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it is a Catholicity, against whose spuriousness and tyrannical power, there is now a strong uprising of feeling and injured Christian freedom, in the Church of Rome herself, of which such books as Le Maudit, and La Religieuse, and such writings as those of Hirscher, of Laborde, and of Passaglia, are the witness. Only the imagination of Dr. N. could see the Catholicity of Trent reflected from the mirrors of Nicæa, of Constantinople, of Ephesus, and of Chalcedon.
With Dr. N., we say,—but not standing in the light of a soul-deluding imagination,—“Be my soul with the Saints ! and shall I lift up my hand against them ? Sooner may my right hand forget her cunning, and wither outright, as his who once stretched it out against a prophet of God! anathema to a whole tribe of Gregorys, (except Gregory the Great, who claimed no precedence for the See of Rome, over those of Antioch and Alexandria, and who rejected the title of Universal Pope, as savoring of the pride of Lucifer,) of Innocents and Bonifaces ; 'perish the names of Baronius, of Bellarmine, of Petavius, of Harding, of Fisher, of Moehler, and of Newman himself, ere I should do aught but fall at their feet in love and in worship, whose image was continually before my eyes, and whose musical words were ever in my ears and on my tongue.” Those whose souls have been penetrated and pervaded by the harmonies of true Catholicity, which come down to us from the days of the Church, in the first five centuries of her existence, will scarcely be charmed by the meretricious and Sirenic minstrelsy of Rome.
ART. II.-CHURCH WORK IN LARGE CITIES.
CITIES embrace “all sorts and conditions of men ;” thus they furnish the largest and most fitting field for the work of the Gospel and the Church. The Protestant Episcopal Church would seem to have all needful appliances for this work ;—an open Bible, an Apostolic Ministry, and Worship both reverent and comprehensive. How is it, then, that while she gathers the rich, the refined, and the would-be-respectable, she yet fails, in a great degree, to win those to whom Christ's personal ministry especially commended itself ? The common people heard Him gladly ; publicans and sinners resorted unto Him; He went forth to seek and to save them that were lost.
Of the independent working men, who with their families form much the most numerous element, what proportion habitually frequent our city Churches ? Is not their absence an admitted, we had almost said, an accepted fact? In all of our large cities it is the same. In Charleston and Savannah, in Richmond and New Orleans, who has gathered in the servants, whether bond or free? In the country, on plantations where the master and his family worshipped with their dependents, where they assisted in teaching and watching over the sick and the whole, and acted out in various ways the principles of true Christian fellowship, our mission as dispensers of Christ's Grace has been more owned. But in cities, the laborer and his family to a great extent shun, as if by instinct, the services of the Church.
For the children of working people, our Church has done much. In her Sunday and Parish Schools, in her Sewing and Night Schools, and by her Bible Classes, she has sown the precious seed. Yet how few, as they grow up, accept her as their spiritual mother! How many of the boys in these schools attend, as they become older, the worship, or join the Communion of the Church ? Their voluntary presence in our public assemblies after they reach the age of sixteen,-is it not the exception rather than the rule ? Our people give money for the relief of indigence. Do they give, at all in the same proportion, their time, their active, loving sympathy, and help? And does not mere almsgiving operate, as from the nature of things it must, in impairing self-respect and self-help, inducing sloth and improvidence, and thus fostering the great sore of the body politic—pauperism and crime?
In too many of our Churches in cities and large towns, few working people frequent them, unless it be those who look for charity, or for employment and patronage, from their fellow worshippers. From such associates, and the imputations which they cause, the most independent and self-respecting among them naturally shrink. And if there is a trait in our laboring classes for which we should honor them, and which we should be slow to have impaired, it is their dread of dependence, their horror of being pauperized. In a young country like ours, where the means of subsistence are so ample and so easily compassed, if we find idleness, poverty and vice increasing, it must be because the remedial power of Christ's Gospel and Church has not been wisely or efficiently applied. Intemperance is often referred to as the great cause of such evils among working people ; and to cut off dram shops and liquor dealing as its prolific source, is thought to be the one thing needful. But Intemperance often has a deeper source. It is not so much the love of liquor, as the love of companionship and recreation, that leads most men to indulgence. Let that companionship be supplied by the Brotherhood of Christ; let the Church, which is the Body, study the social needs and the physical and mental cravings of toil-worn men and women ; let her supply the varying and manifold refreshment which their complex nature demands; and let all this be plied with loving, thoughtful, untiring sympathy, and we shall hear less of the fascinations of the bottle or the ravages of the Drinking Saloon.
To those who think to excuse themselves from working in Christ's vineyard, by charging upon liquor venders all the censure, we say, examine at their work, or at their homes, men whose lot is labor. It will be found that although a very large majority are free from the vice of intemperance, yet very few of these sober men have been savingly reached by the Christian
Church. Until she learns the Divine means of compelling these men to come to the marriage feast, it behooves her children to consider well their obligations to their less favored brethren.
Inasmuch, then, as there must be defects in our Church work, as carried on in large cities and among working people, it is our special object at this time to endeavor to discover and unfold them. God provides His Church with all needed truth and Grace. To His people, He leaves the selection and use of means and agents, by which such truth and Grace are to be brought to the hearts, and made influential over the lives of men. We assume the native depravity of human nature; but we suppose that such depravity indisposes the child, for example, to submit to the authority of its earthly parent, as well as of its Heavenly Father; and we presume also that the same means which, in the earthly family, prove successful or unsuccessful in winning affection and obedience, will, in the Divine Household, the Church, not be attended by different results.
The use of intelligent instruction and suitable training, is admitted to be quite as requisite in the Church, to draw down the blessing of God upon the child, as it is in the family. Although parents have evident advantages over the Church, in the love naturally generated by the sensible dependence of their children upon them, and in their Divine authority to punish, yet they fail utterly in securing loving obedience, whenever they pursue the same course with their children, that the Church does with the children of the laboring class. household, where children's tastes are consulted in the nursery, but where parents confine their intercourse to formal interviews, rarely reaching the mind and never the heart of their children, can God's Grace be fairly claimed to keep such boys under the parental roof, when they reach maturity or acquire independence? If they become prodigals, will they ever long to return. to such a home? or, if their animal instincts drive them there through fear of starvation, will not the formal bearing of such unnatural parents chill any determination they may have formed to ask forgiveness ? The truth of this must be apparent to all. For we know that where even the loving child of VOL. XVII.
affectionate parents is wholly in the wrong, a cold, unsympathizing manner manifested by its parents may check a penitential feeling, and make it impossible, without a miracle of Grace, for the child to ask forgiveness and sue for restoration. May we not then, through the aid of these analogies, find some of the causes that have led many baptized children to drift far away from the moorings which God has provided, and finally to make shipwreck of their souls ?
1st. The first cause that we will specify, is the neglect, on the part of Ministers and Christian people, to teach the Godfathers and Godmothers, especially of the working classes, their duty; and to supervise them in the great and difficult task that they assume. Usually little instruction is given to them, except reading the Baptismal Service in the Church. Neither is it customary to make any record of their residence, so that they and their little ones may be watched over at their homes. In the working class, parents are usually the sponsors, and many of them visit the Church only on these Baptismal occasions, satisfying their conscience with the bare performance of the sacred rite, neglecting such means as God has promised to bless. Instead of committing their little ones to the Father, Son and Holy Ghost, they seem rather to have surrendered them to the world, the flesh and the devil. As they obtain by Baptism the right to claim from the Church a Christian burial for their children, even when they have grown up in the grossest violation of God's laws, so they seem to think, if they think at all, that by some magical influence the Baptismal rite is to work their salvation at last. By admitting it to Baptism, the Church seems, to the minds of many ignorant parents, to have assumed the responsibility of drawing down God's blessing on the soul of the child, even though it be not followed by careful instruction and nurture, and thus a duty that might otherwise press heavily upon the conscience, is little accounted of. Frequently, too, even the fact of the Baptism is not even communicated to the child, either the foreign born or the native, and they subsequently are obliged to write home to learn if they have been “Christened !” If any parents are thus lulled into a false security, and the Church is not fulfilling the promise