he'd yield them up ; Before his fifter should her body ftoop To fuch abhorr'd pollution. Then, Isabel, live chaste; and, brother die ; More than our brother is our chastity. I'll tell him yet of Angelo's request; And fit his mind to death, for his soul's Reft. [Exit.

ACT III.

SCENE I.

The Prison.

Enter Duke, Claudio, and Provost.

DUKE. S° O, then you've hope of pardon from lord Angelo?

Claud. "The miserable have no other medicine, But only Hope : I've hope to live, and am prepar'd to

die.

[8] <die the death.] This seems to be a solemn phrase for death inflicted by law. So in Midsummer-Night's Dream. Prepare to die the death (9) prompture.] Suggestion, temptation, inftigation.

Duke.

Duke. Be absolute for death: (9) or death, or life, Shall thereby be the sweeter. Reason thus with life

; If I do lose thee, I do lose a thing, That none but fools would keep; (1) a breath thou art, Servile to all the skiey influences That do this habitation, (2) where thou keep'ít, Hourly afflict ; meerly thou art death's fool; (3) For him thou labour'd by thy flight to fhun, And yet runn'st tow'rd bim still. Thou art not nobles For all th' accommodations, that thou bear'st, Are aurs'd by baleness: (4) thou'rt by no means valiant;

For

(9) Be absolute for deerb :) Be determined to die, without soy hope of life. Horace, -The bous wbicb exceeds expe&tation will be welcomes

(1) That none but fools would keep ;] But this readiag is not only contrary to all Sense and Reason ; but to the Drift of this moral Discourse. The Duke, in his assum'd Character of a Frior, is eadeavouriog to joftil into the condema'd Prisoner a Refignating of Mind to his Sentence ; but the Seose of the Lioes, in this Read. ing, is a direct Persuasive to Suicide: I make no Doubs, but the Poct wrote,

That none but Fools would reck, i. e. tare for, be anxious about, regret the loss of. So in the Tragedy of Tancred and Gifmanda, Act 4. Scene 3.

Not ibat fb.RECKs this life
And Shakespeare in The Two Gentlemen of Verona,
Recking as little wbal betiderb me

WARBURTON. The meaning seems plainly this, that m'ne but fools world with 20 keep life ; or, none but fools would keep it, if choice were allowed. A sense, which, whether true or not, is certainly innocent.

(2) That do ibis habitation,] This reading is substituted by Sir Thomas Hanmer, for sbat def.

(3) - meerly tbou art Death's Fool; For him tbou labour's by tby Aight to foxx,

And yet runn'f tow'rd bim Aill.] In those old Farces called MORALITIES, the Fool of the piece, in order to fhew the inevitable approaches of Death, is made to employ all his stratagems to avoid him: which, as the matter is ordered, briog the Fool, at every turn, into his very jaws. So that the representations of these scenes would afford a great deal of good mirib and morals mixed together. And from such circumstances, in the genius of our ancestors publick diverfions, I suppose it was, that the old proverb arose, of being merry and wife,

WARBURTON. (4) Are nurs'd by baseness :) Dr. Warburton is undoubtedly mistaken in supposing ihat by baseness is meant felf.love, here alligaed u VOL. II. с

the

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For thou doft fear the soft'and tender fork
Of a poor.worm (5). Thy best of Rest is sleep, (6)
And that thou oft provok'tt ; yet grofly fear'ft
Thy death, which is no more. (7) Thou'rt not thyself;
For thou exist'st on many a thousand grains,

That issue out of duft. Happy thou art not';
For what thou haft not, 'still thou striv'st to get;
And what thou haft forget'st. Thou art not certain ;
For thy complexion shifts to strange effects, (8)
After the moon. If thou art rich, thou'rt poor ;
For, like an ass, whose back with ingots hows,
the motive all human .

to that a minute analysis of life at ones that splendour which dazzles the imagination. Whatever grandeur can display, or luxury enjoy, is procured by ba feness, by offices of which the mind trioks from the contemplation. All the delicacies of the table may be traced back to the shambles and the duoghill, all magnificence of building was hewn from the quarry, and all the pomp of ornaments, dug from among the dainps and darkness of the mine.

(5) the soft and tender fork Of a poor worn -) Worm is put for any creeping thing or

his tone.cording to the vulgar notion, that" a serpent wounds'

with Soft but not forked nor hurtful If it could hurt, it could not be foft. la Midsummer Night's Dream he has the fame notion.

With doubler tongue
Than' thine, O serpent, never adder ftung.
(6) thy best of reft is Peep,
And that thou ofi prowok'jt ; yet größly fear'll

Thy death wbich is no more.-) Evidently from the following passage of Cicero: Habes fomnum imaginem Morris

, eamque quotidie induis, & dubitas quin sensus in morte nullus

fit, tum in ejus fimulacro videas ele nullum fenfum. But the Epicorean jolisivation is, with great judgment, omitted in the imitation.

WARBURTON. Here Dr. Warburton might have found a sentiment worthy of his animadversion. I cannot without indignation find Shakespeare saying, that death is only feep, lengtheoing out his exhortation by a sentence which in the Friar is impious, in the reasoner is foolish, and in the poet trite aod vulgar.

(7) Thou’rt 'not thyself ;] Thou art perpetually repaired and renovated by external aflistance, thou subfiftest upon foreiga' watter, and halt no power of producing or contiouing thy own being.

(8) - frange effeEts,] For effects read affects; that is, affeétions, pollions of mind, or disorders of body 'variously affected. “So in Othello, The young affects,

Thou

Thou bear'ft thy heavy riches but a journey,
And death unloadeth thee. Friend halt thou none;
For thy own bowels, which do call thee Șire,
The meer effusion of thy proper loins,
Do curse the Gout, Serpiga, and the Rheum,
For ending thee no fooner. Thou hast nor youth, nor

age ; (9)
But as it were an after-dinner's Neep,
Dreaming on both; for all thy blessed youth (1)

Becomes

(9)

Thou hast nor youth, nor age; But as it were an after-dinner's peep,

Dreaming on both ;) This is exquisitely imagined. When we are young we busy ourselves in forming schemes for succeeding time and miss the gratifications that are before as ; when we are old we amuse the languor of age with the recollection of youthful pleasures or performances, so that our life, of which no pari is filled with the

buliness of the present time, resembles our dreams after dinner - when the events of the morning are mingled with the designs of the evening.

(1) For all thy blessed youth
Becomes as aged, and doth beg the alms
of palfied Eld; and when thou’rt old and rich,

Thou hast neither beat, &c.- - ] The drift of this period is to prove, that neither youtb nor age can be said to be really enjoyed, which, in poetical language, is,

-We have neither youth nor age. But how is this made out? That Age is not enjoyed he proves, by recapitulating the infirmities of it, which deprive that period of life of all senfe of pleasure. To prove that Youth is not enjoyed, he uses these words, For all thy blefed youth becomes as aged, and dob beg the alms of palfied Eld. Out of which, he that can deduce the conclusion, has a better knack at logic than I have. I suppose the. Poat wrote,

- for pallid, tby blazed youth
Becomes assuaged; and doch beg the alms

Of palped Eld; 1. 6. When thy youthful appetite becomes palled, as it will be in the very enjoyment, the blaze of youth is at ooce assuaged, and thou immediately cootractest the infirmities of old age ; as, particularly the palfie and other nervous disorders, consequent on the inordinate

use of sensual pleasures. This is to the purpose; and proves Youth is Dot enjoyed by shewing the fhort duration of it. WARBURTON.

Here again I think Dr. Warburton rotally mistaken. Shakespeare declares that Mao has neither youth nor age, for io youth, which is the happiest time, or which might be ibe happiest, he commonly wants means to obtain what he could enjoy ; be is depeodant

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