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breakfast he had to start on the rounds, and as there was now more to be sold than when Benjamin had gone alone, the round was longer. Sometimes it was dark and late before the barrow was empty; and though the old man kindly sent him up the small streets where he knew people lived likely to be customers, and gave

him all the advantage of his own experience and judgment, the boy, who had never been used to regular work, found it very difficult to persevere.

Sometimes too, after every effort, a large part of the fish were unsold and left to spoil, and this was a heavy loss to the young tradesman, so that it was full three months before the half-crown was doubled. By this time, however, Jack got able to go by himself. He therefore took one part of the town, while Benjamin took another; their gains were greater, and Jack's prosperity from that time gradually increased. He had no time now for tossing, and felt the temptations to vice and bad company no longer powerful. Regular industry strengthened all the good parts of his character. He kept as close as he could to the two rules laid down by his old friend, and, under Benjamin's influence, became a thoroughly honest, steady, hard-working boy.

Before Jack had arrived at the age of twelve years, only three circumstances varied his career of slow but steady progress. The first was the time when, with Benjamin's consent, he spent a portion of his earnings in buying a book for Polly, and some tea for his mother. At the same time he spent a shilling or two in buying some little comforts for some aged and sick neighbours. He often said, in after life, that he then first understood the happiness to be found in the possession of money when it is used to do good to others. The book he bought for Polly had a description under each picture, and she was now old enough to ask Jack eagerly to tell her what it said. Alas! he could not read. This he determined he would learn. His clothes were now much neater than of old; his mother willingly helped him to buy a new cap and shoes ; and the next era in his life was when he entered a Sunday-school. Here he learned to read, and at a night-school connected with the Sunday-school he learned writing and cyphering. The prayer,

But his connection with these schools had a still more important consequence: it brought him to the acquaintance of a pious teacher, by whose efforts his knowledge and love of God were cultivated, and he was led to become a youthful disciple of Christ. which had been a habit with him, instilled by his mother in earliest childhood, became now a source of comfort and strength, and the money which was spent on a little Bible and hymn-book was the best spent of any of his earnings.

When Jack was nearly twelve years old, he could wheel Benjamin's barrow, loaded to its full extent, and was acknowledged, even by Benjamin himself, to be well able to manage all transactions of buying and selling fish. Besides £3. in the savings' bank, he had money enough to buy a new barrow of the largest and best kind, and expected to earn with it nearly ten shillings a week, To do this he knew he must work hard, but he meant to try, for his mother, who had never yet allowed him to pay anything to the expenses of the house, had agreed, when he got his new barrow, to receive half his earnings, and he had set his mind on bringing her five shillings each week.

It was a bright sunny morning when Jack pushed his new barrow merrily up the court where Benjamin lived. The old man had determined to let Jack all the rounds to-day, that he might begin with a good day with his new barrow, and Jack was come to show himself and his fish, before he started. Surprised that his friend was not at the door to meet him, the boy made the narrow court resound with the cry of his trade. Still no Benjamin; and when the anxious questions Jack asked caused his room to be entered in search of him, he was lying on the floor in a helpless condition, produced by a paralytic stroke.

Benjamin never wheeled a barrow or cried fish again; when able to speak, he faltered forth a request to be taken to the workhouse, for he had very


money saved. But Jack would not hear of it; remembering that he owed all his prosperity to the old man's guidance and help, he took on himself the task of supporting him.

It seemed that his energies were to be taxed to

the utmost, for ere long his mother's health gave way so much that she could not go out to work regularly. But Jack never quailed. Early and late he toiled. He was protected by his energetic labours against feeling many of the temptations to which youth is exposed, and whenever more help was needed, he could fall back on the religious impressions which he never allowed to grow weak within his soul.

There is now a little shop just opposite the spot where the horse ran away, where fish, and fruit, and vegetables are sold by a rather infirm old woman, assisted by a pale girl who moves with the aid of crutches. A palsied and very aged man is sometimes carried in his chair from the back room to bask in the sun in the shop, and as often as a fresh supply of fish comes in, he tastes, with a knowing look, a cockle or a mussel, and tries to give his opinion in words scarcely anyone can understand. The master of the shop, a fine young man, goes his rounds all day, with a donkey and a cart, and when he returns at night, cart empty and purse full, it is hard to say which eye brightens most—the widowed mother's, or little Polly's, or old Benjamin's. They all lean on Jack, and he blesses the day when he had the halfcrown given him, from which he learned the use of money,—that to use it to help on the efforts of our industry—to give happiness to others and provide comforts for those who depend on us- -to increase it by labour and spend it with prudence, unselfishness, and charity,—is what we ought to do with it.



DR. CARPENTER, of London, has written a very interesting book on “ the use and abuse of alcoholic liquors.

Alcohol is spirit, that which intoxicates if taken to excess, and in great excess kills. He shows the baneful effects of intoxicating drink, - how the strength which

appears at first to be given by it is in a short time followed by greater weakness and depression of mind, and how well the hardest kinds of labour can be performed without this aid. Many people who are obliged to expose themselves to cold and damp, take spirits" to keep the cold out," as they say. Dr. Carpenter inquires into the reasonableness of this, and determines that a different kind of food is much more desirable to keep the cold out. The breakfast which he recommends is coffee, with bread and bacon.

The Esquimaux and Greenlanders who live in such very cold regions, subsist chiefly on the oily food provided for them,—the fat of the whales, seals, and bears. This is very warming food, and even Englishmen, when visiting those regions, have acquired à relish for it. Dr. Hooker, who accompanied an expedition towards the south pole, wrote to a friend,—“Some of the best men on board our ship never tasted grog during one or more of the antarctic cruises. They were not one whit the worse for their abstinence, but enjoyed perfect health. Many of our men laid in large stocks of coffee, and, when practicable, had it made for them after the watch on deck.”

Sir J. Richardson, who was engaged in a most trying expedition amidst the everlasting ice of the arctic circle, states the following as his experience,-“I am quite satisfied that spirituous liquors, though they give & temporary stimulus, diminish the power of resisting cold. We found, on our northern journey, that tea was much more refreshing than wine or spirits, which we soon ceased to care for, while the craving for the tea increased."

“In all the recent over-land arctic expeditions," says Dr. Carpenter, “ which have been sent out by our government, it has been expressly provided that no fermented liquors shall be used, and the Hudson's Bay Company have for many years entirely excluded spirits from the fur countries to the north, over which they have control, to the great improvement of the health and morals of their Canadian servants, and of the Indian tribes.” Even the Russians appear to be finding out the “injurious effects of taking spirits in very cold weather.” Dr. Carpenter was assured by an intelligent old mail residing at Wareham, in Dorsetshire, who,

during fifty years, had been exposed to the greatest severity of the winter's cold in his little boat, while pursuing his trade of a fowler, that although the use of brandy or ale might seem, at first, to cause the cold to be felt less, the case was very different when he was exposed to it for days together; and that those even suffered the most who drank a large quantity of fermented liquor. He stated that all the fowlers whom he had known who were much addicted to the use of brandy, died early; while he and his brother, who were temperate, had preserved their lives to old

age. "In the winter of 1796, a vessel was wrecked on an island on the northern coast of America ; there were seven persons on board; it was night; five of them resolved to quit the wreck and seek shelter on shore. To

prepare for the attempt, four of them drank freely of spirits; the fifth would take none. They all leaped into the water,—one was drowned before he reached the shore; the others came to land, and, in a deep snow and piercing cold, directed their course to a distant light. All who drank spirits failed, and stopped, and froze, one after the other; the man who had abstained from drink reached the house, and about two years ago

he was still alive."

Thus does Dr. Carpenter show that cold may be borne better without the use of intoxicating drink. But intoxicating drink is also taken as a remedy against the effects of heut! Worse and worse ! A far smaller quantity of alcoholic liquor suffices to produce intoxication beneath a burning sky than in a frosty atmosphere." The poison works more quickly, and is far more destructive. The natives of the beautiful islands which are situated near the equator, subsist chiefly on vegetables and fruit, and such is the food by which man is best enabled to bear intense heat. Sir Charles Napier, when at the head of the English troops in India, said to a regiment which had lately arrived, “You are come to a country where, if you drink, you're

If you be sober and steady, you'll get on well; but if you drink, you're done for.'

In this country, the intoxicating poison often saps life by degrees; in India, the fatal end may be foreseen


dead men.

at once.

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