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increasing size of our city Churches, the exacting demand for carefully prepared Sermons, the multiform duties which are now laid upon our better class of Clergy,—all this almost forhids us to hope that the Clergy can ever meet this call for constant parochial personal labor among the poor. The restoration of the primitive Diaconate would be one great step in the right direction, but for this we cannot and need not wait. We are fortunate in having already an incomparable parochial and Liturgical system, enabling the Church to extend indefinitely and safely its pastoral department, by the coöperation of Christian laymen and women. Here, again we say, we have “the Missing Link,” the power of Christian sympathy. The divine authority of the Ministry being so generally acknowledged, there is little fear of any loss of its proper influence by the free use of lay-coöperation in all things not reserved exclusively for the Minister. The Clergy of the Church in this country have the highest claims for such aid. The Laity already have their appropriate, Scriptural, primitive place in the Councils of the Church. They are in reality members of the Body of Christ. As such they have their proper functions to discharge. A healthy condition of the whole body requires that no member shall be dead with paralysis or palsied by constant disuse. The New Testament gives us no such picture of the Primitive Church. Even the Roman Catholic Church finds something for every body to do. John Wesley, himself a High Churchman, set every body to work. With us, the great mass of our intelligent, wealthy, influential lay-men and lay-women are satisfied with an hour and a half at Church on a pleasant Sunday morning, and then wonder that the Church does not prosper among the people ! Here is the greatest hindrance in developing the true missionary character of the Church, that so many of our leading laymen stand aloof from every thing like Church work. Too often they manifest open or secret opposition to every effort to benefit the souls of working people by drawing them to the Church, although they are sometimes willing to contribute freely to supply the wants of their bodies, and perhaps to maintain a Chapel where they will not have any contact with them. It is a subject of profound gratitude to

God that an improvement in this respect has already begun. There is an earnest inquiry on the part of Bishops, Clergy and Laity, how best to reach and draw into the family of Christ all sorts and conditions of men. When we become as ardent in inciting Christian people to aid in upholding and extending the Divine Government, as we are now in claiming support for a human government, surely personal service and means will not be withheld.

Instead of pursuing this train of remark further, it may be more profitable to present a sketch of the working system of the Church as now carried on in several city parishes.

We will suppose a minister remarkable rather for piety and practical common sense, than for extraordinary eloquence, called to a city parish. Before he accepted the call, he obtained a conference with the representative men and women of the parish, securing from them their pledge for cordial coöperation by personal service. When he entered upon his duties, instead of publicly proclaiming what he meant to do, he sought private interviews with each person whom he thought likely to object to an extension of missionary work in the parish. Learning their views, he showed them how far his coincided ; and after praying with them, instead of referring to differences of opinion, he enlisted each one in some duty that accorded best with his or her own inclinations. A special field of labor was assigned to each intelligent, mature Christian ; the Rector at first accompanying them, for the double purpose of learning himself, and imparting instruction to them.

He determined to set no machinery in motion without thoroughly understanding its operations, that he might be able to guide and control it under all circumstances. A certain class of persons, who, from their peculiar views were unwilling to engage in any other work, he trained to be intelligent Godfathers and God-mothers for the children of the working class who were brought to Baptism. Through the aid of the Schools, they gained access to the houses, and loaned or read to parents books selected by the Rector, and instructed them in the Baptismal Service. This committee of sponsors watched over the children, brought them to the Parish and Sunday Schools,



aided the parents in their proper training, and when they removed their residence, induced them to connect themselves with some other parish.

A Sewing or Industrial School was established, in which poor girls were instructed, and interested in the Church ; and a number of young ladies here, as teachers, first learned the true way of doing good. Through this agency, the Sunday School was abundantly supplied with both teachers and scholars, and the houses of the working people were cordially opened to Christian visitors. Although Parish Schools were established for the smaller children, and Night Schools for those who worked for maintenance, yet few of their parents could be drawn to either of the stated public Services. It was soon found necessary to adopt other means by which to reach the adults. With the assistance of an intelligent Christian woman, a week Night Meeting for mothers was organized ; and by the gradual addition of other workers, it became a most effective auxiliary in reaching the hearts and homes of this neglected class, and drawing them statedly to Church.

The men and lads were with much difficulty drawn into classes by cultivated and sympathizing teachers. Still, from want of familiarity with the Service, and their dislike to the free pews provided for them, they could rarely be induced to attend public worship. The Rector was also pained to find that the boys of the Sunday School were forced to attend Church, by the penalty of being dismissed from the School; and that their misbehavior during divine Service occasioned much annoyance to their teachers and to all in the vicinity of the Sunday School gallery. He soon became convinced that, unless parents and children could worship together, and take pleasure in the Services, neither permanency nor efficiency could be given to the missionary work of the parish. Although he knew that the full requirements of the Gospel could only be met by the abandonment of the system of renting pews, yet his practical common sense enabled him to perceive that the supporters of the Church were far from being prepared for such a change.

Having stated his difficulties privately to those who would otherwise have been the chief objectors, his proposal for a division of the Morning Service was acceded to with much cordiality. After thorough visiting by all his co-workers, and training a large choir composed of adults and children of the working class, he opened the Church at nine o'clock for a free Service. Each Sunday School teacher was expected to be present with his or her class, and the morning session of the School was dispensed with. Every child having been trained to act as a missionary, many of their parents and older brothers and sisters were brought, who had not been in the habit of attending Church. This Service was commenced in the Chapel or Sunday School room, but as the congregation steadily grew, it was soon found necessary to hold it in the Church. At the close of the Service, a lending Library for adults was opened in an adjoining room, and the children were taken into the Sunday School room by their teachers to receive books, so as to leave the afternoon session of the School free from the customary annoyance produced by the library. The Second Service was held at eleven o'clock, when the pew-renters occupied their accustomed seats, and the Rector preached his carefully written sermon, the substance of which he had, in colloquial phrases, already given at the early Service. Sunday afternoon was chiefly occupied with Schools and Bible Classes, and during part of the year, all assembled in the Church for Evening Prayer. Through the rest of the season the Church was opened at night, when provision was made for those who usually attended the early Service. Although the congregation was more than doubled, yet the minister was not overtaxed, as he found great relief in the assistance of his trained co-workers, who reported to him statedly, and conferred with him freely.

Christians, whose gratitude to a Crucified Saviour had decreased, because it had not been allowed the appropriate exercise indicated in the Gospel, now grew in grace and in happiness by working for Christ. At first very few men were willing to assist the Rector by giving personal service, owing, as they said, to their exhausting business labors, but really (as their minister afterward discovered) to the habit of self-indulgence caused by a defect in their carly training; and, most of all, to

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a want of true love to Christ. The most valuable women did not volunteer for the work, their native diffidence holding them back, until by aid of simple, specific duties, they were induced to exercise powers which they were before unconscious of possessing. The Rector also established a training School, in which he instructed his co-workers in the principles of teaching and visiting

With such varied and efficient ministrations, almost no case among the working classes was found "too hard for the Lord.” Where the habit of self-indulgence had been formed, help from without was freely proffered ; and thus the frail ones were stayed up until they acquired needed strength. As self-respect and self-support were encouraged instead of a feeling of dependence, and as the more fortunate of the working people were taught to assist the weak, Dorcas and other similar Societies were dispensed with. Brotherhoods and Sisterhoods were formed, to render mutual support in time of sickness, and all this bound the hearts of the people more and more closely to the Church.

The following extract from a private diary will form an appropriate conclusion to this Article. It is a simple story, but it beautifully illustrates the mode by which the Church can reach and win all sorts and conditions of men.


· Visiting one day in Street, I stopped to talk to two men sitting on a doorstep. They were father and son; and I soon found that they had children in our Sunday School. I talked a little about the children, and said I hoped to see the parents soon in Church with them. 'I rather think not,' was the reply of the younger; while the elder laughed and said, “We have other things to do on Sundays; we have to work in the brick yards part of the day, and other things beside Church-going. It was very late, and I had to leave them, having first said that if they would allow me to come some Sunday and see them, I would be very glad. “As you like about that.'

“ The next Sunday I went. Both men were out. I went to the kitchen, and sat with H.'s wife, and inferred from what she said that H. had gone out to avoid me. One of the children came in and said,

Father is on the doorstep.' I passed through the house and opened the front door immediately behind him. I confess my heart failed me when he looked coldly up and scarcely nodded his head. After a few words, I said, Why, H., you are not so hospitable as most of my friends in this neighborhood; you have not asked me to sit down.' *Well, won't you sit down ?' I smiled and said, “Not on the doorstep.'

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