Page images



Cujus est commodum, ejus debet esse incommodum.

He who receives the benefit should also bear the disadvantage. Cujus est dare ejus est disponere.

He who has a right to give has the right to dispose of the gift. Cujus est divisio, alterius est electio.

Whichever of two parties has the division, the other has the choice. Cujus est solum, ejus est usque ad cælum.

He who owns the soil, owns up to the sky.

Cujus per errorem dati repetitio est, ejus consulto dati donatio est.

He who gives by mistake what he does not owe may recover it, but be who gives knowing he owes nothing, is presumed to give. Cujusque rei potissima pars principium est.

The principal part of everything is the beginning

Culpa est immiscere se rei ad se non pertinenti.

It is a fault to meddle with what does not concern you. Culpa lata æquiparatur dolo.

A concealed fault is equal to a deceit. Culpa pænâ par esto.

Let the punishment be proportioned to the crime.

De facto.

According to the fact. De fide et officio judicis non recipitar

quæstio. No question can be entertained respecting the good intention and duty of the judge. De jure.

According to the law. De jure judices, de facto juratores, respon

dent. The judges answer as to the law, the jury as to the facts. Delegata potestas non potest delegari.

A delegated authority cannot be again delegated.

Delegatus non potest delegare.

A delegate (or deputy) cannot appoint another.

Deminutio capitis.

Civil death,

Culpa tenet suos nuctores.

A fault finds its own authors.

Cum adsunt testimonia rerum quid opus est verbis ?

When the proofs are present, what need is there of words?

Cum confitente sponte mitius est agendum.

One making a voluntary confession is to be dealt with more mercifully.

Cum duo inter se pugnatia reperiuntur in testamento ultimum ratum est.

When two things repugnant to cach other are found in a will, the last is to be confirmed.

De morte hominis nulla est cunctatio longa.

When the death of a human being may be the consequence, no delay that is afforded is long. De vitâu hominis nulla cunctatio longa est.

When the life of a man is at stake, no delay that is afforded can be too long. Dies dominicus non est juridicus.

Sunday is not a day in law. Dilatationes in lege sunt odiosæ.

Delays in law are odious. Divinatio non interpretatio est, quæ omnino

recedit a litera. It is a guess not an interpretation which altogether departs from the letter. Dominium a possessione cæpisse dicitur.

Dominion (the right of domain) is said to have its beginning in possession. Domus sua cuique est tutissimum refugium.

Every man's house is his safest refuge. Donatio perficitur possessione accipientis.

A gift is rendered complete by the posession of the receiver. Donator nunquam desinit possidere ante

quam donatarius incipiat possidere. The giver never ceases to possess until the receiver begins to possess. Dormitur aliquando jus, moritur nunqnam.

A right sometimes sleeps, but never dies.

Debita sequuntur personam debitoris.

Debts follow the person of the debtor.
Debito justitiæ.

By debt of justice: (a claim justly estab.. lished). Deductis deducendis.

After proving what was to be proved.



Expressio unius est exclusio alterius.

The naming of one man is the exclusion of the other. Expressum facit cessare tacitum.

A matter expressed, causes that to cease which otherwise would have been implied. Ex turpi causa non oritur actio.

No action arises out of an immoral consideration.

Dormiunt aliquando leges, nunquam mori

untur. The laws sometimes sleep, but never die. Duo non possunt in solido unam rem possi

dere. Two cannot possess one thing each in entirety.

E. Ea est accipienda interpretatio, quæ vitio

caret. That interpretation is to be received, which will not intend a wrong. Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui

negat. The burden of the proof lies upon him who affirms, not on him who denies. Ei nibil turpe, cui nihil satis.

To whom nothing is sufficient nothing is base.

Ejus est periculum cujus est dominium aut commodum.

He who has the risk has the dominion or advantage. Elegit.

He has chosen.

Error fucatus, nudâ veritate in multis est probabilior; et sæpenumero rationibus vincit veritatem error.

Error artfully colored is in many things more probable than naked truth; and frequently conquers truth by much reasoning. Ex abusâ non arguitur ad usum.

From the abuse of a thing no argument can be drawn against its use.

Ex antecedentibus et consequentibus flt optima interpretatio.

The best interpretation is made from antecedents and consequents. Exceptio falsi omnium ultima.

A false plea is the basest of all things. Exceptio firmat regulanı in casibus non ex

ceptis. The exception affirms the rule in cases not excepted. Exceptio firmat regulam in contrarium.

The exception confirms the rule in contrary

F. Facta sunt potentiora verbis.

Facts are more powerful than words.

Factum a judice quod ad ejus officium non spectat, non ratum est.

An act of a judge which does not relate to his office, is of no torce. Factum negantis nulla probatio.

Negative facts are not proof.

Falsa orthographia, sive falsa grammatica, non vitiat concessionem,

False spelling or false grammar does not vitiate it grant. Falsus in uno, falsus in omnibus.

False in one thing, false in everything. Fatetur facinus is qui judicium fugit.

He confesses his crime who Aies from judgment. Fiat justitia ruat cælum.

Let justice be done, though the heavens should fall.

Fiat proüt fieri censuerit, nil temere novandum.

Let it be done as formerly, let nothing be done rashly. Fieri facias.

Cause it to be done,
Finis finem litibus imponit.

The end puts an end to litigation.
Finis unius diei est principium alterius.

The end of one day is the beginning of another.

Firmior et potentior est operatio legis quam dispositio hominis.

The disposition of law is firmer and more powerful than the will of man.

Fortior et potentior est dispositio legis quam hominis.

The disposition of the law is of greater force and potency than the disposition of man. Fraus est celare fraudem.

It is a fraud to conce a fraud.


Exceptio probat regulam.

The exception proves the rule. Exceptio semper ultima ponenda est.

An exception is always to be put last. Ex facto jus oritur.

The law arises from th fact.



Frustrà feruntur legis nisi subditis et obedientibus.

Laws are made to no purpose unless for those who are subject and obedient. Furiosus furore suo punitur.

A madman is punished by his own madness.

Furtum non est ubi initium habet detentionis per dominum rei.

It is not theft where the commencement of the detention arises through the owner of the thing

G. Generale nihil certum implicat.

A general expression implies nothing certain. Generalia sunt præponenda singularibus.

General things are to be put before particular things,

& Habeas corpus ad prosequendum.

Bring the body for prosecution. Habeas corpus ad respondendum.

Bring the body to answer. Habous corpus ad satisfaciendum.

Bring the body to satisfy. Habere facias possessionem.

You shall cause to take possession. Hæredem Deus facit, non homo..

God and not man, makes the heir.

Inclusio unius est exclusio alterius.

The name of one being included supposes an exclusion of the other.

In conventibus contrahentium voluntatem potius quam verba spectarı placuit.

In the agreement of the contracting parties, the rule is to regard the intention rather than the words.

In criminalibus, probationes debent esse luce clariores.

In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than the light.

In criminalibus, probationes debent esse luce clariores.

In criminal cases, the proofs ought to be clearer than the light. Index animi sermo.

Speech is the index of the mind.

In dubio, hæc legis constructio quam verba ostendunt.

In a doubtful case, that is the construction of the law which the words indicate.

Injuria fit ei cui convicium dictum est, rel de quo factum carmen famosum.

It is a slander of him of whom a reproachful thing is said, or concerning whom an infamous song is made. Injuria non præsumitur.

A wrong is not presumed. In maleficio ratihabitio mandato comparatur.

He who ratifies a bad action is considered as having ordered it. In obscuris, qnod minimum est, sequitar.

In obscure cases, the milder course ought to be pursued. In omnibus fere minori ætati succurritur.

In all cases relief is afforded to persons under age.

In omnibus quidem, maxime tamen in jure, æquitas est.

In all things, but particularly in the law, there is equity. In pari causa possessor potior haberi debet.

When two parties have equal rights, the advantage is always in favor of the possessor. In propriâ causâ nemo judex.

No one can be judged in his own cause. Intentio mea imponit nomen operi meo.

My intent gives a name to my act. Invito beneficium non datur.

No one is obliged to accept a benefit against his consent. Ipsæ legis cupiunt ut jure regantur.

The laws themselves require that they should be governed by right.

Hæres hæredis moi est meus hæres.

The heir of my heir is my heir.


Id certum est quod certum reddi potest.

That is certain which may be rendered certain. Idem non esse et non apparere.

It is the same thing not to exist and not to appear. Ignorantia excusatur, non juris sed facti.

ignorance of fact may excuse, but not ignorance of law. Incerta pro nullius habentur.

Things uncertain are held for nothing.

In civil est nisi tota sententia inspectu, de aliqua parte judicare.

It is improper to pass an opinion on any part of a sentence, without examining the whole,




Judex damnatur cum docens absolvitur.

The judge is condemned when the guilty are acquitted,

Judex est lex loquens.

The judge is the speaking law.

Judex non potest esse testis in propriâ causâ.

A judge cannot be a witness in his own cause.

Judex non potest injuriam sibi datuin punire.

A judge cannot punish a wrong done to himself. Judicandum est legibus non exemplis.

The judgment must be pronounced from law, not from precedent.

Judici satis pona est quod Deum habet ultorem.

It is punishment enough for a judge that he is responsible to God. Jus ex injuria non oritur.

A right cannot arise from a wrong.

Jus publicum privatorum pactis mutari non potest.

A public right cannot be changed by private agreement.

Justitia est virtus excellens et Altissimo complacens.

Justice is an excellent virtue, and pleasing to the Most High. Justitia non est neganda non differenda.

Justice is not to be denied nor delayed.

Lex est ratio summa, quæ jubet quæ sunt utilia et necessaria, et contraria prohibet.

Law is the perfection of reason, which commands what is useful and necessary and forbids the contrary. Lex neminem cogit ad impossibilia.

The law compels no man (to perform) impossibilities.

Lex nemini operatur iniquum, nemini facit injuriam.

The law never works an injury to any one or does him a wrong. Lex non cogit ad impossibilia.

The law forces not to impossibilities. Lex non intendit aliquid impossibile.

Thu la v intends not anything impossible. Lex prospicit, non respicit.

The law looks forward, not backward. Lex

semper dabit remedium.
The law always gives a remedy.
Lex spectat naturæ ordinem.

The law regards the order of nature.
Lex succurit ignoranti.
The law succors the ignorant.

1 Luat in corpore, qui non habet in ære.

Who cannot pay with money, must pay with his body.

Lubricum linguæ non facile in pænam est trahendum.

A slip of the tongue is not easily punishable.

Justitia non novit patrem nec matrem, solum veritatem spectat justitia.

Justice knows neither father nor mother; justice looks to truth alone.


Legis constructio non facit injuriam.

The interpretative construction of the law wrongs no person,

Lex citius tolerare vult privatum damnum quam publicum malum.

The law wonlil rather tolerate a private wrong than a public evil.

M. Magna negligentia culpa est, magna culpa dolus est.

Gross negligence is a fault, gross fault is a fraud.

Majus est delictum seipsum occidere quam alium.

It is a greater crime to kill one's self than another, Mala grammatica non vitiat chartam.

Bad grammar does not vitiate the deed. Malum quo communius eo pejus.

The more common the evil, the worse. Manifesta probatione non indigent.

Manifest things require no proof.

Maxime ita dicta quia maxima ejus dignitas et certissima anétoritas, atque quod maximè omnibus probetur.

A maxim is so called because its dignity is chiefest, and its authority the most certain, and because universally approved by all.

[blocks in formation]



Melior est justitia vere præveniens quam

severe puniens. That justice which justly prevents a crime, is better than that which severely punishes it. Mercis appellatio ad res mobiles tantum

pertinet. The term merchandise belongs to movable things only. Merx est quidquid vendi potest.

Merchandise is whatever can be sold.

Minor minorem custodire non debet, alios enim præsumitur male regere qui seipsum regere nescit.

A minor ought not to be guardian of a minor, for he is unfit to govern others who does not know how to govern himself. Molliter manus imposuit.

He gently laid hands. Mos pro lege.

Custom for law.

Multiplicatâ transgressione crescat pænæ

inflictio. The increase of punishment should be in proportion to the increase of crime. Multitudo errantium non parit errori patro

cinium. The multitude of those who err is no excuse for error. Multitudo imperitorum perdit curiam.

A multitude of ignorant practitioners destroys a court. Mutatâ formâ interimitur prope substantia

rei. The form being cha ed, the substance of the thing is destroyed. Mutatis mutandis.

The necessary changes being made.

Necessitas non habet legem.

Necessity has no law. Necessitas publica major est quam privata.

Public necessity is greater than private. Necessitas vincit legem.

Necessity overcomes the law. Negatio conclusionis est error in lege.

The negative of a conclusion is error in law. Negatio destruit negationem, et ambæ faciunt

affirmativum. A negative destroys a negative, and both make an affirmative. Nemo admittendus est inhabilitare seipsum.

No one is allowed to incapacitate himself. Nemo allegans suam turpitudinem audiendus

est. No man alleging his own crime is to be heard. Nemo bis punitur pro eodem delicto.

No one can be punished twice for the same crime or misdemeanor. Nemo contra factum suum venire potest.

No man can contradict his own deed. Nemo damnum facit, nisi qui id fecit quod

facere jus non habet. No one is considered as committing damages, unless he is doing what he has no right to do. Nemo dat qui non habet.

No one can give who does not possess. Nemo debet immiscere se rei alienæ ad se

nihil pertenenti. No one should interfere in what no way concerns him. Nemo ex alterius facto prægravari dobet.

No man ought to be burdened in consequence of another's act. Nemo ex consilio obligatur.

No man is bound by the advice he gives. Nemo inauditus condemnari debet, si non

sit contumax. No man ought to be condemned unheard, unless he be contumacious. Nemo plus juris ad alienum transfere potest

quam ipse habent. One cannot transfer to another a greater right than he has himself. Nemo potest sibi debere.

No one can owe to himself.
Nemo præsumitur ludere in extremis.

No one is presumed to trifle at the point of death,

N. Necessarium est quod non potest aliter se

habere. That is necessity which cannot be dispensed with. Necessitas est lex temporis et loci.

Necessity is the law of a particular time and place.

Necessitas excusat aut extenuat delictum in capitalibus, quod non operatur idem in civilibus.

Necessity excuses or extenuates delin. quency in capital cases, but not in civil. Necessitas facit licitum quod alias non est

licitum. Necessity makes that lawful which other. wise is unlawful.

« PreviousContinue »