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for thinking that “dead” was already received in Gaul. At any rate, both these clauses are found there shortly afterwards. And the same holds good of the remaining phrases, namely, “Maker of heaven and earth,” and “God

. . Almighty” in the Sixth Article, for these are all found in the creed as given in the Gallican Sacramentary, assigned to the middle of the seventh century. There are, however, slight variations between this creed and the text as now received, and the first writer to give the creed in precisely the words which the whole Western Church has since adopted is Pirminius, or Priminius, a bishop who laboured in France and Germany about the middle of the eighth century. In a treatise of his entitled “Libellus Pirminii de singulis libris canonicis scarapsus," we find the legend attributing the composition of the creed to the twelve apostles, and the form given is word for word the same as that with which we are familiar.“ On the day of Pentecost, when the apostles were gathered together—“There appeared unto them divided tongues of fire, and sat upon each of them, and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance: and they composed the creed. Peter: “I believe in God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth. John: And in Jesus Christ, His only Son, our Lord. James said : Who was conceived by the Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary. Andrew said: Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead and buried. Philip said: Descended into hell. Thomas said : The third day He rose from the dead. Bartholomew said : He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty. Matthew said : From thence He shall come to judge the quick and the dead. James, the son of Alphæus, said: I believe in the Holy Ghost. Simon Zelotes said: The Holy Catholic Church. Jude, the brother of James, said: The communion of saints. Also Thomas said: The resurrection of the flesh," the life everlasting.

Mortuus is also found in the Creed of Cæsarius, and may have been in that of Faustus. If the sermons formerly assigned to Eusebius Gallus really belong to Faustus, he would seem to have read "was crucified, dead, and buried,” exactly as we have the words at present. On early Gallican Creeds reference should be made to Mr. A. E. Burn's Introduction to the Creeds, p. 222 seq. Mr. Burn, it should be added, thinks that the alterations which have brought the Creed into its present form were made in Rome itself rather than in Gaul.

2 See the Missale Gallicanum in Migne, vol. Ixxii. col. 349. Precisely the same creed is given in Sacramentarium Gallicanum, ibid. col. 489, and, as Heurtley points out, "the occurrence of the same form in two independent documents would seem to imply that they were to some extent established.”Harmonia Symbolica, p. 69.

3 Scarapsus is explained as equivalent to collectus. But Heurtley suggests that it may be only a misreading for scriptus, Op. cit. p. 70.

* The whole extract is printed by Dr. Swete, The Apostles' Creed,

p. 103.

The various additions, the earliest appearance of which has been now indicated, with one exception can scarcely have been made with the definite purpose of guarding against heresies. “ The Communion of Saints" perhaps was added as an answer to the Donatist charge that there was in the Church a communio malorum, to which Augustine had replied, " that though in the Church the evil were mingled with the good, and the Church was to that extent a mixed body, there was

* It is strange that our reformers should have rendered resurrectionem carnis by “the resurrection of the body," in the translation of the creed, appointed to be recited at Matins, first printed in full in 1552, and in the Catechism (1549), whereas in the Office for Public Baptism (1549), it is correctly rendered " the resurrection of the flesh.The form of words is certainly non-scriptural, but it was “necessary in order to safeguard scriptural truth," and was probably adopted by the Church in order to guard against Gnostic subtilty, which could accept “the resurrection of the dead,” but explain it away, as if it referred to baptism or a spiritual awakening. See Tertullian, De Resur. Carnis, 19, and cf. Swete, op. cit., p. 89 seq.

presence.” 1

It may

within her a true communio sanctorum, in which the evil have no part, and which is not impaired by their

But the other clauses of comparatively late introduction are rather the natural amplifications to which such a document would be subject in course of time (especially if used for catechetical purposes), expressing with great fulness of detail what was already implied in the briefer form previously in use. also be remarked that in some points the Nicene Creed represents an older type than the Apostles', not having received all of these later amplifications. For instance, to this day there is no mention of our Lord's death in the Nicene Creed. It is, of course, implied in the words, “He suffered and was buried," but the formal statement of the fact contained in the word

dead” is wanting; nor are the words “God Almighty” found in the clause on the session “at the right hand of the Father.”

3. The third question raised above was this: How came the fuller form (which we have now seen to be of Gallican origin) to be substituted for the old Roman Creed ? It is generally thought that, owing to t

an ir prevalence of Arianism among the Teutonic invaders i Italy from the latter part of the fifth century onwards, the Roman Church adopted the use of the Nicene Creed at baptism, instead of her ancient formula, in order the more effectually to exclude the Arians, who, while willing to accept the Apostles' Creed, would be definitely shut out by the more explicit form now tendered to them. The

Swete, op. cit. p. 83, where there is a reference to Augustine, C. Epist. Parmenian. ii. 37, and De Bapt. c. Donatist. ii. 8, v. 38, vii. 49. It is, however, the thought rather than the actual phrase communio sancturum, which is Augustinian. Zahn and others have argued that originally sanctorum was neuter, “communion in the holy things," i.e. the sacraments; but see Sanday in the Journal of Theological Studies, vol. ilii.

1

p. 2 This scems to be shown by its appearance in the Gelasiań Sacramentary at the Traditio Symboli, p. 53 (Ed. Wilson).

3 This is the view, e.g., of Harnack.

18.

old Roman Creed, however, still continued to be used in the provinces, notably in Gaul, where it received the additions which brought it to its present form, and whence it was reintroduced into Rome, circa 800, under the influence of Charlemagne. Further, it has been suggested that the old Roman Creed, even though deposed from liturgical honours, survived as a form of instruction, and was still used there in the days of Gregory the Great, so that it was brought into England by Augustine, and continued to be used in this country until the Norman Conquest drew tighter the bonds of union with Rome, and led to the sole use of the creed in the fuller form which Rome, in common with the other churches of the West, had already adopted.?

Before leaving the subject of this creed, it remains to consider the origin of the name, which it has borne for centuries—the Apostles' Creed. The name was originally given to the old Roman Creed, and appears, so far as is

1

Its use here would seem to be implied by its existence in the British Museum MSS. noted above, p. 307.

Soe Swete, p. 13 seq., where it is pointed out that the fuller form was certainly known (though apparently not exclusively used) in England before the Norman Conquest: “Traces of it may be seen in English Episcopal professions of the ninth century, and it is found with an interlinear translation in a Lambeth MS. of the same period " (No. 427). Its influence is also seen in the remarkable creed contained in the Bangor Antiphonary, which comes from Ireland, and belongs to the seventh century: "Credo in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem, invisibilem, omnium creaturarum visibilium et invisibilium conditorem. Credo et in Jhesum Christum filium ejus unicum, dominum nostrum Deum Omnipotentem, conceptum de Spiritu Sancto, natum de Maria Virgine, passum sub Pontio Pylato, qui crucifixus et sepultus discendit ad inferos, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis, ascendit in cælis, seditque ad dexteram Dei Patris Omnipotentis, exinde venturus judicare vivos ac mortuos. Credo et in Spiritum Sanctum Deum Omnipotentem, unam habentem substantiam cum Patre et filio, sanctam esse ecclesiam Catholicam, abremissa peccatorum, sanctorum communionem, carnis resurrectionem. Credo vitam post mortem et vitam æternam in gloria Christi.”—Antiphonary of Bangor, fol. 19 (Ed. Warren).

known, for the first time, in the writings of S. Ambrose. S. Jerome also speaks of the symbol of faith “which was delivered by the apostles";2 and Rufinus, like S. Ambrose, considers the creed to have been actually drawn up by the apostles. The later form of the tradition, which divides the creed into twelve articles, assigning one to each of the twelve apostles, needs no serious notice. It is sufficiently refuted by the simple fact that some of the articles were demonstrably wanting in the creed for centuries. Nor, in the face of the silence of the Acts of the Apostles and all authorities prior to the close of the fourth century, is it reasonable to maintain that the actual form of words found in the old Roman Creed was really drawn up by the apostles. It is, however, quite possible that the name of the Apostles' Creed may have been given to it in consequence of the erroneous belief that it was their work. But, on the other hand, it is equally probable that the name may have given rise to the belief, rather than the belief have suggested the name. The adjective, “ apostolic," was largely used by early writers as denoting that th which it was applied came

applied came substantially from peo apostles. Thus, such expressions as “the apostolic tradition,” or “apostolic preaching," did not imply that the words were “apostolic," but only that the substance was such. So, “the Apostolic Creed” 4 would denote

“Epistola Concilii Mediolanensis,” Opera, v. p. 292. 3“Ad Pammach. c. Joann. Hier." Opera, ii. col. 380. "Symbolum fidei . . . quod ab apostolis traditum.”

3 In Symbolum, § 2, where it is introduced as a tradition of the elders, "Tradunt majores nostri, etc."

* The definite title, “Symbolum Apostolorum,” is certainly used by S. Ambrose, and in the "Epistola Concilii Mediolanensis," which was possibly drawn up by him, see Opera, vol. v. p. 292. But, as a general rule, in older MSS. "Symbolum Apostolicum" is the form found. “Symbolum Apostolorum” occurs in the Bangor Antiphonary of the boventh century, and in most later documents.

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