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that the creed contained the faith of the apostles, not that the ipsissima verba were due to them. of time the belief arose that the words, as well as the substance, came from the apostles, and finally the medieval legend took definite form and shape, and was unhesitatingly received throughout the whole of the Western Church until the Reformation in the sixteenth century. A third explanation of the name has been suggested. The creed, as we have seen, was the creed of the Roman Church. This was the only Church in the West which was founded by an apostle, and was emphatically termed the Apostolic See" (Sedes Apostolica). Hence the creed, as being that of the Apostolic See, was termed the Apostolic Creed. This view is certainly a possible one, but it is believed that one or other of the two former explanations of the origin of the name is more probable.

Subjoined is the text of the creed in the original Latin, as formerly used in this country.

SYMBOLUM APOSTOLORUM,

Credo in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem, Creatorem coeli et terræ. Et in Jesum Christum Filium Ejus unicum Dominum nostrum. Qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine. Passus sub Pontio Pylato, crucifixus mortuus et sepultus. Descendit ad inferna :tertia die resurrexit a mortuis. Ascendit ad cælos : sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis. Inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos. Credo in Spiritum Sanctum ; sanctam ecclesiam Catholicam.

* Brevarium ad usum Sarum (Cambridge reprint of the edition of 1531), Psalterium, col. 2.

? The Roman Breviary, like the Bangor Antiphonary, and most later MSS. has inferos.

Sanctorum Communionem. Remissionem peccatorum Carnis resurrectionem. Vitam æternam. Amen. 1

III. The Nicene Creed.

In tracing out the history of the so-called) Nicene Creed, the starting-point must be the Council of Nicæa, in the year 325.

Eusebius of Cæsarea, in writing an account of the proceedings to his flock shortly afterwards, states that he himself proposed to the Council the creed of his own Church of Cæsarea, which he had received from the bishops who preceded him, and which he had professed at his baptism. It ran as follows ::

“ We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible;

“And in One Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, God of God, Light of Light, Life of Life, the Only Begotten Son, the Firstborn of all creation ; begotten of God the Father before all worlds ; by whom also all

1 Much has been written in recent years upon the creeds in general, and more especially upon the Apostles' Creed. The works of Lumby (1873) and Swainson (1875) are frequently referred to in the notes. Besides these, the collections of Heurtley (Harmonia Symbolica, 1858) and Hahn (Bibliothek der Symbole, ed. 3, 1897) will be found most valuable, as well as the great work of Caspari (Quellen zur Geschichte des Taufsymbols, 18701875; and Alle und Neue Quellen, 1879) and Mr. A. E. Burn's Introduction to the Creeds, 1899. On the Apostles' Creed, reference may be made to Dr. Swete's volume, The Apostles' Creed: its Relation to Primitive Christianity (ed. 3, 1899), in which Harnack's pamphlet, Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntniss (1892) (translated into English in the Ninetcenth Century, July 1893), is well answered. Other recent studies of the same creed from different points of view are the following: Beiträge zur Geschichte des altkirchlichen Taufsymbols, D. F. Kattenbusch (1892); Das apostolische Symbolum, T. Zahn (1893, Eng. tr. 1899); Das apostolische Symbol, Kattenbusch (1897–1900); Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntniss, C. Blume, S.J. (1893) ; Das apostolische Glaubensbekenntniss, C. Baeumer, 0.S.B. (1893); The Apostles' Creed, A. Harnack (Eng. tr. 1901); Das Taufsymbolum der alten Kirche, B. Dörholt (1898); and cf. Dr. Sanday in the Journal of Thcological Studies, vols. i. and iji.

Socrates, H, E. I. viii.

things were made; who for our salvation was incarnate, and lived among men, and suffered, and rose again the third day, and ascended to the Father, and shall come again in glory to judge the quick and dead.

“ We believe also in One Holy Ghost."

This creed, Eusebius tells us, was received without opposition. So far as it went, it was perfectly orthodox, and no objection could be taken to it. Only it did not express with quite sufficient clearness the great doctrine of our Lord's eternal divinity, which it was found necessary to guard against Arianism. It was therefore proposed that the crucial term, Homoousios, should be inserted in it. This was agreed to; and, finally, the following creed, which was evidently based on that proposed by Eusebius, was adopted and promulgated by the Council

We believe in One God, the Father Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible;

And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, Only-Begotten of the Father—that is, of the Substance of the Father-God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God; Begotten, not made, Being of one substance with the Father; by whom all things were made, both that are in heaven and that are in earth; who for us men, and for our salvation, came down, and was incarnate, and was made man; suffered, and rose again the third day; ascended into heaven; is coming to judge the quick and dead. And in the Holy Ghost.1

1Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν πατέρα παντοκράτορα, τον των απάντων ορατών τε και αοράτων ποιητών και εις ένα κύριον Ιησούν Χριστόν, τον του Θεού Λόγον, θεόν εκ θεού, φως εκ φωτός, ζωήν εκ ζωής, υιόν μονογενή, πρωτότοκον τάσης κτίσεως, προ πάντων των αιώνων εκ του θεού πατρός γεγεννημένον· δι' ου και εγένετο τα πάντα, τον διά την ημετέραν σωτηρίαν σαρκωθέντα και εν ανθρώπους πολιτευσάμενον" και παθόντα, και αναστάντα τη τρίτη ημέρα και ανελθόντα προς τον πατέρα και ήξοντα πάλιν εν δόξα κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς πιστεύομεν και εις εν πνεύμα άγιον. It is curious that this creed ends so abruptly, and the probability is that Eusebius only quoted so much of the baptismal creed as was necessary for his purpose. Other early creeds always have the third division more fully developed, e.g., the creed of Arius himself (Hahn, p. 255); of Antioch (ibid. pp. 141, 142) ; of the Apostolic Constitutions (p. 139); and that of the Council of Antioch of 341 (p. 183). It is impossible that the Baptismal Creed of Cæsarea can really have ended with the words, “We believe also in one Holy Ghost.”

The clauses in italics are those which are also found in the creed of Eusebius, so that the amount of agreement between the two can easily be perceived. It will be seen that the fathers at Nicæa did a good deal more than merely insert the one important term Homoousios. As a matter of fact they framed a new creed on the basis of the creed of Cæsaræa-new in phraseology, but, as was shown above, in connection with the Second Article, not new in doctrine.

This creed, however, which was thus framed at Nicæa, is by no means verbally identical with that in use among us, which bears the name of the Nicene Creed. When or by whom, the additional clauses were inserted, and the alterations made whereby the creed assumed its present form, it is difficult, if not impossible, to decide with certainty. But it must have been about the middle of the fourth century. The grounds on which this conclusion rests are two. (1) The enlarged creed familiar to us (without the Filioque) is first met with in a work of Epiphanius, Bishop of Salamis, which was written in the year 373 or 374. It is there given in the following form

1Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάντων ορατών τε και αοράτων ποιητών και εις ένα κύριον Ιησούν Χριστόν τον υιόν του θεού, γεννηθέντα εκ του πατρός, μονογενή-τουτέστιν εκ της ουσίας του πατρός: θεόν εκ θεού φως εκ φωτός: Θεόν αληθινόν εκ θεου αληθινού γεννηθέντα ου ποιηθέντα ομοούσιον τω πατρί· δι' ου τα πάντα εγένετο, τά τε εν τω ουρανό και τα εν τη γη. τον δι' ημάς τους ανθρώπους και διά την ημετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα και σαρκωθέντα, ενανθρωπήσαντα, παθόντα, και αναστάντα τη τρίτη ημέρα ανελ. θόντα εις τους ουρανούς: ερχόμενον κρίναι ζώντας και νεκρούς και εις το πνεύμα το άγιον. Το these were appended these anathemas : Τους δε λέγοντας, ήν ποτέ ότε ουκ ήν, ή ουκ ήν πρίν γεννηθήναι, ή εξ ουκ όντων εγένετο, ή εξ ετέρας υποστάσεως η ουσίας φάσκοντας είναι, ή κτιστόν ή τρεπτών και άλλοιωτόν τον υιόν του θεού, τούτους αναθεματίζει η καθολική και αποστολική του Θεού εκκλησία-Socrates, Η. Ε. Ι. viii.

“We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and 1 of all things visible and in visible.

“ And in One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God, Begotten of His Father before all worlds—that is of the Substance of the Father-Light of Light, Very God of Very God, Begotten not made, Being of one substance with the Father; By whom all things were made, both that are in heaven and that are in earth; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary, and was made man; and was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried, and rose again the third day, according to the Scriptures, and ascended into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father, and is coming again with glory to judge the quick and dead; whose kingdom shall have no end. And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Life-giver, who proceedeth from the Father, who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified, who spake by the prophets : in one Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church. We acknowledge one Baptism for the remission of sins. We look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen." 2

2

* The clauses in italics are the new ones not found in the true creed of Nicæa.

2 Πιστεύομεν εις ένα θεόν πατέρα παντοκράτορα, ποιητήν ουρανού τε και γής, ορατών τε πάντων και αοράτων. Και εις ένα κύριον Ιησούν Χριστόν, τον υιόν του θεού τον μονογενή, τον εκ του πατρός γεννηθέντα προ πάντων των αιώνων, τουτέστιν εκ της ουσίας του πατρός, φως εκ φωτός: θεόν αληθινόν εκ θεού αληθινού γεννηθέντα ου ποιηθέντα ομοούσιον τω πατρίδι' ου τα πάντα εγένετο, τά τε εν τοις ουρανούς και τα εν τη γη τον δι' ημάς τους ανθρώπους

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