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afterwards ancient appear Aragon arms army authority became called cause century CHAP character Charles chief citizens civil common consent considered constitution continued cortes council count court crown custom death duke early election emperor empire enemies England equal established Europe feudal fiefs Florence force formed former France Frederic French frequently gave Germany granted Henry Hist imperial important independence instance Italian Italy John justice king kingdom lands Languedoc latter least less liberty Lombardy lord Louis means military monarchy Naples natural never nobility nobles obtained original party perhaps persons Philip political possessed preserved princes principal privileges provinces reign rendered republic respect royal says seems sometimes sovereign Spain spirit succession superior SYSTEM territory tion took towns vassals writers
Page 315 - ... civil matters, no redress could be procured. A still lower order of the community was the mere populace, who did not practise any regular trade, or who only worked for daily hire. These were called Ciompi, a corruption, it is said, of the French compere. " Let no one," says Machiavel in this place, " who begins an innovation in a state, expect that he shall stop it at his pleasure, or regulate it according to his intention.
Page 299 - Florentine polity was a division of the citizens exercising commerce into their several companies or arts. These were at first twelve, seven called the greater arts, and five lesser ; but the latter were gradually increased to fourteen. The seven greater arts were those of lawyers and notaries, of dealers in foreign cloth, called sometimes Calimala, of bankers or money-changers, of woollen drapers, of physicians and druggists, of dealers in silk, and of furriers.
Page 294 - ... peculiar to Rome preserved a continual, though not uniform, influence for many centuries. There still remained enough in the wreck of that vast inheritance, to swell the bosoms of her citizens with a consciousness of their own dignity. They bore the venerable name, they contemplated the monuments of art and empire, and forgot, in the illusions of national pride, that the tutelar gods of the building were departed for ever.
Page 135 - SYSTEM. fief, while the military service for which it had been granted was suspended. This privilege of guardianship seems to have been enjoyed by the lord in some parts of Germany :* but...
Page 355 - Hawkwood therefore appears to me the first real general of modern times — the earliest master, however imperfect, in the science of Turenne and Wellington. Every contemporary Italian historian speaks with admiration of his skilful tactics in battle, his stratagems, his well-conducted retreats. Praise of this description, as I have observed, is hardly bestowed, certainly not so continually, on any former captain.
Page 49 - It was a struggle of 120 years, interrupted but once by a regular pacification, where the most ancient and extensive dominion in the civilized world was the prize, twice lost and twice recovered in the conflict, while individual courage was wrought up to that high pitch which it can seldom display since the regularity of modern tactics has chastised its enthusiasm and levelled its distinctions. There can be no occasion to dwell upon the events of this war, which are familiar to almost every reader...
Page 35 - But if it were lawful to interpret the will of Providence by events, few undertakings have been more branded by its disapprobation than the crusades. So many crimes and so much misery have seldom been accumulated in so short a space, as in the three years of the first expedition.
Page 361 - There seems little reason to doubt that gunpowder was introduced through the means of the Saracens into Europe. Its use in engines of war, though they may seem to have been rather like our fireworks than artillery, is mentioned by an Arabic writer in the Escurial collection about the year 1249.' It was known not long afterwards to our...
Page 166 - Jews was carried. A series of alternate persecution and tolerance was borne by this extraordinary people .with an invincible perseverance, and a talent of accumulating riches which kept pace with the exactions of their plunderers. Philip Augustus released all Christians in his dominions from their debts to the Jews, reserving a fifth part to himself. He afterwards expelled the whole nation from France.