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Sed totæ tres personæ: coæternæ sibi sunt et coæquales.

25. Ita ut per omnia sicut jam supradictum est : et Unitas in Trinitate, et Trinitas in Unitate veneranda sit.

26. Qui vult ergo salvus esse : ita de Trinitate sentiat.

27. Sed necessarium est ad æternam salutem: ut incarnationem quoque Domini nostri Jesu Christi fideliter credat.

28. Est ergo fides recta ut credamus et confiteamur: quia Dominus noster Jesus Christus Dei Filius Deus et homo est.

29. Deus est ex substantia Patris ante sæcula genitus : et homo est ex substantia matris in sæculo natus.

30. Perfectus Deus perfectus homo : ex anima rationali et humana carne subsistens.

31. Æqualis Patri secundum Divinitatem: minor Patre secundum humanitatem.

32. Qui licet Deus sit et homo: non duo tamen sed unus est Christus. 33. Unus autem

conversione Divinitatis in carnem : sed assumptione humanitatis in Deum.'

34. Unus omnino non confusione substantiæ : sed unitate personæ.

35. Nam sicut anima rationalis et caro unus est homo : ita Deus et homo unus est Christus.

36. Qui passus est pro salute nostra descendit ad inferos : tertia die resurrexit a mortuis.

37. Ascendit ad cælos sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris Omnipotentis : inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos.

38. Ad cujus adventum omnes homines resurgere habent cum corporibus suis : et reddituri sunt de factis propiis rationem.

In this verse the majority of the older MSS. read in Carne and in Deo.

non

39. Et qui bona egerunt ibunt in vitam æternam i qui vero mala in ignem æternum.

40. Hæc est fides Catholica, quam nisi quisque fidoliter firmiterque crediderit: salvus esse non poterit.

ARTICLE IX

De Peccato Originali.

Of Original or Birth Sin. Peccatum originis non est (ut Original sin standeth not in the fabulantur Pelagiani) in imita- following of Adam (as the Pelagians tione Adami situm, sed est vitium do vainly talk), but it is the fault et depravatio naturæ cujuslibet and corruption of the nature of hominis ex Adamo naturaliter pro- every man, that naturally is enpagati, qua fit, ut ab originali gendered of the offspring of Adam justitia quam longissime distet, ad whereby man is very far gone from malum sua natura propendeat, et original righteousness, and is of his caro semper adversus spiritum con- own nature inclined to evil, so that cupiscat. Unde in

unoquoque

the flesh lusteth always contrary to nascentium, iram Dei atque damna- the spirit, and therefore in every tionem meretur. Manet etiam in person born into this world, it renatis hæc naturæ depravatio; deserveth God's wrath and damna. qua fit, ut affectus carnis, Græce tion. And this infection of nature opovnua sapkós, (quod alii sapien. doth remain, yea in them that are tiam, alii sensum, alii affectum, alii regenerated, whereby the lust of studium carnis interpretantur) legi the flesh, called in Greek opórnua Dei non subjiciatur. Et quanquam σαρκός, which some do expound the renatis et credentibus nulla propter wisdom, some sensuality, some the Christum est condemnatio, peccati affection, some the desire of the tamen in sese rationem habere flesh, is not subject to the law of concupiscentiam fatetur Apostolus. God. And although there is no

condemnation for them that believe and are baptized : yet the apostle doth confess that concupiscence and

lust hath of itself the nature of sin. THE original object of

this Article is shown very definitely by the words which in the Article of 1553 followed the reference to the Pelagians : " which also the Anabaptists do nowadays renew” (et hodie Anabaptistä repetunt). These words, omitted at the revision of 1563 (possibly because the danger was less pressing), prove that it was designed at least primarily to meet the revival of the Pelagian error on the subject of original sin by the Anabaptists. A further object was probably to state the view of the Church of England on the effect of baptism in the removal of original sin, more particularly with regard to “concupiscence,” which all parties admitted to remain in the regenerate, but concerning the character and precise nature of which widely differing views were advanced.

Except for the omission of the words just noticed, the Article has stood without substantial change since it was first drawn up in 1553. It has been sometimes thought that its language is based on that used in the Confession of Augsburg ; but the resemblance is very slight.3 Nor is it much closer to the corresponding Article in the Thirteen drawn up in 1538 by a joint committee of Anglicans and Lutherans, which does little more than

1 The same error on the part of the Anabaptists is noticed in Hermann's Consultation : "Fyrste they denie originally synne, and they wyll not acknowledg howe greate filthynes, how greate impietie and even pestilent corruption was broughts upon us all thorowe the fall of Adame."-English translation of 1548, fol. cxlii.

* Three slight changes in the English should be noticed. Where our present Article uses the phrase "original righteousness," the Edwardia n Article had “his former righteousness, which he had at his creation" and instead of “inclined to evil" it had “given to evil”; “ baptized " was also the translation adopted in 1553 for “renatis” in both places where the word occurs. The alterations made at the revision of 1571 brought the English into closer conformity with the Latin.

3"Item docent quod post lapsum Adæ omnes homines secundum naturam propagati, nascantur cum peccato, hoc est sine metu Dei, sine fiducia erga Deum, et cum concupiscentia, quodque hic morbus, seu vitium originis vere sit peccatum, damnans et afferens nunc quoque æternam mortem his, qui non renascuntur per baptismum et Spiritum Sanctum. Damnant Pelagianos et alios qui vitium originis negant esse peccatum, et ut extenuent gloriam meriti et beneficiorum Christi disputant hominem propriis viribus rationis coram Deo justificari posse.”—Conf. August. art. II. It will be noticed that the Anglican Article is far more guarded and cautious in its statements than this. See below, p. 376.

even

repeat the Lutheran formulary with the addition of a reference to the loss of original righteousness. But though the language of our Article cannot be traced to any earlier source, the following passage from the Reformatio Legum illustrates its teaching, and points

more distinctly to the revival of the Pelagian heresy by a section of the Anabaptists :

“ In labe peccati ex ortu nostro contracta, quam vitium originis appellamus, primum quidem Pelagianorum, deinde etiam Anabaptistarum nobis vitandus et submovendus est error, quorum in eo consensus contra veritatem sacrarum Scripturarum est, quod peccatum originis in Adamo solo hæserit, et non ad posteros transierit, nec ullam afferat naturæ nostræ perversitatem, nisi quod ex Adami delicto propositum sit peccandi noxium exemplum, quod homines ad eandem pravitatem invitat imitandam et usurpandam. Et similiter nobis contra illos progrediendum est, qui tantum in libero arbitrio roboris et nervorum ponunt, ut eo solo sine alia speciali Christi gratia recte ab hominibus vivi posse constituant.” 2

The principal subjects to be considered in connection with this Article are the following

1. Original sin.
2. The effect of baptism in the removal of original sin.
3. The character of concupiscence.

I. Original Sin. Under this head there are various points which require elucidation

(a) The phrase "original sin.” (6) The Pelagian heresy, as showing what original sin

is not.

* See Hardwick, History of the Articles, p. 261.

Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum, De Hores, c. 7.

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