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was raised to his honour had formerly stood. You were such a little bit of a thing at the time, though, that I dare say you can hardly remember it.”

“Oh yes I can, papa, just something; I remember the beautiful stained glass windows in the cathedral, at least, and-and-I just recollect, papa, didn't some steps which were quite worn down by the numbers of people who used to go up them on their knees ?"

Yes, those were the steps leading to Becket's shrine, and the pilgrims (as persons who undertook these religious journies were called) used to ascend to this shrine upon their knees, by way of showing their great reverence for it.

But long before Becket's time, there were churches and chapels in England to which it was customary to make pilgrimages; Rome also was much visited, for

“Ah, yes, I know why," interrupted Robert," for the Pope has always lived at Rome, and it was then thought a very holy city ; even Luther thought it so

But I suppose Jerusalem was considered the best place of all to go to ?”

“It was, very naturally, for at Jerusalem there are spots which it must interest every Christian to see ; and in their long and painful journey to the Holy Land, the pilgrims seem, in particular, to have been cheered by the prospect of setting their eyes upon the holy sepulchre, or the sepulchre in which our Lord is supposed to have been laid. In the year 1065, however, the Turks took possession of Jerusalem, and they illtreated those persons who came to pray before the holy sepulchre, and even tried to prevent them altogether from visiting it. This excited the violent indignation of a poor priest called Peter the Hermit; and on his return from a pilgrimage to Palestine, he travelled about from country to country, calling upon Christians to take up arms in defence of the cross, as it was called. His preaching had an immense effect, - kings, nobles, knights, and priests, with hundreds and thousands of people of all ranks, came flocking together, eager to join in a war against the unbelieving Turks, and to seize the holy places from their hands.

The Pope entered fully into the scheme, and ordered that preparations should be made for a crusade."

Why was this kind of war called a crusade, papa ?" asked Emma.

“ I think I can guess,” broke in Robert eagerly, crux is Latin for cross, I know, and crusade sounds as if it might come from crux or cross, does it, father?"

“Quite right, my boy, I am glad you thought of the origin of the word. As these wars were considered to be religious ones, the persons who engaged in them were ordered to wear a red cross fastened to their left shoulder, and consequently were called crusaders.”

“Ah, I know better now what the red-cross knights really were ; but weren't there some sort of soldiers or knights who were priests as well ?" said Robert.

· Yes, the crusades gave rise to a particular order of knights, who were, as you say, both soldiers and priests. They were bound by their vows to fight against the Turks, and they bore a principal part in all the crusading expeditions, but in the time of peace they lived in monasteries apart from the world. They had two large establishments or monasteries, in London, one was at the Temple, and the knights who lived there were called knights Templars, the other was at Clerkenwell, and it was inhabited by an order of knights called the knights Hospitallers of St John."

“What a long name papa! I don't think I shall ever be able to remember it; but was this Clerkenwell the same Clerkenwell as that where aunt Maria lives?”

" To be sure it was, my dear, and one day when we are going to see your aunt, I shall be able, I hope, to show you a very curious and fine old gateway, called St. John's Gate, which still is standing, and which once led to the Hospital of St. John."

“ Oh how nice that will be,” cried Emma, “I do so like seeing old buildings, because it makes all these old times seem so real, it helps one to realise them, I mean.”

Papa,” asked Robert, “how many crusades were there, and which of them proved most successful ?"

“ There were seven altogether,” said Mr. Morton, “but if you want to know which of them promised the most success, the best thing you can do is to consult -that book of history Emmy once saw you deep in. The last crusade, which took place in the year 1270, was chiefly conducted by a French king named Louis, and commonly called St. Louis, for he was afterwards canonised. Louis died of a fever while his army was engaged in fighting against the Turks at Tunis; and soon after his death the Christians were finally driven from the Holy Land, of which the Mahometans have ever since held possession. And now, Robert, can you tell me the names of the two English kings who were crusaders ?”

“ Richard Cæur de Lion and Edward, father; I don't like either of them much. What sort of a man was the French king, Louis ?”

“He seems to have been a truly conscientious and religious man; and he fancied, no doubt, that he was performing a good work by going to fight against those who did not believe in the Saviour. You look surprised, my dears, and think this notion very contrary to all the teaching that you meet with in the New Testament, but it was then thought excusable, or even right to ill-treat or even kill those who did not hold the Christian faith, or who disbelieved in any of the doctines taught by the Roman Catholic Church.”

“ How unlike this is though,” cried Emma, “ to all the Gospel teaches us, when it tells us to love our enemies, and not to judge one another! I'm sure, she added, earnestly, “ I'm quite sure, papa, the more we study history and see how unjustly even well meaning men have sometimes bebaved, the more grateful we ought to feel for having Christianity to teach us what is really right, and for being able to read the Bible for ourselves !"

B. A. I.

THE LITTLE BOY. A LITTLE boy sat early one morning at the window, with his head resting upon his hand. At last he said to himself, “I wish I were a man, for then I might do something to serve God or to help others. I might save somebody's life, or I might help the poor, or I might cure the sick, or I might teach others to be good. I do not see what a little child can do. But I will try to be a good child, and to please my Father in heaven; and He knows that I wish to serve him.”

So, as he had still a little time before breakfast, he began to study his lesson, in which he took great delight. He was very busy at this when he heard his mother call to him, “Come quickly, my son,

and run after

your little brother, lest he should get hurt.” “Oh dear,” thought he, “I wish I could finish this page. But no; I must obey quickly.” “Yes, mamma, he said, in a pleasant voice, "I am coming;” and he hastened after his little brother. He went out, and looked here and there after the dear little fellow, and ran fast on the way where he thought him most likely to have wandered, calling his name often, in a loud, clear voice. At last, when he was far from the house, and had begun to feel very anxious, he saw his brother running toward him as fast as his tired little feet could tottle.

Now, our little boy did not know that the dear baby was just on the edge of a rocky precipice, and at another step would have fallen over, when his voice made him stop and turn about, and that so he had saved the life of his little brother. He only knew that he tried to be an obedient child.

After breakfast, his mother told him that he might work in his flower garden. This was one of his greatest pleasures. His beds were kept in very nice order, and his plants grew fast and finely. From day to day, it was his delight to see new buds opening into full and beautiful bloom. He had one very rare plant, the seeds of which were given him by a poor woman, from a far country across the sea. This morning, for the first time, one of its buds had opened, and he called his mother to share his delight in seeing his beautiful flower. After she had left him, and he was still admiring its delicate colour and sweet fragrance, a little boy passing by lingered to look at the pretty flower garden. When his eye rested on the flower just opened, he exclaimed, “Oh that is one of the flowers of our own country!. How my dear sick mother would love to see it!" And still he lingered, and looked at it longingly.

At first our little boy thought, “I should love to send it to her.” Then he thought, “But I cannot part with it. I have been waiting for weeks to have that bud open." Then he looked again at the stranger boy, and saw that his face was pale and his eyes full of tears.

He asked him of his mother and of his own country, and told him that the woman who gave him the seeds came from that same land. Then he looked at his flower, and thought, “I shall soon have another bud open. I will give him this for his sick mother.” So he gave away his beautiful flower.

The little boy did not know that the sick woman was the daughter of the woman who gave him the flower seeds, of whom she had heard nothing for many years, and that by that flower they were restored to each other again. He only knew that he tried to be a kind

little boy.

Some hours later, he was sent by his mother on an errand to a neighbour's house. As he walked along, he saw something shining in the road. He picked it up, and saw with delight that it was a beautiful silver box. Nobody was near; he could claim it as his own; and he felt as if his fortune was made. As he walked on, turning it over to admire the rich chasing, and tossing it up to feel its weight, họ thought that, beautiful as it was, he would sell it, and with the money it brought he would buy a nice warm shawl for bis mother, and a cloak for the dear baby. He would say nothing about it, but some day he would ask permission to go to town, and he would return at night, and surprise his mother with the new possessions. He could not help jumping up and down at the thought.

Just at that moment he saw a man on horseback coming toward him. He hastily hid his box, as if afraid of being robbed of his treasure. As they came nearer together, he saw that the man was looking intensely around on the ground, as if in search of something.

“ Little boy,” said he, as he came near, “Have you seen a box in the road? I have lost one not far from here.”

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